eign language; provided that no person shall conduct or teach in such a private school, conducted wholly or in part in the language of a foreign nation, in this state unless and until he shall have first applied to and obtained a permit so to do from the superintendent of public instruction or a deputy api)ointed by the superintendent for such puri)08e8. This shall also be construed to include persons exercising or performing administrative powers in each school. Such permit shall be issued to persons having knowledge of American history ana insti- tutions and knowinff how to read, write, and ^eak English. Each apinicant must file an affidavit to observe this law and to endeavor to make pupils lojral citizens.
The following figures for the year 1020 will give some idea of the importance of Catholic education in California : 1 archdiocesan seminary, 3 seminaries of religious orders, 1 normal school, 12 colleges, academies and higli schoob, 97 parochial schools, 35,000 young peo^e \mder Catholic care.
Recent Hi8T0RT>-The recent political history of the state has had a national complexion, as thd result of passage by the legislature of bills limiting the ownership of land by auens with the purpose of eliminating the Japanese as owners and proprietors of the land. The rapid increase of Japanese immi- grants with their strong trend to land ownership and land control, their industry and application, their oriental standards of living, their large birth rate, and their inability to assimilate with the whites has presented a problem of vital importance to the state as well as to the nation. The first intimation of the problem came in 1906, when Japanese laborers, attracted by the scarcity of labor in California and the prevailing high wages, came in ftest numbers. The Japanese with his strons social race instinct would acquire a piece of land, and within an incredibly short time, large adjoin- ing holdings would be occupied by people of his own race. Attempts at anti-Japanese legislation were foiled by the intervention of President Roose- velt. The proposed bill, providing for separate schools for the «fapanese subjects, caused the United States government to arrange for the limitation of Japanese labor through the "Gentlemen's Agree- ment." The increase of Japanese in California from 41,356 in 1910 to 87,279 in 1920, or of 111 per cent showed the futility of the agreement, for skillful evasions by means of picture brides, smuggling, and illegal importations were resorted to. The realisa- tion of this lack of entire good faith on the part of the Japanese led the Legislature of 1913 to pass a law fofbidding the ownership of agriculture lands by the Japanese and limiting their tenure to three- year leasenolds. The spirit of this anti-alien land legislation has been evaded and broken by legal subterfuges, such as corporations, trustee stock own- ership, trustee land ownership, and the granting of lands to native children.
Action on the matter was commenced in 1919, but delayed on advice of Secretary of State Lansing, who cabled from the Peace Conference in France that any legislation of this kind would offend Japan, a participant in the conference. However, in 1920 an initiative anti-alien land law aiming at restricting the Japanese ownership of land was approved by the people of California, the vote being 668,483 in favor; a^nst, 222,806 in opposition. This initiative measure is more stringent tnan the former one, for it not onlv forbids ownership of land, but the leasing of lands by the Japanese, and the purchase of land by American bom Japanese minors under their parents' guardianflhip. During the World War California furnished 112,514
soldiers, or 2S8 per cent. Two National Guard Camps were established at Fremont and Kearney. Rbugion. — ^The following statistics of religious denominations of California were presented by the United States Census of 1919, published that year:
176 279 626 244 34 145 869 397 261
133 288 515 232 15 133 810 375 241
$404,385 3,277,346 8,301,361 3,419,676 1,209,500 1,569,313 8.413,164 5,500,425 3,341,629
102,654 58,061 30,018
The total number of churches was 3,244, total value of church property, $40,510,180; total number of communicants, 893,366.
The Catholic Directory for 1921 gives the follow- ing figures: Archbishop, 1; bishops, 2; total priests, 731, secular, 477, regular, 254; total churches, 545; churches with resident priests, 307; missions with churches, 238; stations, 118; seminary, 1; seminaries of religious orders, 3; colleges and academies for boys, 9; academies for young ladies, 46; parishes with parochial schools, 108; orphan asylums, 15; total young people under Catholic care, 38,226; Catholic population about 602,800.
The following religious orders of men are now in the state: Jesuits, Dominicans, Franciscans, Paul- ists, Salesians Marists, Christian Brothers, Brothers of Mary, Capuchins, Fathers of the Sacred Heart, Sulpicians, Benedictines, Redemptorists and Vin- centians.
Marriage and Divorce, —The law of California as- signs five cpx>unds of divorce: extreme cruelty; wilful desertion; wilful neglect (failure to provide); habitual intemperance, and conviction of a felony.
Lbgislativb Changes. — ^The annual appropriation made by the legislature for every institution main- taining orphans, has been increased to $120 for each orphan and each half orphan. Recent legislative measures provide for the establishment of a state training school for girls and a new psychopathic state hospital (1913) ; for a workman's compensation act, and an eight-hour day for women. Women suffrage had an important bearing on the presi- dential election in California in 1912. Owing to the failure of the Taft partisans to nominate the Taft electors on bc^lot by petition, the Taft voters were practically disenfranctiised. The vote was so close that a recoimt was necessary. California rati- fied the federal suffrage amendment, 1 November, 1919, the eighteenth state to do so, and the national prohibition amendment, 13 January, 1919, the twenty-fourth state to do so.
Oallfoixiia, Lower, Vicariatb Apostouc or (Cau- FORNLB iNFBEUORis; cf. C. E., III-177d), includes territory of the same name, in Mexico. Entrusted to the Societv of Foreign Missions of Saints Peter and Paul, of Rome, the present administrator is Rev. John Rosso Mapan, who resides at La Pas. It includes a total population of 45,000, of whom 43,104 are Catholics; 9 priests, 6 parishes, and 25 churches or chapeb.
Oaltaglrone, Diocese of (Calatateronensis; cf. C. E., III-19()a), on the Island of Sicily, suffragan of the Archdiocese of Syracuse. This see is now