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increasing attention. The capital invested in manu- criminally inclined persons, and a new school code,

factnring industries in the state in 1919 was 1148,- -^ ,. « ^^ __.,

207,698, an increase of 113 per cent over that in ^^^^** ®' ™ ^V"** Vicabutb Apostolic (Deltk 1914. The number of establishments was 668, of Nnj; rf. C. E., IV-701d), Egypt, was raised to the persons engaged in manufacture, 32,972; of the ^^^^ of a vicariate 17 September, 1909, with resi- value of the products, 1165,073,009. The tanning, dence at Choubra. It is entrusted to the African currying, and finishing of leather is the most im- Missions of I^ons, M|pr. Auguste Duret, titular portant manufacturing industry. During the war, bishop of Bubastis, being appointed first Vicar Wilmington experienced the greatest boom of its Apostolic 24 February, 1910. In 1911, Baron Em- history, on accoimt of the powder works situated P^^* promoter of the Company of the Oasis of tiiere. There is an important coastwise trade, par- Heliopolis, offered the Society two jnecea of land ticularly with New York, wl^ch is connected with ^>^^ the building of a church and residence ^tui- Wilmington by a line of steamers. ChesapeEike tously, with the condition of making Heliopolis B^^wnd Delaware Bay are connected by a canal." the residential see. It was partially agreed, and

Education.— The present school law was paceed Mgr. Duret with two Fathers of the African Mis-

in 1919 and provides for a minimum school tax of sions took his residence there as simple occupant.

$100 yearly in each district to support the schools The vicariate comprises (with the four provinces

therein, and grants $250,000 derivcKl each year from under its jurisdiction and a part of the government

the income tax to the elementary schools (from at Cairo), a total population of, bv the (1920)

first to seventh erade). The State Board of Educa- statistics, 3,500,000 inhabitants; Catholics of the

tion consists of five members appointed by the sov* Latin Rite, 12,000; Oriental Catholics, 12,000;

emor for five year& Six months continuous school heretics and schismatics, 20 fiOO; and the rest

attendance in each year is compulsory for all chil- Mohammedans. At the start of the Delta Mission,

dren between the ages of seven and fourteen. In there were hardlv a thousand Catholics of all the

1020 the total attendance in the free schools of the rites, attended by the Franciscan Fathers, who

state was 37,135; the total expenditure for school had only two stations. In 1920 there were 7 im-

purposes was $1,738,884. In 1914 the Women's Col- portant stations with 7 parochial churches, 35 public

lege of Delaware was established by the state. The chapels of the Latin Rite, 10 schools for bovs^

laws relative to private and parochial schools are directed by the three Congregations of men in the

as follows: in every elementary school, both public Vicariate; African Mission Fathers, Jesuit Fathers,

and private, of and in the state, there shall be and Christian Brothers with 2,211 pupils; 13 schools

tauffht at least reading, writin^^, arithmetic, spelling, for girls directed by the Religious of N. D. des

oral and written English, history of the United Apotres, Good Shepherd, Sacred Heart, Charity of

States and Delaware, civics, elementary science, BescauQon, and St. Vincent de Paul, with an attend-

hygiene, sanitation, and physical training. AH of ance of 4,()46 pupils. A comparison of the statistics

these subjects shall be taught in the English Ian- between 1915 and 1920 show a steady growth in

guage : no public money shall be appropriated in the attendance of Catholic schools, which num-

aid of any denominational school (X-3) ; all real bered 3,360 in 1915 and 6,256 in 1920. The charitable

or personal property used for school purposes, where institutions comprise 7 dispensaries, 1 home for

the tuition is free, shall be exempt from taxation the aged with 100 inmates kept by the Religious

and assessment for public purposes (X-3); session of N. D. des Apotres, 3 workshops for the poor,

of private schools must be tne same as that of 1 refuge, 2 orphanages for girls, 1 for boys, 1 nurs-

public schools; private schools must annually report enr, 2 hospital^ and 1 hoiise of the Religious de

to State Board regarding enrollment and attendsmce. Marie Reparatrice, a contemplative order of women

They must also submit a monthly attendance record, who conduct several pious works for ladies and

and furnish such records as required by laws regu- young people. The vicariate is administered by 40

lating child labor. priests of the African Missions, 3 brothers; 29 Jesuit

Recent Histobt^— During the European War Fathers, 13 brothers, 3 auxiliary priests and 33

Delaware contributed 7,487 soldiers or 2 per cent Christian Brothers, aided by 372 religious of the

of the United States Army. In the expemtionary various congregations.

force, 7 officers and 80 men died; 12 officers and 200 The present (1922) vicar apostolic is Rt. Rev.

men were wounded; 4 were taken prisoners. Dela- Jules Girard of the African Missions, titular Bidiop

ware ratified the Federal prohibition amendment of BuUa, b. 25 May, 1863, in the diocese of Puy,

on 18 March, 1918, the ninth state to do so; the ordained priest 19 September, 1886, founder of St.

woman suffrage amendment was defeated in the Mark's parish in Cairo, administrator of the Vica-

state, 2 June, 1920. date Apostolic of Delta of the Nile, 1916, appointed

Catholic Proobbbs.— The Catholic population of Vicar Apostolic, 28 June, 1921, succeeding Rt. Rev.

the state in 1920 was 30,000. There are 50 churches Augiiste Duret (b. 2 January, 1846; d. 29 August,

in the diocese of Wilmington, of which 25 are in 1920). Delaware. The number of priests in the diocese is

57, and the number in the state is 42; of the latter Delnil-Martlny, Mart • of Jbbus, foundress of

15 belong to religious orders. There are 13 parochial the Congregation of the Daughters of the Sacred

schools m the state, with 4.635 pupils. Tne active Heart, b. in Marseilles, France, 28 May, 1841 ; d.

church membership of tne leading Protestant there 27 February, 1884. She was educated at the

denominations are (1916): Methodist Episcopal, Visitation Convent in her native city and at the

28,004; Protestant Episcopal, 4,656; Baptist, 3,651; convent of the Sisters of the Sacred Heart in

Presbyterian, 6,197. In 1919 Dr. Frederic Joseph Lyons. For several years she remained at home

Kinsman, the Protestant Episcopal bishop of Dela- and devoted herself to the spread of the devotion

ware, resigned his see to become a Catholic. of the "Guard of Honor of the Sacred Heart of

R»CENT I^QiSLATioN.— Recent legislation includes Jesus." In 1867 with the permission of her director

the regulation of child labor by means of a com- she took a vow of perpietual chastity, and soon

mission (1913), change in administration of the after set about the foundation of a congregation

state government by the consolidation of several of women to be devoted to the reparation of the

departments, a budget system, a provision for the faults of the faithful and of priests. She put her-

commitment and care of the feeble-minded or self under obedience to the Archbishop of Malinea,