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PLtmKET 586 PODLABIE

Plnnket, Oliver, Blessed. See Oliver Plunket, children, orphanages, poor law, industrial or reforma-

Blessed. tory schools, and 1 refuge. In 1919| there were 23^

conversions of Protestants. Plunkett, Joseph Mary, Irish poet and patriot,

b. in Dublin, 1887; d. there 1916, the son of Count Plymouth Brethren (cf. C. E., XII— 172a).—

and Countess Plimkett, belonging to a Catholic This denomination is split in the United States into

branch of the family whose name was in Irish history six sects which for convenience will be designated

for six hundred years. He was educated at the by numbers, since it is impossible to find a distmctive

Catholic University School, Belvidere College, and name for each.

spent two years studying philosophy at Stony hurst. I. This sect claims to follow more closely the

He kept up Scholastic rnilosopny and was much teachings of the founders and hence is sometimes

influenced by the study of mystical contemplation, referreato as the Exclusives." Membership (1916),

On accoimt of ill health he was forced to lead a life 3896.

of inactivity and spent his winters abroad. He II. This sect comprises those who are known as

studied Irisn imder Thomas MacDonagh and with the Open Brethren. It split from the parent body

him took over the "Irish Review." He was the in 1848. Membership (1916) 5928.

friend of MacDonagh ^ Pearse and Casement and a III. This branch represents the extreme high-'

fartner in the foundation of an Irish theatre in 1914. church principle of Brethrenism .... that

n spite of his ill health, he had remarkable power of absolute power of a judicial kind has been delegated

will and was a Spartan type, contemptuous of senti- by Christ to the Christian assembly" (Religious

mentality. His first published work was "The Circle Bodies, 1916, pt. II, p. 173). Membership (1916),

and the Sword," a book of verse. Plunkett was a 476.

militant mystic. His poems were few, vet they are of IV. This branch broke away from the others in

purest beauty and lovely simplicity and like the name 1890, owing to a controversy in regard to the subject

of his first book his symbols were the eternal circle of eternal life. They are more numerous in the

and the destroying sword. The intensity of his love British Empire than in the United States. Member-

of God and man and Ireland shone from the man ship (United States, 1916). 1389. himself, and the works he has left us, although few, V. This branch split from No. Ill on a question of

are immortal. At the age of twentv-nine he died^ as discipline. It first appears in the United States

he had said to the priest who gave him the last ntes religious bodies reports m 1916. Membership, 1820. of the Church, "for the glory of God and the honor of VI. In 1906 a disagreement on questions of church

Ireland." For the history of the Easter Rebellion in order in branch No. IV. in England, caused a split

which Plunkett died, see Pearse. in the United States also. Membership (Umted

MoBbiviv in Studies (December, 1916); Colum. Introduction States, 1916), 208.

to Poems 0/ the IriMh Revoluti^ary BroUurhood il^n. 1916) j^ 1921 ^ branches reported 470 churches and

Samuel Fowlb Telfaib, Jr. ^3 717 ^^^^^e.^ j^ ^^e Unitwl States.

MUTH^; cf. C. E., XII--171b), m England, forms cautc^m. iW (New York. 1920). . part of the Provmce of Birmmgham. At the present N. A. Weber.

time (1921) the diocese is under the administration of

the Rt. Rev. John Keily^ D.D., who was appointed Podlasle, Diocese of (Janow, Podlachiensis;

to this See upon the resignation of Bifdiop Graham, cf. C. E., IX — 403, s. v. Lublin), in the palatinate

due to the infirmity of. age in 1910. Bishop Keily or tocjetv&dztwo of Lublin, in Poland, suffragan of

was bom in Limerick, Ireland, on 23 June, 1^, and Warsaw, restored by Benedict XV in 1918. The

was ordained priest in Plymouth in 1877, after which diocese of Podlasie was erected on 2 July, 1818, by

he was made chancellor of the cathedral. He received the separation of 118 parishes from the dioceses of

his appointment as bishop on 21 April, 1911, and was Poznan, Plock. Krak6w, Luck, and Chelm, tbe city

consecrated on 13 June, by Cardinal Bourne, assisted of Jan6w on the river Knsywuh, in the vxriewddztwo

by Bishop Barton of Clifton, and Bishop Keating of of Brzesc being the episcopal see. In 1428 Witold

Northampton, now Archbishop of Liverpool. the Great Duke of Litwa (Lithuania) erected a villa

The National Catholic Congress of 1913 was held at Porch6w which he donated later with its parish

in Plymouth and with the exception of two members, church to the cathedral of Luck. Bishop Joszowics

was atteneded by all the hierachy , th^ town represent- in 1465 developed the villa into a town changing its

atives and the neadquarters staff of the army and name to Jan6w. In 1657 Jan6w was destroyeof by

navy. During the World War heavy responsibilities the Swedes. Subsequently Paul Algimutowicz, Duke

were thrown upon the clerg^y of this diocese by the of Orszaand Bishopof Luck, rebuilt the ruined church

number and size of the hospitals and the influx of the which in 1741 was made a collegiate church and in

woimded of all nationalities. Since the ending of 1818 became a cathedral. Pius IX enriched it with

the war, in spite of financial difficulties and heavy the relics of St. Victor martyr, which were solemnly

taxation, mucn has been done in the way of recon- deposited there on 11 June, 1859. The first bishop

struction in the diocese. Tlie advance of religion has of this diocese, Felix Lucas de Lewino Lewinski,

been noticeable among the Catholics and the public ruled from 1819 till his death on 5 April, 1825. He

street preaching by the Catholic Evidence Guild was succeeded by Joannes Marcellus de Gutkowo

(q. V.) nas had a marked effect in conversions. A Gutkowski, who ruled from 1826 till his deportation

monthly periodical "The Diocesan Record," is now by the Russians in 1846 to the province of Witebak,

published. the diocese being administed during his absence by

By the census of 1921 the diocese has a Catholic Bartholomaeus Hadziszewski, a canon of Jan6w, as

population of 16,898 and includes: 96 churches, vicar-general. Bishop Gutkowski died in exile in

chapels and mission stations; 76 secular priests ana Lw6w in 1855. The third bishop, Benjaminus

48 regular (Benedictines, Canons Regular of Lateran, Petrus Paulus Szymanski, previously Commissary of

Cistercians and Marists); 42 convents; 23 public the Warsaw province of the Capuchins was precon-

elementary schools receiving Government grants and ized in 1856, and took possession of tiie cathedral

11 which do not receive grants; 2 other schoob for in 1857, ruling the church of Podlasie until 22 Mav,

boys and 17 for girls; the total number of children in 1867 ^ when the diocese was suppressed by the

these schools is 3586. Among the charitable institu- Russians to facilitate the spread of their Schismatic

t ions are: 1 hospital, 5 residential institutions for poor church, and united to Lublin, the bishop being