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Separation (cf. C. E., V-63b).— Taoit condonation own, as can a wife not legitimately separated from

of adultenr takes place if the innocent part>r after husband; if she is legitimately separated, however,

learning of the sin freely continues relations with the she can acquire a domicile also. Those who are

culprit; moreover, condonation is presumed unless insane have necessarily the same domicile as their

within six months the guilty party has been dis- guardians, but the Code does not state what hap-

missed, left, or duly accused. The Code does not pens when the guardian has only a quasi-domidle.

uphold the view of certain theologians that if the Though not referred in the Code as a domicile

innocent party later committed adultery, he would of origin, a child's place of origin is fixed bv the

be bounci to receive back his guilty spouse. It place where his father had his domicile or, in defect

mentions as other causes for separation (a) adhesion of domicile, his quasi-domicile when the child was

to a non-Catholic sect* (b) giving a non-Catholio bom, or where the mother had hers if the child

education to the children; (c) leading an igno- was illegitimate or posthumous; if the parents were

minious or criminal life; (d) a grave danger to body vagi, it is the place where the child was bom; if

or soul which can be avoided only by separation, the child was a foimdling, the place where it was

For these and similar causes the party may separate discovered.

with the ordinary's approval, or even without it, Cod^ juHm eanonki, 90-94; FuMm^DomidU md Quaw-

^♦^^1.^ ;« ^n«%»<v» :•« ^ri«,. Ti7l»«^ *\,^ wAAar^M f^r> Domictle (Dublin, 1920); VEMUwaacH'CaxusKN, Enit. jur. can,, there is danger m delay. When the reason for i^,^^. ^^^^ ^^ i^,^ g^^ Ij^.^ XI (1918), Jn-Jl.

the separation is at an end, mamed ufe istobe_.. •*«.ii/« t^ *^^

resumed, but if the separation was authorised by ,,^?¥^ Bepubllc (Santo Domingo; cf. C, E, the ordinary for a given or an indefinite time, the V-llOc, is the eastern divisi^of the island of Haiti, innocent party need not return until the time ex- The area is ertimatedat 19^332 souare milw and the pires or until the ordinary tells him to do so. P?P"Jf^^°? **. ^fi^f^^' According to the census

Codex juris eanonich 1118-33; Atuhbac. Marriage Legula- of 1919 the City of Santo DommgO had 26,812 m-

tion, im. 291-823: PErawiTO, The New Church Law on Matn- habitants and the city of Puerta Rata 7370, San- .

mony (PhUadelpbia, 1921), pp. 380-428; Vlaming, Prae2ecne« t.-^^o jp i^ PaKAlWort 14 744 San Pwlrn Hp June matnmonU (Buamim. 1921), II, pp. 288-344. ;^*80 .^® *^ t^aoaiieroS **»•«» »aJ^ reOTO ae

-^,.. r, ^ /»»»'»' Macons 10,000, La Vega about 8000, Samana and

DJakovo. See Diakovu. Sanches about 2000 each.

Doctor (cf. C. E., V-72).— Those who have ob- Education.— The expenditure on education in

tained the degree of doctor are entitled to wear 1919-20 was 1943380. In 1920 there were 972 public

a ring and stone, but not at sacred functions. Other schools in the Republic (6 secondaiy), with 105,000

things being equal, doctors and hcentiates are to be gJ^PJ^ .^^^»?^ ^^. ^^^^h ^^ 1544 teachers. The

preferred in the collation of ecclesiastical offices and Professional Institute was formed by presidential

benefices. Auditors of the Rota must be doctors decree on 29 November, 1914. A commission

in both canon and civil law, the chancellor of the appointed by the Government thorouchly investi-

Congregation of Rites a doctor of canon law, and K«^^ ^^^ educational situation and prepared and

advocates and procurators in processes cf beatifica- recommended the following laws, based on its

tions and canonizations before the same congrega« findings: Compulsory School Attendance, School

tion must be doctors of canon law, and also at least Administration, General Studies, University, Theo-

licentiates of theology. Honorary degrees may be logical Seminary, Oiganic Law of Public Education,

conferred by the Congregation for Seminaries and School Revenues. The first six laws were promul-

Universities of Studies. gated in April, 1918, and constitute the school code

r%^..j^^^ r^ / # ^ -n «r ^«.v « . o^ tl^e country. There are also 6 industrial schools

DocWne. Christun (cf. C. E., y-83).— Pneste for girls, 2 schools of fine arts, 2 correctional schools,

and other clencs, u^ess legitimately prevented, and the Central University at the capital. The

must assist their parish priest in teaching Christian country is divided into six school departments and

doctrine, and if the local ordinary judges it neces- each department into school districts. There is also

sary to utihze the services of religious, their a Board of Education in each school district and

Bupenors, even if exempt, on being r^uested by a General Board of Education and a General Super-

him, D^ust personally or by their subjecte teach intendent for the whole country. The establish,

the catechism especially m their own churches, ment of obligatory education has brought the

without detriment, however, to religious discipline, number of school children from 18,000 to lOOflOO.

Exempt religious, if they t«ach non-exempt per- Prior to the United States occupation there were

sons, must observe the bishops relations con- 30 rural schools; on 1 January, 1920, there were 647

ceming religious instruction. Religious supenors rural schools.

should see that the lay brothers and servants re- GovERNMENT.—The constitution of the Domin-

ceive a catechetical instruction at least twice a ican Republic provides for a National Congress,

month. . ,««« o- consisting of a Senate of 12 members and a Cnam-

Codex jurui canomct. 1329-38. bcT of 24 Deputies. The executive power is vested

Domicile (cf. C. E., V-103).'— Domicile is acquired in the presicient (chosen for six years, bv an eleo-

by residence in a parish or quasi-parish, or at least toral college), and in seven ministers. This system

in a diocese, vicariate or prefecture apostolic; this of government has been in abeyance since 1916,

residence, however, should either be conjoined with when a military government by United States naval

an intention of remaining there permanently if no officers was proclaimed. The military governor

reason for departing arises, and should be continued combines, for the time being, the functions of a

for a period of ten years. Before the publication president and Congress. United States naval officers

of the Code domicile was onlv parochial, and was are administering the different government departs

never acquired bv residence alone. Quasi-domicile ments.

is acquired in the same way as domicile, if the Economic Conditions.— The foreign trade of the

residence is either conjoined with the intention of Dominican Republic reached a new high record in

remaining for at least the great part of a year, or 1920, amounting to $105,257,117, an increase of

has actually been prolonged for that time. By $43,636,098, or 71% over the 1919 trade, and 535%

quasi-domicile also one acquires full parish rights greater than the trade in 1913. The imports, valued

and a propriu8 parochita. A minor who has ceased at $46,768, 258, came chiefly from the United States

to be an infant, that is, who has completed his (90%); the exports, $58,767,041, went chiefly to the

seventh year, can acquire a quasi-domicile of his United States also (88%). Of the total area about