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OKLAHOMA 557 OKLAHOBCA

on 16, June 1019; the Prohibition Amendment on total expenditure in 1918 was $13,803,861. Bible

7, Jan. 1919. During the European War Ohio con- reading m the public schools is specifically permitted

tributed 200,293 men to the United States Army by law. The State laws governing private and

(5.33 per cent). The Ohio members of the National parochial schools are as follows: It shall be unlawful

Guard joined the 37th Division at Camp Sheridan, to teach in any other language than English in any

Ohio, and also at Montgomery, Alabama; those of public, parochial, denominational or other institution

the National Army, the 83d Division at Camp of learning witmn the Sta^ of Oklahoma, unless

Sherman, Ohio. The drafted men were sent to Camp pupils receiving such instruction shall have completed

Chillioothe, Ohio. The summary of Ohio men in the the eighth g^rade of a common school curriculum.

American Expeditionary Force is as follows: deceased; All teachers in public and private schools must take-

123 officers, 3959 men; prisoners, 13 officers, 146 men; the oath of allegiance. All property used exclusively

wounded, 379 officers, 1 1 ,387 men. for schools and colleges and for religious and charitable

purposes shall be exempt from taxation. (X-6). No

Oklahoma (cf. C. E., XI-230d)— The area of the money (public) shall be used for the support of any State of Oklahoma is 70,057 square miles. The religious teacher or any other sectarian institution as population in 1920 was 2,028,283, an increase of such (11-5). The State board of education shall have 22.4 per cent since 1910. The percentage of rural authority to visit and inspect all institutions of higher inhabitants was 73.4; urban, 26.6. The average learning, both public and private. Education is corn- number of persons per square mile is 29.2. The pulsory for all oetween the ages of eight and eighteen largest cities are Oklahoma City, 91,295; Tulsa, for two-thirds of the school term, but this does not 72,075. Oklahoma now ranks as the twenty-first apply to persons between the ages of sixteen and State in population; in 1900 it was thirtieth. eignteen wno are lawfully employed and have finished

Economic Status. — As an a^cultural state the eighth gnLde or full course of instruction. Partr

Oklahoma has unlimited possibilities. In 1920 time schools were provided for in 1919; and county

there were 191,988 farms; the area of farm-land was schools in all coimties having a population of less than

31,951,934 acres and its value was $1,660,423,544. 2000 school pupils. In this same year the negro boys

Among the crops (valued at $549,249,277 in 1919) were transferred from the penitentiary to the school

the chief were wheat (65,761,843 bushels), com atTaft.

(53,851,093 bushels), cotton (1,006,242 bales). RBUGioN.—Accordin|; to the United States Census

Oklahoma ranks sixth in cotton production, twelfth of Relipous Denominations (1916), all doaominations

in com production, seventh in wheat production and in Oklahoma numbered 4i24,492» divided chiefly

first in the petroleum output. Tlie output of coal, as follows: Catholics 47,427 or 112%; Baptists,

in 1918 was 4,813,447 tons: the number of men Southem Convention 87,028 or 20.5%; Methodist

employed in this industry bemg 8551. In the same Episcopalians 60,263 or 14.2%; Baptists, Northern

year the petroleum output was 103,347,070 barrels; Convention 42.408 or 10%; Disciples of Christ 41,811

the natural gas output 124,317,179 feet. The three or 9.8%; Methodist Episcopalians, 40,148 or 9.5%;

large cement mills in the state have a yearly capacity Church of Christ 21,700 or 5.1%. For further

of 1,400,000 barrels. During 1918-19 91.6 miles of religious and educational statistics see Oklahoica,

railroad were built in the State, making the total Diocesb of.

mileage 6532. The summary of manufactures in Recent History and Legislation. — ^The clause

1919 shows a consistent increase, as compared with in the State constitution limiting manhood suffrage

that of 1914, except in the numb^ of establishments, bv means of an educational test and a grandfather

proprietors and firm members which show small clause was referred to the Supreme Court for decision,

decreases. In the 2446 establishments, 38,238 persons The latter was declared unconstitutional in 1915, but

were engaged in manufacture, eaxiiing for their the educational test remained, applied, however, to

service a total of $47,552,000. The capital invested all alike. By the Enabling Act Guthrie was made the

was $280,847,000 (an increase of 328 per cent since capital until 1913, but in tne election of 11 June, 1910,

1914) and the value of the products $402,462,000. the people decided upon the removal of the capital to

The State debt in 1920 was $2,972,900; the assessed Oklahoma Citv. The election was declared invalid

value of real and personal property, $1,664,448,745. by the State Supreme Court on the ground that the

Education. — There are state normal schools at title of the ballot did not conform to law. Thereupon Durant, Weatherford, Edmond, Ada, Alva and the governor called a special session of the Legislature Tahlequah, a reformatory for delinquent and in- to remove the capital to Oklidioma City. In 1913 the corrigible negro girls at Taft (created in 1917). Supreme Court prohibited the introduction of liquor another reformatory at Granite, an industrial school into counties occupied by Indians. In 1915 a Widows' for girls at Tecumseh, a deaf, blind and orphans' and Orphans' Pension Law was adopted and the pen- institute at Taft, a school for the blind at Muskogee, sioning of Confederate soldiers provided for. The Oklahoma College for Women at Chickasha. a State Federal Prohibition Act was ratified on 7 Januuy. prison at McAiister, a home for white children at 1919; the Suffrage Act, 28 February, 1920. In 1920 Helena, a school for the feeble-minded at Enid, State a woman was elected to the National House of Repxe- h'>spitals at Norman, Vinita, and Supply, a training sentatives. During the European War Oklahoma con- school for white boys at Paul's Valley, the Con- tributed to the Umted States Army 80,169 men (2.13 federate Home at Ardmore, the Umon Soldiers' per cent of the army). The Oklahoma members of Home and University Hospital at Oklahoma City, the national guard joined the 36th Division at Camp two schools of mines at Miami and Wilburton, a Bowie, Texas: Uiose of the national army, the 90th

g;troleum experiment station of the United States Division at Fort Travis, Texas. \ national guard ufeau of Mines at Bartlesville, and a tubercular camp was established at Fort Sill, Doniphan, Okla- sanitarium at Holey. homa. The summary of casualties among the Okla- There are fifteen agricultural schools, each receiving homa members of the American Expeditionary Forces Federal aid. In 1919 the University of Oklahoma had is as follows: deceased 20 officers, 1457 men; pris- 150 professors and 3683 students. The latest educa- oners 80 men; wounded 59 officers, 4742 men. tional statistics for Oklahoma (1920) give 510,139 Oklahoma, Diocesb of (Oklahombnbis)— Ac- white pupils, 41,276 negro pupils, 14,181 teachers, cording to statistics for 1921 there are in the diocese In 1916 there were 605 public high schools with 34,932 of Oklahoma 75 parishes, 166 churches. 91 missions, enrolled puoils and 1954 teachers. In 1918 the normal 122 stations, 3 monasteries for nuns, 1 abbey for men, schools had 125 teachers and 4660 students. The 1 convent for men, 50 convents for women with 338