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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/352

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the war (March, 1913), has fallen as low as 29 French protectorate in Morocco in return for part of cents per 100 marks (March, 1922). On 1 March, the French Congo made many Germans feel that 1919, the total funded debt of Germany amounted her diplomatic defeat Was due to lack of a sufficient to 92,396,411,300 marks, of which 76,275,230,500 military strength to overawe France, and led to marks bear interest at 5 per cent; 1,126,230, 100 a prompt increase of the German army to 870,000 marks at 4 per cent; 1,622,554,200 marks at 3 men. In an agreement signed in August, 1911, per cent; the Treasury bills amounted to 2,315,- Russia withdrew its opposition to the completion 137,000 marks at 5 per cent; 9,093,001,500 marks of the Bagdad railway and agreed to link up the at 4^ per cent. There is also a debt of 63,696,000,- German hne, when finished, to the Persian lines 000 marks free from interest. On 1 March, 1921, in the Russian sphere of influence; and Germany the total debt amoimted to 300,000,000,000 marks, in return recognized Russia's predominant inter- Between 4 August, 1914, and 31 March, 1920, Ger- ests in Northern Persia and pledged herself not to many issued loans to the total value of 222,151,- seek concessions therein, in May, 1913, Great 465,980 marks. On 30 November, 1920, the floating Britain recognized the German economic and debt was 165,918,235,629 marks. The budget for financial control of the railway as far as Bagdad, 1920-21 included a revenue of 90,612,306,340 marks and made tentative plans for the extension south- and an expenditure of 57,501,670,140 marks. ward to Bassona under international control.

Railways. — On 1 April, 1920, all the German with both German and British members on the railways were transferred to the Central Govern- governing board. The growth of German mili- znent. The total length of railway line on 31 tarism was vigorously combated by the Socialist December, 1918, was 38^09 miles, of which 36,006 party in Germany but militarism meant a greater miles were state lines. Though the railway rates Germany and had the absolute approval and en- have been raised to nearly six times their former couragement of the Kaiser.

standard, the systems are worked at a loss, as the European War. — When Austria declared war on high rates have reduced traveling and the cost of Servia (28 July, 1914), Russia immediately mobil- operating is rising rapidly. ized her armies against Austria, and Germany

Armt. — The terms of the Armistice required the commenced mobilizing against Russia and France, surrender by Germany of 5000 guns, 25,000 machine On 1 August Germany declared war against Russia, guns, 3000 trench mortars, and 1700 aeroplanes but Germany then asked of France a statement of did not specify the size of the German army or her attitude and demanded the fortresses of Verdun the degree of demobilization. In 1919 the President and Toul as pledge of her neutrality. France's was authorized by the Reichstag to disband the reply was such that C^rermany felt sure that she existing army and to raise a provisional national would support her ally, Russia, and declared war defense army pending the creation of a permanent against her on 3 August, 1914. Germany planned defense force. On 8 May, 1919, the demobilization to crush France by a swift march on Paris before of the German army was completed and the defense Russia's armies were ready for an attack in the force came into being. By the terms of the Treaty east; France crushed, she would then turn on of Versailles, the number of effectives was to be Russia with all her forces. Belgium was promptly reduced to 100,000 men ; universal compulsory invaded and German armies were on tneir way service is abolished, also the German Great General to Fhince. The route taken by the German armies Staff and all similar organizations. The Public in 1870 was so strongly fortified all the way from Safety Police (50,000), Emergency Volunteers (150,- Verdun to Belfort as to make a rapid march in 000), and Civic Guards (350,000) formed in 1919 this direction impossible. In Belgium they first on the claim that they were needed to maintain attacked Li^ge, which surrendered in three days, order, were ordered disbanded, as being contrary The Belgian army made a desperate stand at to the terms of the Versailles Treaty. In January, Louvain, but this place was taken. On 20 August 1921, 30,500 guns had been surrendered, 6(X)0 guns the Germans entered Brussels without firing a in process of manufacture had been destroyed, shot. The road to France, however, was not yet 10,000 trench mortars, 63,100 machine guns, and open: the Belgians were joined by the French 2,524,000 rifles had been surrendered. and by an expeditionarv force of British under

Navt. — As a fighting force the German navy General Sir John French, who together opposed ceased to exist under the terms of the Armistice the German forces. At Namur and again at Mons and the Treaty of Versailles. Only a navy re- (22 August, 1914), the Allies were defeated by cruited and maintained on a volunteer basis is General von Kluck, the commander of the German allowed to Germany, the total personnel not to forces, and were compelled to retreat from Mons exceed 15,000, includ[ing a maximum of 1500 officers to the main French line. Nothing seemed to stop and warrant officers. The naval expenditure in 1921, von Kluck's march to Paris. City after city was including mine-sweeping, is estimated at 221,000,000 taken, and at one time the Germans were only marks. All the capital ships of the former High fifteen miles from the capital. A new French army Fleet of Germany left afloat have been or will be was suddenly launched at the Qerman right flank, broken up. By this time the Germans were across the Mame

Recbnt History. — ^In Germany during the years River. Von Kluck turned back to meet the new 1911-1914 the chief internal issues, outside regular attack and at the same time the French General financial measures, were concerned with Alsace- Foch drove back the center of the German line. Lorraine, the increase in the German army, the Bag- The battle of the Marne which followed (6 Sep- dad Railway, and the continued opposition of the tember) was a severe defeat for the Germans, who Socialist Party to the Government. Since its annex- retired to the Aisne River. Having dug themselves ation to Germany Alsace-Lorraine had proved a in trenches and fortified their line, the Germans continual embarrassment to the Government, the in- now finished the conquest of Belgium, taking habitants in the western part being stcongly French Antwerp on 9 October.

in sympathy, and thwarting every effort of Germany The Russian mobilization was very rapid. The to placate them. In 1911 it was sranted a constitu- first army invaded East Prussia, where it gained sev- tion with universal suffrage and the privilege of eral victories. A large German army under the com- sending three members to the Bundearath. In 1912 mand of General von Hindenburg was sent to meet the forced acknowledgment by Germany of the it. On 29 August the great Battle of Tannenberg