the administration of its first bishop, Rt. Rev. Eladius Perlaza, b. in Cali 1653, appointed 11 August, 1911. By a decree of the Consistory 11 June, 1920, the region of Balsa was separated from the diocese of Maniziales and united to that of Cali. This was done because this region is now in the civil province of Valle, which is part of the diocese of Cali. By 1920 statistics the diocese coimted a Catholic population of 12,000.
Calif omla (cf. C. £., ni-170c), the eighth state of the United States in point of population. Ac- cording to the official returns of the Federal census of 1920, its total area is 158,297 sq. miles. Of this number 2,645 sq. miles constitute the water area. The capital of , the state, Sacramento, has a population (1920) of 65,854. The population of the other chief cities is (1920): San Francisco, 506,676; Los Angeles, 576,673; Oakland, 216,361; San Jo66, 39,642; San Diego, 74,683; Stockton, 40,296; Alameda, 28,806; Berkeley, 56,000; Fresno, 45,000. The total population of the state in 1910 was 2,377,549, an increase of 60.1 per cent upon that of 1900; in 1920 it was 3,426,861, an increase of 44.1 per cent upon that of 1910. According to the United States census of 1920, the population of California is 3,426,861 or 22 persons per square mile. The census of 1920 also presents the following details of population: (a) White, 3,264,711; African, 38,763; Indian, 17,360; Chinese, 28312; Japanese, 71,952; (b) native-born, 2,583,049; foreign-bom, 681,662. Of the total population 68 per cent is urban, 32 per cent is rural. There were 95,592 illiterates over 10 years old, or 33 per cent.
Resources. Aoriculturb. — According to the cen- sus of 1910 the total value of all California's agri- cultural products was $146,526,151. The value of the output in 1919 reached the total of $587,600,000. The following table presents the total output of agricultural products in detail for the year 1918:
AaparaguB.. Almonds . .
Aprioota . .
90,584.000 board feet
12,600,000 pounds 6,685.000 bags
Bariey .... Brandy . . .
Raisins . .
fruits . . .
2.657.836 gallons 12.870,000 bushelB
Cherries . .
12,145,000 pounds 4.590.000 bushels
Grapes 1,979,686,625 pounds 1
Wine . . . .
The total annual output of fruit from California farms is $248,000,000. In the year 1919 there were 42,000,000 fruit trees in California. Seven million of these trees belong to Santa Clara Valley alone. The principal frmt trees are as follows: Apple, 3,128,000; apricot, 3,680,000; cherry, 657,000; peach, 9,000,000; pear, 2,400,000; orange, 10,000,000; lemon, 2380,000. In 1920, 26,313 farms reported 153,195,000 grape vines producing 2,055,644,612 pounds, worth 165,780,628. The nut crop was valued at $19,000,000.
Manufactures, — ^The total value of the output of manufactures in 1914, according to the census, was $712,801,000. In 1919 it amounted to $1,981,443,000. During 1920 about 163,000 tons of beet sugar was produced. In the same year, there was 11,943 manu- facturing establishments in California, representing an investment of $1,333,382,000, and giving employ- ment to 296,000 persons; the sum paid for labor was $380,135,000, and for materials, $1,218390,000.
Afmin^.— The value of the total mining outp\it in 1918 was $199,753,837. In 1919 it was $196,473,560. Altogether there are about 1,200 producing mines
in the state. The value of the gold output was $16,529,162; silver, $1,427361; copper, $11305383; quicksilver, $2,579,472; petroleum, $127,459,929. It is estimated that in the petroleum industry alone the total invested is more than $50,000,000; 105,- 668,000 barrels of oil were produced in 1920.
Lumber. — Nearly 20 per cent of the area of the state is forest-clad. San Francisco alone sends 50,000,000 feet of lumber to the world each year. The total output of the state for 1917 was 1,227,000 m. feet. There are $78,000,000 invested in the industry, 584 nulls : and the value of the total output, together with the by-products of the forest, is $19,000,000, the lumber itself amoimting to $23,- 444,000.
Commerce. — ^The harbors of the state now carry on an ocean commerce of about $400,000,000 a year. The precise figures for 1918 being: Imports, $231,979,474; exports, $49,074,000. The total foreign commerce of the state for 1918 was $476,420,000. Five great transcontinental railroads carry her pas- sengers and goods to and from her cities, the fifth being recently completed. In 1917 the total rail- road mileage of the state was 9,441.
Educational System. — ^The State Constitution pro- vides for a school board of seven members, ap- pointed by the governor, two every second year. The total number of professors, including the vari- ous officers of instruction and research in the Uni- versity of California, for the year ending 1 November, 1919, was 1,053, as follows: Academic, 607; art, 14; Lick Astronomical Observatory, 18; law, 9; medicine, 167; pharmacy, 10. The total number of students for the same period was 11,633, of whom 4,507 were men, and 7,126 women, the women being nearly 61 per cent of 'the total en- rollment. The university receives $30,000 annually from the Federal Government for its several experi- ment stations. Everyone of the fifty-seven counties of the state has a high school. Three new normal schools have recently been built at Areata, Santa Barbara, and Fresno.
In the school year ending 30 June, 1918, there were 3,452 primary and grammar schools in the state and 311 high schools. The total number of teach- ers in the public schools was 17,276; the total number of pupils, 602,758. The total number of pupils in private schools was 40,000. The total income of her public schools during the scholastic year 1917-18 was $32,017,819. The total value of public school property for the same year was ^,091,819. The total income of the State Univer- sity for the same period was $3,732,986. The laws governing private or parochial schools are as fol- lows: Private schools (except as noted in last paragraph below) shall be taught in the English language. In order to comply with compulsory education requirements, private and parochial schools must teach the branches taught in public schools, viz.: reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, geography, language, grammar, composition, history of the United States, constitution, duties of citizen- ship, local civil government, physiology and hygiene, nature study, music, drawing, bookkeeping, humane education. Private school authorities are required to keep an attendance register. No public money shall ever be appropriated for the support of any sectarian or denominational school (IX, 8).
Any educational institution of collegiate grade within the State of California not conducted for profit, shall be exempt from taxation (XIII, la). Certain part-time schools, which shall not be in session during hours of public schools, nor more than one hour each day, six hours each week, thirty- eight weeks each year, may be conducted in a for-