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(1922) filled by Rt. Rev.'Damaso Pio de Bono, b. years. The religious habit is black with a black

in Bivona 1850, appointed 28 November, 1898. scapular. The Constitutions of the Congregation

According to the latest statistics (1920) there are were published in 1634, revised and corrected in

115,500 Catholics in this diocese, 25 parishes, 119 1901, and approved and confirmed by Leo XIII.

secular and 48 regular clergy, 15 seminarians, 16 The religious follow the primitive observance of

Brothers, 43 Sisters; and 112 churches or chapels. the Rule of St. Benedict. Two notable changes

cf. C. E., III-190a). in Italy, suffragan of Monreale. f^^ l^JX^^i^f ^r^^ji^Z^ tZ Tnt^i

•D* -D^,, A^4^^:^ A,,^,^^ j^*^^^^»}^^u ^^^^i^*^A three years before final vows are taken. Ine total

S. Shf, Jfw M^«^^7 ^^^^nf^'to ihl nu«>ber of monasteries is eight, with two hundred

to this see 22 May, 1907, was promoted to tne «^i- • „„ rrk« ».»^«»»^ ^,^^^:^J ^»»«..»i ;« ii>r^4>k»« 

titular see of Sardici, and made coadjutor at Mon- S^^'Sf^l qP! ^Ii!!"* ^^^""""^ ^^""^^ "^ ^"^^"^

reale, 16 March, 1914, succeeding to the archdiocese ^^® ^® ^*- A^^Ame.

of Monreale, 31 July, 1919. After his transfer from Oalvi and Teano, Diocese of (Calvensis gt

Caltanisetta, he still acted as administrator of the Tbanenbib; cf. C. E., III-195a). in the province

diocese imtil the appointment of the present incum- of Caserta, Italy, suffragan of Capua. The usual

bent, Rt. Rev. Giovanni Jacono, b. at Ragusa, 1873, residence of the bishop is at Teano, but at present

appointed Bishop of Molfetta, 2 July, 1918, trans- (1922) it is temporarily at Pignataro Maggiore. Rt.

f erred 18 March, 1921. The most important recent Rev. Albino Pella, appointed to this see 19 August,

event in this diocese . was the opening of a new 1908, was transferred to Casale-Monferrato 12 April,

episcopal seminary in 1912. The territory comprises 1915. He was succeeded by the present incumbent,

a Catholic population of 160,000, divided among 17 Rt. Rev. Calogero Licata, b. at Aragona 1872,

parishes and 95 churches. Present (1922) statistics honorary chamberlain 12 March, 1912, appointed

credit the diocese with 2(X) secular and 60 regular 14 April, 1916.

clergy; 5 convents for men and 9 for women, 2 Statistics published in 1920 credit the diocese of

monasteries for women, 98 religious women, 1 semi- Calvi with 16,294 Catholics, 17 parishes, 46 secular

nary,' 40 seminarians, 1 college for women with 5 and 5 regular clergy, 20 religious, and 50 churches

teachers and 40 students, 28 secondary schools with or chapels; the cathedral has 12 canons and 6 man-

69 teachers, 1,118 boy students and 350 girl students, sionanes. There are 30 students at the new semi-

360 elementary schools with 360 teachers and 14,400 nary. Teano has a beautiful cathedral with 12

pupils. The various institutions include 3 homes, 7 canons and 6 mansionaries. It counts a Catholic

asylums, and 4 hospitals. One society is organized population of 55,850, 86 parishes, 117 secular and

among the clergy, and 30 among the laity; two 19 regular clergy, 20 seminarians, 26 Brothers, 40

weekly papers are published, Aurora and 'Tolopo." Sisters, 175 churches or chapels, and 14 religious


Calvary, Congrbgaton op Our Ladt op (cf. C. E., -- * ^ ,^* ^ .

III-109d).— The twenty monasteries which formed Oamagtiey, Dioctsb of (Camagubtbnbis), m

the Congregation of Benedictines of Our Lady of Cuba, suffragan of Santiago de Cuba. This see,

Calvary were despoiled by the revolutionary govern- erected 10 December, 1912 (see C. E., XVI-34),

ment in 1792 and the religious dispersed. Some of ^? under the administration of Rt. Rev. Valen-

them managed to live secretly in community during tmo Zubizarreta y Unamunsaga, O.D.C. Bom

the French Revolution, and these faithful observers ^^ Marquina Echevama, Spam, in 1862, made

of the rule, who survived the destruction of the provincial of Navarre, sent as a papal envoy to

convents, were the restorers of the congregation. Cuba, he was appointed first bishop of this diocese

Gradually they re-established their house at Orleans 25 May, 1914, and acts as administrator apostolic of

in 1807 and that at Quimper in 1809. Under Louis Cienfuegos. The statistics published m 1920 credit

XVIII the monasteries of Paris, Vendome, Angers, ^^^ diocese ^th a Catholic population of 200,000,

Poitiers, Machecoul were permitted to revive their 20 secular and 21 regular clergy, 15 churches with

religious life on condition that they open for public resident pnests, 1 commumty of religious, and 3

utility a school or boarding school for young girls commumties of Sisters.

or ^ive hospitality to lady boarders. Two royal Cambodia, Vicariate Apostolic op (Cambodgi- ordinances authorized the reunion of these seven en bis; cf. C. E., VII-777d), in Indo-China, with monasteries into a congregation, 3 January and 17 episcopal residence at Phnon-Penh. It is entrusted January, 1827. On 14 November, 1828, Pope Leo to the Society of Foreign Missions of Paris, the XIII confirmed their re-establishment as a congre- present vicar being Rt. Kev. Jean-Claude Bouchut, ffation, according to their Bull of erection by Gregory b. in Loire 4 March, 1860, ordained 17 February, aV, 22 March, 1621. In 1904 the French Repdblic 1883, appointed titular Bishop of Panemotichus, 23 forbade teaching in the monasteries, in 1906 modi- July, 1902, and vicar apostolic of Cambodia. This lied the royal ordinances of 1827, and finally 30 territory comprises about 60,0(X) Catholics, including Jime, 1914, decreed the dissolution of the congrega- Europeans, Annamites, Cambodians, Chinese, and tion, declaring it to be of no public utility. The Indians. These are divided among 47 parities, 183 World War (1914-18) suspended the execution of churches, and 173 mission stations, served by 98 this decree. secular priests and 14 brothers. There are 2 con- There are now in France seven monasteries: vents of men with 14 religious, 11 convents of Orleans, Angers, Vendome, Poitiers, Machecoul, La women with 348 nuns and 15 Sisters, 2 seminaries, Capelle Marival, and Landerneau. At Jerusalem, 113 seminarians, 2 colleges for bo^'s with 22 in- in Palestine, they founded on the Mount of Olives, structors and 520 students, 2 colleges for girls with in 1896, an orphanage for girls of the Greek Catho- 8 instructors and 150 students, 1 normal school lie Rite. The foundation made at Sirault (Hainaut, with 2 professors and 25 pupils, 96 elementary Belgium), in 1903, lasted only sixteen years. After schools with 115 teachers, and 7,400 pupils, 5 hos- the war, in 1919, the religious of this house returned pitals belonging to the mission with 437 beds, con- to France. From 1617 until the time of the French ducted by Sisters, 2 maternity hospitals and 6 Revolution the congregation had thirteen superior orphanages with 643 children. In 1921, 6,156 chil- generals. Since its re-establishment it has had eight, dren were baptized while dying in the vivariato. The elections are triennial, and the office of superior An organization, "Amicale des eleves des Fr&res,'* general may be held for only twelve consecutive Is forjned among the laity.