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prohibition amendment 8 January, 1919, and the cation), but not from vindicatory, punishments latm woman's suffrage amendment 11 Februaiy. 1920. sententicB. ^orance of irregularities or impedi-

The budget in 1920 was $4,737,739, and the net ments does not prevent one from contracting tnem. debt $3,880,750.

During the European War Idaho contributed Bhtes, Dioce8b of (Ilhbosensib), in Brasil,

19,016 soldiers, or .51 per cent of the U. S. Army, erected in 1913 by dismemberment of the Diocese

Its national guard formed a part of the 4l8t Divi- of Sao Salvador de Bahia de Todos os Santos, of

sion at Fremont, Cal.; its national army, of the which it is now a suffragan. It comprises the 28

9l6t Division at Camp Lewis, Washington. Of all parishes of Dheos, Oliven^, Cannarieiras, Belmonte,

the force sent to France, the casualties were: Santa Cruz, Porto Seguro, Villa Verde, Tramoso,

deceased, 15 officers and 394 soldiers; prisoners, 9; Nossa Senhora de Louraes do Angelim, Ftado, Alco-

woupded, 18 officers and 915 men. In 1918 Idaho baca, Caravellas, Villa Vi^osa, S. Jos^ de Porto

sent 472 men to the U. S. Naval Reserve; 1234 to Alegre, Itabima, Barra de Rio de Contas, Marahie,

the U. S. Navy; 6 to the National Naval Volun- Barcellos, Camanni, Igrapiima, Santarem, Nova

teers; a total of 489. Boipeba, Boipeba Velha, Cayru, Taperoa, Serapuhy,

Rbugious Factobs. — ^The membership of the Guerem, and Valen^a. The cathedral is dedicated

Mormon Church in the State is 72,439; Catholics to St. George. The first and present bishop is Rt.

number 17^947; Presbyterians 6943; Methodists Rev. Emmanuel-Antonio de Paiva, consecrated 1915. 11,373; Christian 5065; Baptist 5682; Episcopalians

2404; Congregational 2827. I-U (or Kul-Dia), a mission in China with resi-

In May, 1920, there were eleven councils of the dence at Sui-ting. This mission, which originally

order of the Knights of Columbus in Idaho. For formed a part of the Vicariate Apostolic of Kan-su

Catholic information see Boisb, Diocbsb of. (oomprising the Chinese province of Sin-Kiang),

State Government.— One of the most far-reach- was separated from it in 1888. The superior resides ing reforms ever made in State administrative at Kuldja, the principal city of the I-li district of organization was effected in Idaho in 1919 by the the province. It comprises about 579,150 sq. miles, enactment of the Administration Consolidation Bill, and is entrusted to the Congregation of Scheutveld, By this act the civil administration of the State is Rev. Joseph Hoogers being the present superior, divided into nine departments, agricidture, com- Bom in Horst, Holland, in 1867^ he was professed merce and industry, finance, immigration, labor and in 1891, ordained in 1894, joined the Chinese mis- statistics, law enforcement, public .welfare, public sion in 1895, was named procurator at Shanghai in works, and reclamation. At the head of eacn de- 1909, and superior of I-li 8 June, 1918. Out of a partment is a commissioner, appointed by the total population of 1,200,000 the mission counts governor and removable by him. The governor is only 300 Catholics, owing to the serious difficulties authorized to devise a practical workixig basis for of evangelization in this part of China. According co-operation of work, eliminating duplication and to 1920 statistics there are 75 catechumens, 4 Euro- overlapping of functions. The commissioner of pean priests, some catechists, and 2 chapels, each department is empowered to prescribe regular

tions not inconsistent with law for the government Illinois (cf. C. E., VII-653c).— The popidation

of his department. Of peculiar significance is the of the State of Illinois in 1920 was 6,485;280.

Department of Law Enforcement. RBSOtntcsB^ — Agrictdture and Coal, — The total

Prisons and Reformatories. — On 30 November, acreage of the state is 35,867,520 acres. In 1919

1920, the State penitentiary had 218 inmates, but 31,974,775 acres were under cultivation. The total

the average for the year was 230. The Idaho in* value of farm property in Illinois in 1919 was

dustrial school has 221 inmates (1918). $6,666,767,235, and the value of the produce in 1919

was $864,737^33, and in the same year the acreage

liglesias, Diocese of (Egclesiensis; cf. C. E., given to the leading crops was as follows: wheat, VII-638d), suffragan of Cagliari, Sardinia. The 4,103,035 acres; oats, 4,291,066 acres; com, 7,908.385 present bishop is Rt. Rev. Satumino Peri, elected acres; hay, 4,013,476 acres; rye, 319,636 acres; bar- bishop of Cotrone 16 June, 1909, transferred to this ley, 176,792 acres.

see 16 June, 1909, succeeding Bishop Dallepiane. The total coal output in 1918 was 89,291,105

The Catholic population of the diocese is 100,000. tons : the number of mines was 967 ; the total value

There are 24 parishes, 41 secular priests, 12 semi- of the coal at the mines was $206,860,291. The

naries, 39 churches and chapels. coal field area is 42,900 sq. miles.

Banks and Comviunication. — ^The total number

Ignorance (cf . C. E., VII-648) .—Ignorance of of national banks in Illinois in 1919 was 473, with

invalidating or inhabilitating laws never excuses a capitalization of over $83,937,000, and a surplus

from their effects, in Canon law unless this is stated of $59^23,000; while there were 905 State banks

expressly. Ignorance or error about a law, penalty, with a capitalization of $101,189,000 and a surplus

one's own act, or the notorious act of another is of $67,135,000.

as a rule not presumed; but till the contrary is In 1911 Illinois awoke to the necessity of good proved it is presumed in regard to a non-notorious roads in the State, and in 1913 the Tice law pro- act of another. Affected ignorance of a law or of vided for a $60,000,000 bond issue for the construc- a penalty only does not excuse from penalties laim tion and maintenance of a 16,000 mile system of Mententice. If the law contains the words pre- State aid roads out of a total of 95,000 miles of sumes," "dares," "knowingly," "of set purpose," countiy highways in the State. The bonds and "rashly," or other such terms implying full knowl- interest are to be retired from the proceeds of edge and deliberation, whatever would lessen im- the motor license fees. In addition, the State and putability, either on the part of the will or of the Federal governments have appropriated $6,600,000. intellect, would excuse from penalties latce sententice. Only one state in the Union, Texas, has greater If the law does not contain such words, however, railway mileage than Illinois, in 1917 its total track crass or supine ignorance of the law or of the mileage being 12,132 miles of steam railway track- penalty alone would not excuse from penalties lata age compared with 15,931 miles in Texas. Mententice; if the ignorance were not crass or supine Manujactwres. — In 1919 the amount of money it would excuse from medicinal (as in excommuni- invested in manufactures was $3,513,700,000; the