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seminary, 9 schools of higher education for boys Socialism; and his final work "The Mystery of and 7 for girls. Faith/' published only a week before his death.

Besse, Jban-Mabtial-Lbon, monastic historian, B®**'^' Vicariatb Apostouc of. See Ant8ibab6.

b. 31 October, 1861, at St. Angel, Correze, France, Betharramites. See Sacrkd Heart op Jesus,

d. 26 July, 1920, at Chevetogne, Namur, Belgium. Priests of th£.

In 1881 he entered the Benedictine Order at Soles- _ . *^ , , * ^ ,, -r^ ^ ^ «,,

mes, in 1885 was sent to the Abbey of Ligug6, , B«trotlial (rf. C. E, II-^537c).--The conditiona

Vienna, and in the following year was ordained. Jf ^^ ^J^ ^^ "^e decree "Ne Temere" for a valid

From 1889 to 1894 he was master of novices and betrothal (cf. C. E., V-542) are extended in the

sub-prior at Liguge, whence he went in the same ^^^ to unilateral promises of marriage. However,

capacity with the group of religious sent to restore a valid betrothal no longer gives rises to any matri-

the ancient Abbey of St. Wandrille de Fontenelle. niomal impediment, nor can it form the basis for

in the diocese of Rouen. In 1895 he was appointed ^^ action to compel one to marry, though an action

professor of history and director of an Apostolic ^^ ^® ^^^ compensation for losses actually sus-

school at the monastery in Silos, Spain. Two years Gained.

later he returned to Ligug6 and.& 1899 w|« once ,,Sf ^.T.-r'b^SSif'i^^'^^'k'^rjSf'S.'SS:

^ more appointed master of novices. In 1902 he __i^ . j «. i

removed •with his fellow-monks to the new Abbey Bettian and Nepal, PsKFEcnnMi Apostouc of.

of Ligug^, Chevetogne, in the diocese of Namur, See Fatna, Diocese op.

Belgium, where he be<»me librarian. Bexhill Library.-ReaUzing the great work done

Dom Besse was the founder of the "BuUetin de f„^ the Faith by the distribution «f the CathoUc

Samt Martin' (1892), of the "Revue MabiUon" Truth Society pamphlets, an English Catholic lay-

(1905). and dF "La vie etles arts hturgijmetf' (1912). n^^n organized at Lis own exp^ a free lendiig

During the World War he took over the drrection iib«ry of Catholic books in connection with S^

of the newspaper "lUmyers" then published week- Mary Magdalene's Church, Bexhill-on-Sea, Sussex,

ly He was weU known for his Royalist sympathies j^ 1912. Increased request^ for books from readera

which were the mspiration of his book, "L'Eglise et residing elsewhere led to the development of »

H.^'^Jh^^vIlf,^ W^n^^rZnv ^^Kf^wwf; P*^"^ distributing scheme in 1916. TwS years later

He was the valued fnend of many of the striking . n^^ jibraiy was erected, which in 1921 has over

l^rsonahties of his day. amongst them Jons Karl 20,000 volumes. The boiks, mostly by Catholic

^T'^Si™,,, »«,.i, ^t Ti^^ «»«.« s«oi,„i^ "T^ authors, are of every character, from fiction and

• k*f™77 » .<T Dom. Besse includes Le science to Scripture and theology. About 30,000

moine b^nedictin," "Les moines d'Onent." "Le ^orks were sent out last vear to borrowera^

monarchisme africain," "Les Etudes ecclfeiastiques «vorv nnrf nf tha n^rM "rim v.n«i-. „_ iir__5

A'^^wi^i.. ^Atu,^^ AJim^u-.n^^t uj ^ r'^.j:-^! Si^n every part 01 ine woria. ine books are loaned

"(f'^'rw'"^^?*^" ^^^'Ju'""' Le Ca"^*?*,' P>ej not merely to individuals, but also to reading "Saint Wandnlle." under the jpeeudonym ^^n de ^j^j sodalities, and institutes. The unique fea- Chey8sac,"Paged'histoire politique, leRalhement' t^^e about the library is that anyone may borrc^r ^ moines de I'ancienne Prance." crowned by the the volumes without giving a reference : he pays

£l^ertSRaKrclitSws?L*Jh&^^^ °'}'^ ^""^ '^'J^^^'"' ^^'^F '«**^ ^« ^^

^^^^X^ ^i^Jr^^l v^^^x ^ ^°^ ^ ^^ ^^^^ th«™> a°d tl»e matter of retum-

et pneur^e de 1 ancienne France. ing them is left entirely to his sense of honor and

Best, Kenelm Digby, author and poet, b. 1835, d. 14 September, 1914, in London, England. He Bhutan, independent state, lying in the eastern was the son of John Richard Digby Best of Bot- Himalayas, between 26** 45' and 28*^ North latitude, leigh Grange, Hants, and the descendant of a and between 89 *" and 92 East longitude, bordered distinguished literary family. In this versatile poet, on the north and east by Tibet, on the west by priest and man of letters were united many of the the Tibetan district of Chumbi and Sikkim, and qualities of the two brilliant kinsmen whose name on the south by British India. The area is about he bore, Kenelm Digby, poet, novelist, philosopher 20,000 souare miles, and its population^ consisting and theologian, and Sir Kenelm Digby, hero of of Buddhists and Hindus, has been estimated at the naval battle of Scanderoon, statesman, political 300,000. The country formerly belonged to a tribe philosopher, and man of fashion. His grandfather, called Tek-pa, but was wrested from them by some Henry Digby Best, precursor of Newman and Faber, Thibetan soldiers about the middle of the seven- became a Catholic in 1789. teenth century. British relations with Bhutan com-

Father Best was educated by the Benedictines at menced in 1772, when the Bhotias invaded the Ampleforth, amongst his fellow students being the principality of Cooch Behar and British aid was late Bishop Hedley. For some 'time afterwards he invoked by that state. After a number of raids studied at St. Edmund's College, Ware, and enterine by the Bhutanese into Assa at different periods, the Oratorian novitiate as sub-deacon, was ordained an envoy was sent into Bhutan, who was grossly in 1858. His long life was interwoven with the insulted and compelled to sign a treaty surrendering history of the London Oratory, which he joined the duars (submontane tracts with passes leading to during the period of its translation to the old Ora- the hills) to Bhutan. On his return the treaty was tory at Brompton, when many of the illustrious disavowed and the duars annexed. This was fol- men of its early days were still alive. Some of his lowed by the treaty of 1865 by which the State's notable contemporaries were Father Charles Bow- relations with the Government of India were satis- den, Father Philip Morris, and Father Philpin. factorily regulated. The State formerly received A preacher of much charm, he united virility of an allowance of half a lakh a year from the British thought with the exuberant and tender imagination Government, in consideration of the cession in 1865 of the poet. His writing include, '^A Priest's of some areas on its border. This allowance was Poems," "The Victories of Kome," "A May Chap- doubled by a new treaty concluded in January, 1910, let," "The Catholic Doctrine of Hell," "Rosa Mys- by which the Bhutanese Government agreed to be tica," translations of Carthusian works, many ^^uided by the advice of the British Government pamphlets, one of the most notable of which is on m its external relations, while the British agreed