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Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 17.djvu/661

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RUSSIA 645 RUSSIA

7240, all worked by the State, which also supervises Transylvania, Huneary (Banat), Bukovina and

the navigation on the Danube and Black Sea. Bessarabia. On 1 December, 1018, the National

Government. — In 1920 the national Connals of Assembly of Transylvania voted to unite with

Transylvania, Bukovina, and Bessarabia, were dis- Rumania on the basis of universal manhood suf-

solvea and the entire state was subdivided into frage, liberty of language, religious and civil reforms,

departments, with prefects nominated directly from During 1919 a continuous warfare was waged with

Bucharest. In the reduction of the number of Soviet Russia and Bolshevist Hungary, fiy royal

deputies in the chamber from 548 to 324 the Tran- decree on 28 May, 1919, all Jews of Rumania were

syivanians lost more seats in proportion than the emancipated and given every right of citizenship,

old kingdom, and charged discrimination. The The arrangement of her Western boundary was

present ruler is Ferdinand I, who succeeded King unsatisfactory to Rumania, and, in the summer of

Carol on 11 October, 1914. ' 1919, she sent troops to the river Theiss to establish

World War. — ^At the outset of the struggle Ruma- boundaries in keepmg with her national aspirations, nia preserved a strict neutrality, awaiting the out- So succearful was this little invasion that tne troops come of the struggle before she cast her lot with advanced beyond the river and on 4 August, 1919, either pNEuty. In April. 1916. when Teuton fortunes occupied Bucharest, contrary to the explicit orders appeared most favorable, tne Rumanian minister of the Peace Conference, and demanded the reduc- at Berlin signed a convention with Germany pr6- tion of Hungary's army and the surrender of part viding for free exchange of domestic products, of her supplies; Bessarabia was annexed. Repeated However, on 16 August, she signed a secret treaty warnings of the Supreme Council forced Rumania with thQ Entente, agreeing to break off all economic to sign the Treaty of St. Germain in December, relations with Grermany, to declare war, and to 1919, and to withdraw her troops from Hungary begin an offensive in 10 days; in return, the Allies in February, 1920. On 28 October, 1920, Rumania, promised her military support and Bukovina, *Tran- Britain, France, Italy and Japan signed a treaty sylvania, and the iBanat of Temesvar. On 27 giving Bessarabia to Rumania, the permission of August, 1916, war was declared on Austria- Russia being considered unnecessary. Rumania Hungary. To crush Rumania, the German com- joined the 'Xittle iBntente," a defensive alliance mander. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg, col- entered into by Czechoslovakia* and Jugoslavia, on lected a composite Bulgar-Turco-Teutonic army. 14 August, 1920. Each country pledged itself to Meanwhile, the Rumanian General Staff, counting support the others in case of unprovoked attack by on General Sarrail in Macedonia to engage the Hungary. Rumania, however, stipulated that Ad- attention of Bulgaria (in alliance with Austria), and riatic questions should not concern the aUiance. upon Russia's promise to inaugurate an offensive in Under the inspiration and guidance of France, a Bukovina and thereby prevent the shifting of formsJ "defensive" alliance against Soviet Russia Austro-German troops from Poland and Gaiicia, was entered into by Rumania, Poland, and Hungary threw the bulk of its available forces into Transyl- on 2 March, 1921. vania, with little regard for the possibility of counter- attacks. The Rumanians pressed heavily on the Bnssla (of. C. E., XIII — ^231d), Soviet republic, WaUachian and Moldavian fronts, and from Mol- hasanareaof about 1,867,737 square miles (excluding davia, they swifUy penetrated into eastern Transyl- Poland and Finland, but including the new States, vania.. Passing into Wallachia, they took Orsova A census taken throughout the territories of the and nuurched to Mehadia. In three weeks they Russian Soviet Republic on 20 August, 1920, showed had delivered one-fourth of Transylvania from Magyar a population of 136,000,000 of whom 47 per cent were rule. Another Teutonic army under Field Marshid males and 63 per cent were females. About 22 von Mackensen invaded the Dobrudja and cap- millions (16.2 per cent) were settled in cities and tured Constanza on 22 October, 1916, in spite of towns.

Russia's sending one of her ablest generals, Vladimir Religion. — ^The Soviet Government disestablished

Sakharov, with reinforcements to stiffen the line, the Church and declared for freedom of worship.

In the west, von Falkenhayn captured Vulcan Pass The prevailing religion is Greek Orthodox. In 1922

on 25 October, defeated the Rumanians in a bloody the Soviet Government decreed the confiscation of all

battle, and on 21 November captured Craiova, thus Church property, and ordered the arrest of anv

winning one-third of Wallachia. Advancing down Orthodox Cnurch officials who resisted, as it was felt

the slopes of the Transylvanian Alps, the Teutons that the wealth of the Russian Church, hidden in

marched into Rumania and on 6 December, 1916, monasteries and churches, was sufficient to feed

von Mackensen entered Bucharest. By January, thousands of starving Russian peasants. The

1917, ^" "" * '^ ^ ' ^ " ' "^ " "• '* ^ '" " • ^-^- • .1^ . _ ^ ,. .

the

ported by the Russians, were at bay along the settled in the towns of the western and southwestern

Sereth River from Galatz westwards. General Sar- provinces. Before the Revolution, Russia was

rail attempted an offensive, but was driven back, divided into 66 bishoprics, imder 3 metropolitans, 14

The collapse of Russia in 1917 completed Rumania's archbishops, and 50 bishops, and the management of

downfall and on 7 March, 1918, she signed the the Church was in the hanos of 62 consistoria.

Treaty of Bucharest with Germany, giving up aU Agriculture. — Up to 1905 the Russian peasant

the Dobrudja, the Petroseny coal basin, and the had no political significance, although he constituted

Carpathian passes. Subsequently the Central Em- 87 per cent of the population and his labors produced

pires consented to the incorporation of Bessarabia 43 per cent of the world's com supply. The war took

into Rumania, which had been voted by a Brasara- away many of the peasants, and brought the mobilized

bian Council on 27 March, 1918. After the collapse peasantry for the first time tn contact with the indus-

of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1918 the trial workers. In 1917 the peasants sided with the

Rumanians ousted the pro-German Marghilonian revolutionists almost to a man. After the inaugura-

Ministry. Following a short military administra- tion of the Soviet r^^me, the decree went forth that

tion under General Coanda, parliament was dissolved "the private possession of land, of natural wealth,

and a new election held. The new Government waters and forces of nature was abolished, and that

immediately declared for the incorporation within these were handed over. to the working classes. The

the kingdom of the Rumania-speaking parts of land properties were immediately divided up and