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ers, and the Sisters of the faculty hold degrees from voices, is the author of many poems published in the leading universities. Loretto College is affiliated periodicals, under the pen name "Balbus, and with the Catholic University, St. Louis University, of a book of verse entitled "Flowers of the Cloister," and Creighton, and has a preparatory department published in 1913. Mother Rosine Green, second at Webster Groves, called Loretto College Academy, assistant to the superior general, has filled the Loretto Heights College is affiliated with the Catho- offices of local superior, directress of studies, prefect lie University and De Paul Universitv. Fifteen of Loretto training school, secretazy general, assis- academies, fiftynaix parochial schools, and five public tant general, and supervisor of schools, schools, totaling an enrollment of nearly 18,000 Among notable deceased members of the order pupils, complete the number of educational institu- are: Mother Bridget Spalding, cousin of Arch- tions conducted by the Sisters. Their work in the bishop Spalding, b. near Calvary, Ky., received the public schools under their charge in Kentucky, habit from Fr.Nerinckx, 25 March, 1S24, at the age Kansas, and New Mexico is helof in high regard, of thirteen, mother superior of the society 1825-58; At Bernalillo, N. M., and Pawhuska, Okla., the Mothers Magdalen, Bridget, and Elizabeth Hart- Sisters have industrial schools for Indian girls, in Hayden, three sisters, of whom .Mother Magdalen which work they have met with great success. was one of the pioneer Sisters of Santa Fe, Mother The mother-house is at Loretto, Kentucky, sixty Elizabeth was successively local superior, general miles from Louisville. Every Sister of Loretto is treasurer, and superior general, and Mother Bridget an educator in some true sense of the word, for labored loiu; amone the Lidians at Osage Mission, aside from the actual duties of teaching there are Kansas, and upon tne removal of the Osage Lidians many tasks about a convent which, assigned by further west continued her zealous labor at St. Ann's good judsment, aid the work of the order as a Academy for young ladies, established on the mis- whole. The postulate is six months, followed by a sion site, and died in 1890, at the age of seventy- novitiate of one year spent exclusively in the study six, bein^ among the hardy pioneers of the State of the spirit and rules of the Order. At the com- whose pictures nang in the capitol at Topeka, pletion of the novitiate simple vows are taken and Kansas; Mother Generose Mattingly, diamond renewed annually until at the end of the third jubilarian and the last Sister of Loretto to receive year they are taken in perpetuity. After profession the habit from Father Nerinckx; Mother Bertha a normal course of traimng as teachers is ^ven, Bowles, superior general 1864-70; Mother Dafrosa and each year the Sisters are given opportumty to Smythe, superior general for two terms; Mother advance m educational excellence. The Society Ann Joseph Mattinely, superior general 1882-88; now numbers 819 members. The rules have been Sister Joanna Walsh, one of the early western revised in accordance with the new Code of Canon pioneers, later assistant to mother superior and Law, and the corrections ratified by the Sacred twice elected mistress of novices; Mother Catherine Congregation of Religious, 29 July, 1920. The most Connor, successively filled high offices until her elec- important change, noted above, is the taking of tion as superior general in 1894; Mother Evangelista perpetual vows at the end of three years, instesxl of Bindewald, for many years assistant seneral (d. five as formerly. On 25 April, 1912, Loretto Order 1916) ; Mother Victorine Kelly, elected secretary celebrated the centennial of its foundation. The general in 1910 (d. 1914) ; Mother Pancratia Bonfels, destruction by fire in January, 1919, of the Loretto erected Loretto Heights Academy (d. 1915) ; Mother Academy, Florissant, Missouri, was a great disaster. Flaget Hill, efficient manager, niece of Rev. Walter The aged Sisters of the community were trans- Hill, S. J., and sister of Rev. Joseph Hill, S.J.; ferred to the mother-house, only seven of the Mother Austin Gough, mistress of novices.

property. The Sisters took up their residence in

one of the buildings near the old historic convent, Louise de Marlllac, Blbssbd (cf. C. E., IX-133c),

formerly occupied by the Ladies of the Sacred beatified 9 May, 1920, by Benedict XV. Her feast

Heart, who were succeeded there in 1847 by the is celebrated on 15 March.

Sisters of Loretto. A <^sastrous flood a few years Louisiana (cf. C. E., IX-378c).-The area of the

previous to the fire, had necessitated the vacatmg g^^e of Louisiana is 48,506 sq. miles of which 3097

of the convent To provide suitable accomna9da- ^re water surface. There are 5363 miles of railroad,

tions for the Sisters it was decided to discontinue y^^^^ gig ^jj^ ^^ ^i^^^^c railway. The popula^

the high school erades at Florissant, limiting the ^ion of the State in 1910 was 1,656,388; in 1^ it

school to the eight grammar grades, and to erect ^^ increased to 1798388 , « ^j^*^ *i.

within the environs of St. Louis, a boarding academv iNDUBTRira.-The 'report of the United States De-

and college. This was the ongm of Loretto Col- partment of Agriculture for 1919 gives the agricul-

Since 1896 the Societv has been imder the direc- ^ tion of Mother Praxodes Carty, siiperior general.

She was bom in Bawnboy, County Cavan, L-eland, Cottoo

and came with her parents to St. Louis in May, Com

1865, there received her education, and entered Sugar

Loretto Order in 1874. Volunteering for the west- cZsSMdViice']

em missions, she made the journey by caravan to Sweet Potatoes

Santa Fe, where she made her first vows, was ^*» Potatoes

appointed superior at Bemahllo, N. M., in 1880 as- ^^

302,224 bales 32,375,000 bushels 15,142,290 pounds 28,049,000 galloDs (1918) 19,712.000 pounds 0,300,000 bushels 1,600,000 bushels 450,000 tons

1,445,000 acras

1,850,000 acres

264.000 acres

560,000 acres 70.000 acres 25.000 acres

250,000 acres

Signed to the same ofilice at Las Cruses, later called Total area under cultivation, 5, acres, east to fill the superiorship at Florissant, Mo., and

elected superior general in 1896. She was ably Manufactures. — The value of manufactures has assisted in the beginning of her administration by increased remarkably in the last five years. In Mother Francisca Lamy (d. 1912), a native of 1914 there were 2211 manufacturing establishments, France, and niece of Archbishop Lamy. Mother emplo3dng about 77,665 wage earners; the capital Wilfrid La Motte, vicaress of the society since invested was $261,635,000, and the value of prooucts 1910, formerly directress of studies and mistress of $255,313,000. In 1919 the number of establisjiments