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in the United States holding the Presbyterian System States, 2,255,000 (10 bodies), (2,384,000 in 1922);

was organized, bringing into co-operative relations Scotland 1,245,000: Canada 300,000; Wales 2(X), 000;

seven ofthePresbytCTian family in this country. Of Ireland 130,000; England 89,000; Australia 100,000:

the Reformed bodies the Reformed Church in Amer- New Zealand 50,(X)0; South Africa 50,000. The total

ica, and the Reformed Church in the United States number of Prteb3rterian constituents (communicants

joined this council, although rejecting a proposed and their families), in the world, is between fifteen

organic union with the Presbyterian Church. and twenty millions, although some state a much

since 1907 there have been proposed various plans higher figure,

of union, notably that of the Northern and the „°*'^"/„J5'^,*^ ?^(^™iS"\ ";,**•• ^^- J® Wi Rdigi<nu

Southern bodies. The latter rejected the overtuit*. fjS^^TVo'rl^ Z^^^iJ^hJrJ^n'^&t!L

Plans of Umon m Scotland and m Canada also failed, tnatitutUma (Louisville, 1914); Stephens. Ttf Prealyyterian

or have been postponed. In 1920 the Welsh Presby- ?*»*»^^««'^«»*f»?« o'«' fiV^ *^ Seotiand, Ireland, Canada and

terian Church um*ted with the Presbyterian Church ^«*ru» (Phikdclphi*. 1910).

in the United States. FinaUy in 1921 (December). ^' ^' ^=b=»- proposals for union of all Presbyterian and Reformed Prescription, See Property, Ecclesiastical. Churehes in the United States were indefinitely post- poned, <>^i^S to inability to agree on a unification pro- Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Conore- gram. Tne point of disagreement was as to whether gation of the (cf. C. £., XII — 399d).— The general there should be a complete union, with one general mother-house is at Bourg Saint- Andeol (Ardeche), assembly and a number of regional synods, or a fed- France, and Mother Marie-Sainte-Honorine is the eral union in which the various denominations would sixth superior general of the institution. The preserve their autonomy. The denominations reject- provincial-house in America is at Saint- Hyacinth ing the proposals were the Presbyterian Church in (Quebec), Canada. Mother Marie des Saints '^^he United States (South), Presbyterian Church in Anges is provincial superior. Connected with the the United States (North); Reformed Church in the American provincial house are the novitiate, with United States; and the United Presbyterian Church. 114 novices and postulants, a boarding school affil-

In interdenominational work the Presbyterians are iated to the University of Montreal, and a govem-

affiliated with the Federal Council of Churches of ment normal school. The Sisters are also in charge

Christ in America and have been prominent in the of two academies and two primary schools in the

Reparations for the World Conference on Faith and city of Saint Hyacinthe. There are 1023 Sisters in

^^^SS^' ^ , , •, , . „ America, with a total of 69 houses and 20,751

The Pr^bytenans have been especially active pupils. In the United States 12,856 pupib are un- among foreignets in this country. In 1916 there were der the Sisters' instruction in 25 schools belonging to eighty-one different commumties served by the board this congregation, in charge of this work; eleven languages were regu- larly employed. The Presb3rterian Church (North- Presentation of Our Lady, Sisters of the (cf. em) has inaugmrated a "New Era Movement" in an C. E., XII— 399a), founded at St. Nicolas in 1830. attempt to bring under one leadership the various The Rev. K. Schockaert is chaplain and director agencies and a plan of financial centralization has of the institute and Mother Mary Alphonse was been adopted. re-elected general superior in 1920. Dependent on

Since 1917 the educational work of the Presbyterian the mother-house at St. Nicolas are the filial

Church in this country is under a general board of houses of Boom (near Antwerp) Ledeberg (Ghent)

education. It controls 13 seminaries, including two Lockeren, Bornhem, and Lootenhulle, each house

for Germans, and two for negroes. Among other has an institution for boarders and two day

institutions affiliated with the board (generall^^ owned schools, one for the lower classes of society which

or controlled by the Presbyterians) are Elmira Col- jg gratuitous and another for the better classes. At

lege. Lafayette College, lincdn Univeraity, New st. Nicolas, besides the boarding school with about

York Universitjr Umvereitv of Wooster, WMhington 170 pupils, there is a college for pupil-teachers

and Jefferson College and imnois College. Pnnceton with an attendance of 270. It has two sections, a

University, Hamilton College and Western R^rve primary and a middle section for higher studies.

University, though not directly connected with the ^he latter was founded in 1911, and in 1920 com-

church, have been closely identifi^^ mercial classes were started, with a three year

In the foreign field m 1916 the Pr^byt^ courae in business training for girls, at the end of on26missioM,7mChina,3inIndia,2eachinPei> ^y^h a certificate may be obtained. At present sia, Siam and Brazil, and 1 ^ch m ^ri«3a, Japan, ^j^e community numbers about 200 members. Korea, Mexico, the Phihppine Islands, Chile, Colom- bia, Venezuela, Guatemala and Syria. They reported Presentation Order (cf. C. E., XII — 397b). — 1353 missionaries, 118 medical missionaries (24 The new Code of Canon Law has made necessary women), and 308 single women, 930 churches and some changes in the rule of the order. In Ireland the 161,470 conununicants. In 1920 they reported 1772 bishops are advocating amalgamation, the extent of missionaries and 226,971 members. The church which is not yet known. In the last ten years the fol- conducts the Syrian Protestant College at Beirut, lowing new houses have been founded: Ireland, 2: Svria, Forman College at Allahabad, India, and the England, 2; Australia, 1; India, 1; America, 6. Ot Canton Christian College in China. the new foundations in America 3 are in South

The names of the various Presbyterian bodies in Dakota, 1 in Dubuque, Iowa, and 2 in New York the United States are (1922) the Associate Reformed City. A novitiate was opened in 1921 at Mt. St. Svnod, Associate Synod of North America, Colored Joseph, Newburgh, N. Y. Chimberland Presbyterian Church, Cumberland Pres- byterian Church, Presbyterian Church in the United Prince Albert and Saskatoon, Diocese of States of America, Prwbyterian Church in the United (Principis Alberti et Saskatoonensis; cf . C. E., States fSouth), Reformed Presbyterian Church (Old XII — 427b), in the Province of Saskatchewan, School), Reformed Presbyterian Chureh General Canada, suffragan of Regina. By decree of 30 April, Synod, United Presbyterian Church, and Welsh 1921, the name of the diocese formerly Prince Albert, Presbyterian Church (Calvinistic Methodist). was changed to Prince Albert and Saskatoon. The

In 1920 there were between five and six million Benedictine Abbey of St. Peter at Muenster, Saa-

Presbyterian communicants in the world; United katchewan, was erected into an ab1)ey nullius by