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>x)88es8ion of their territory officially by exhibiting be sent to the Congregation of Propaganda. They are the decree or letters patent of the Congregation of bound gravely in conscience to use every endeavor to Propaganda, the vicars by showing their apostolic build up a native clergy and priesthood and, more- letters, to the pro-prefect or pro-vicar of their respec- over, must apply Mass for the people entrusted to tive districts. Prefects apostolic while within tnoir them on the feasts of the Nativity .Epiphanv, Easter, own territories enjoy the same rights and faculties as Ascension Thursday, Pentecost, Corpus Chnsti, the residential bishops, unless the Holy See has limited Immaculate Conception, the Assumption, St. Joseph, them; like vicars apostolic, even if they have not Sts. Peter and Paiu, and All Saints, according to the received episcopal consecration, thev can, within rejgulations laid down for bishops. Thev may not, their districts and during their term of office, give all without the knowledge of the Holy See, allow mission- the blessings reserved to bishops, except the pontifi- aries whom it has sent to leave their territory per- cal blessing, ^ant indulgences of fifty aays, adminis- petually, or to go into anotJher, neither may they ter confirmation, first tonsure, and minor orders. If expel them. In a case of public scandal, however, they have received episcopal consecration they have they can, after consulting tneir councils, and, where a right to the honorary privileges of titular bishops: there is question of a rehgious, warning his sui)erior if they are not biediops, they have,^ but only dunnj; as far as possible, remove a missionary, but they must their term of office and while within their own terri- notify the Holy See of the fact, tories, the insignia and privileges of the prothono- At the end of the year 1921, there were of Latin taries apostolic de numero pariidpantium. Rite 177 vicariates apostolic (Europe 8, Asia 68,

Prefects and vicars apostolic must rec^uire all mis- Africa 54, America 27, and Oceanica 20), 62 pre-

«ionaries, even religious, to show on arriving their let- fectures apostolic (Europe 4; Asia 10, Africa 28,

ters of authorization, and the missionaries, including America 13, and Oceanica 7), and 14 missions'

regulars, must ask leave of them to exercise their (Europe 1, Asia 9. Africa 1, America 2, and Oceanica

mmistry. a request which is not to be denied except 1); in addition tnere are 2 vicariates apostolic of

to individuals and then only for grave cause. All Uniat Greco-Bulgar Rite (Thrace and Macedonia)

missionaries, including regulars, are subject to their and 4 vicars apostolic of Syro-Malabar Rite in India,

jurisdiction, visitation, and correction in matters per- «_,^«,w. ^i.^- y . t j-

taining to the government of the missions, the cure "elata Humus, that is a prelate of no diocese,

of souls, the administration of the sacraments, the on© who rulM oyer a temtory mdependent of any

direction of schools, alms and bequests for the mis- diocese and havmg ite own clergy and laity. In

sion. Except in the cases allowed by law, they must canon law prebtes nulhus are govenied exactly Ur

never meddle with the discipline of religious under the same regulations as abbots nulhus, having the

the direction of their own superior; yet if a dispute same nghts and obhgations (see Abbot) . In 1921 the

arwes regarding the orders of the religious superiors prelatur^ nulhus were: Acre and Pm^, Bom Jesus

and those of the vicars or prefect apostolic in regard do Piauhy, Registro do Araguaya, SSma Conceicao

to the matters just referred to, the religious must do Araguaya, and Santarem in Bmzih Altamiro and

ordinarily follow the directions of the vicar or prefect Acauaviva delle Fonti, and Santa Lucia del Mela

apostolic; they have, however, the right of appeal to ^ Italy; and Mozambique. On 13 May, 1921, the

thTCongregation o/ Propaganda. If there are not Pfelature of Rio Branco was aggregated to the Bene-

enough Mcuiar priests, vicars and prefects apostolic dictine Abbey of Our Ladv of Monteserrato, R19 de

can, after advising with the superiors, compel reli- Janeu-o. the abbot dunrg his term of office adminis-

gious, even those who are exempt, if they are at- tenng the prelature without the obhgttion, however,

tached to the mission, to undertake the cure of souls, of personal residence there

unless the religious have a rule to the contrary ap^ cfodex;i*m cammun. can. 31(^27.

proved by the Holy See. Premonstratenslan Oanons (Norbertine Order;

Vicars apostolic are obliged to make the visits ad cf. C. E., XIII — 387d). — The year 1920 witnessed the Hmina like residential bishops, but where it would be eighth centenary celebrations of the. foundation of gravely inconvenient they can employ a procurator, the Norbertine Order (1120-1920), the event being even one residing in Rome. They and the prefects marked by splendid festivities throughout the order, apostolic are to send a written account of the state and eulogistic tributes appeared in both the European of their mission,- signed personally and also by one of and American i>ress. Tne activities of the Norbertine their councU, to the Holy See every five years, and Fathers, especially in the Brabant province, are moreover, at the close of each year they are to for- worthy of note. During the last twenty years their wardastatementof the conversions, baptisms, annual number has increased from 408 to 640, while new receptions of the sacraments, and other facts worthy houses have been founded in Endand, the United of notice. They may not absent themselves for a States, the Belgian Congo, Brazil, Denmark, Canada, notable time from their territories, except for a grave and Switzerland. Thus would appear to be fulfillea and urgent cause, without consulting the Holy See; St. Norbert's prophecy, the circumstances of which and they should visit their districts as often as neces- are not without interest. At the consecration of St. .sary personally or by proxy, if they are lawfully ex- Norbert's first church at Premontr6 (1122) before a cused, to see if the missions work is being properly large assembly of worshippers, the altar stone fell in •conducted. They should select a council of at least pieces, an incident of apparently ill-omen, which three of the older and more prudent missionaries, caused the postponement for the time being of the whom they are to consult in more serious and difficult ceremony of consecration. According to St. Norbert's matters. If possible they should call meeting of at prophecy, this was an indication that one day his least the chief religious and secular missionaries once order would decline, but after some time would be a year or oftener to discuss their experiences and to restored with new vigor. At the general chapter of perfect the means of carrying on the mission work, the order (1921) in the Abbey of Schlagl, where the They are bound to enforce the laws relating to epis- revision of the constitutions was arranged, the follow- 'copal archives, due allowance however being made ing events of far-reaching importance were announced: for difference of place and persons. The regulations the French Fathers were allowed to return to France, •concerning plenary and provincial councils and their two houses in Belgium being also retained; a diocesan synods should be carried out in territories beautiful and extensive building nad been acquired subject to Propaganda, as far as conditions permit; in Rome, alongside of the famous Basilica of St. no time is fixea, however, for holding them, and the Pudenziana, whose administration was likewise en- decrees of the councils before being promulgated must trusted to the order; the Abl)ey of Tongerloo had taken