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OEBABD 335 aSEMANY

in the West colony of Australia, 1855, and appointed acter. In the ten technical schools there were 029

shortly after the erection of the see, 21 March, teachers and 19,862 pupils (summer of 1920).

1898, died 28 December, 1920; his successor has For instruction in agriculture there are Agri-

not yet been appointed. The Presentation Ntrns cultural High Schools at Berlin (662 students in

and Sisters of St. Dominic conduct schools in the 1920), Hohenheim (599), Bonn-Poppelsdorf (652),

diocese. By the latest statistics (1922) it comprises and Weihenstephan (358) . In 1920 there were Agri-

13 districts, 28 churches, 11 priests, 85 religious, cultural Institutes at eight of the imiversities, and

5 boarding and 14 elementary schools with an throughout the republic there were various farming

attendance of 845 children. schools (26 in Prussia), agricultural winter schools

/^••«^ T T •* ^u 1 u :-. i?j:«u...»u (118 in Prussia), 15 schools of mining, 15 schools of

J^ ^'.i^'^'A '^friV^nn'^'i^^hil^^^ architecture and building, 4 academics of forestry,

20 May, 1840; d-jV^^nT'Ai?hS!w fer^ nf 27 schools of art and artUndustry, 429 commercial

He was the son of Colonel ^rcbbald Gera^^^^ ^j^^^, j^q ^^^^^ ^^j^^^, ^ ^^j^^ ^^-^ g^j^^^,

I^narkshire. He was educated at Sto^bure^^ 19 navigation schools, 11 naval architecture schools, ?^ J^^^^"^ ^T^"'^^-7^V'n?rton*^"^^^^ and numerous other trade schools. There are also liS\'^?fiJ?'^ !iT? wi?' ?L f^ im5^.flfiS 23 German universities, besides the various lyceums. 1894 to 1897 and later from ^^^^^o 191^2^^^;^^^^^ AGRicuLTum-The chief crops in 1919, with their

FnTj^K^'^o^nn'^ hi w«« fc.Xr nf ^vpr J acreage and total yield in metric tons, ^ere as fol- W' o™^r;,r. ?T>,rni AiH^fc^ if N^^^^ lows: wheat 2,828,150 acres and 2,169,169 metric LA^r "Vr^X Tn TT^inlcM V ? ^^^' ^^ 10,789,235 acres and 6,100,144 metric tons;

est Answer, a reply to Haeckel (q.v.). barley 2,815,127 acres and 1,910,363 metric tons;

Oennany (cf. C. E., VI-484d), a republic, oats 7,482,197 acres and 4,453,688 metric tons; pota- boimded on the west by France, Belgium, and toes 5,451,982 acres, 21,449,688 metric tons. In 1921 Holland; on the south by Switzerland, Austria, the area under beets was 273,826 hectares, and the and Czechoslovakia ; on the east by Czechoslovakia number of mills was 270.

and Poland; on the north by the North Sea, the Industries. — In 1920 Germany produced 97,465 Baltic Sea and Denmark. According to the returns metric tons of zinc, 17,255 metric tons of copper, of the census of 8 October, 1919, the area of the and 54,400 metric tons of lead. The source of a German Republic is about 183,381 sq. miles, and the considerable part of Germany's mineral wealth was population, 60,900,197 (29,012,000 males and 31,888,- in the regions lost in the war, especially Luxemburg 197 females). The largest towns with their respec- and Lorraine. The highest producing capacity of tive populations in 1919 are: Berlin 1,902,509, Ham- the iron and steel plants left to Germany is about burg 985,779, Munich 630,711, ' Leipzig 604,380, 12,000,000 tons of iron or about 8,000,000 tons less Dresden 529,326, Cologne 633,904, Breslau 528,260, than her former output. The eight-hour day has Frankfort-on-Main 433,002. In 1917 there were reduced the coal miner's shift to seven or seven 308,446 marriages, 939,938 births, 1,082,334 deaths and a half hours. The total production of coal (exclusive of military casualties). The number of for 1919 was only 108,000,000 tons, or 67 per cent divorces in Germany in 1914 was 17,740 (262 per of the former output (1913). Moreover, according 100,000 inhabitants); in 1917 (exclusive of Alsace- to the Spa agreement, Germany must deliver to Lorraine), 11,603, or 17.3 per 100,000 inhabitants. the Allies 24,000,000 tons of coal a year. Owing

Education. — Education in imperial Germany was to the lack of coal, German industries are carried on an affair of the State. The German system ' was at half speed, although in some cases the output has usually the Prussian S3rstem which other states increasea, as in the glass industry which during the adopted. In the new Germany there is a national war was restricted to about 40 per cent of its pre- system of education, in the establishment of which war activity and since then has increased its output the states and local communities co-operate. The 50 per cent. In 1913 there were 23,339 breweries in schools are free to all, taught by teachers who are Germany, a number which, at present has been re- state officials, and supervised by technically trained duced to 7500. The lack of coal and the eight-hour officials with administrative ability. This last day have also reduced production in the paper and phrase reveals the end of clerical supervision. The textile industries. Thus Germany is forced to make great difference between the education of the reparations in such a way as to diminish her ulti- classes and the education of the masses is also a mate capacity for full payment. (See France.) thing of the past. For the classes there were the Finances. — The German government financed the Vorschtde (preparatory school), then one of the war chiefly by issuing loans. Owing to the blockade three types of the secondary school (Gymnasium, customs brought in very little, and owing to the Eealgymnagtum, and Oherrealschule) , and finally scarcity of goods, consumption could not be fairly the university. The masses went to a Volkschule, taxed. The result was a huge increase of the or if they were able to afford the fees, to a MiiieU debt, which rose from 22,000,000,(X)0 marks, Reich schule. To the graduates the various vocational and States combined, to 247,0(X),000,000 marks for and continuation schools were open, but the sec- the Reich. More than half of this debt, 132,(X)0,- ondary schools and the imiversities were closed to 000,000, is short — ^termed floating debt, which cannot them. The new change in the educational sjnstem be funded at present, as there is little chance of plac- includes the establishment of an intermediate and ing a big loan with the public. On 30 August, 1920, higher school system. The exclusive private pre- the total paper circulation was over 72,000,000,(X)0 paratory schools (Vorschulen) are abolisned. marks incfucting over 14,000,000,(X)0 marks in loan WiMiin the local communities public schools, to ac- certificates. It is still increasing rapidly, since public cord with a certain belief or pnilosophy of life, can income does not meet public expenditures and also be established by the parents, provided they con- because of the necessity forced upon the bank of form in organization to the public school system, buying foreign bills of exchange for pasonent of In all schools, except the secular schools, religion ia foreign debts. The value of the imports in 1919 to be taught according to the principles of the was about 32,000,000,000 marks, that of the exports, religious denominations concerned, but parents have 10,000,(X)0,000 marks, leaving an unfavorable balance the right to withdraw their children from school of over 22,000,000,000 marks to settle. In 1920 the during the period of religious instruction. Physical unfavorable balance was still greater. The value education has been deprived of its military char- of the mark which was $23,797 per 100 marks before