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handed over to the peasants. The unequal division rubles. The total indebtedness of Russia on 1 Sep-

of some estates caused local committees to be estab- tember, 1917, amounted to 32,300 million rubles,

lished to divide an estate in mathematical proportion made up as follows: pre-war debt 8800 million rubles;

to the number of souls on it. So great was the dis- seven internal war loans 10^500 million rubles; loans

trust of the system which caused large quantities of contracted abroad 8000 nullion rubles; short-dated

land to be uncultivated in thinly-populated districts loans 5000 million rubles. At the Economic Confer-

and intensely cultivated in thickly populated dis- ence at Genoa there were negotiations on the part of

tricts, that in 1020 the Government forbade any re- Russia for a loan of three billion gold rubles to be used

partition of the land for twelve years and abolished for the reconstruction of the country. In October,

the Committees. The State proclaimed also a monop- 1917, the railway mileage was 34,000, but at present

oly of wheat, paying for it in worthless paper and m the railroads are operating at 7 per cent of their former

promises of manufactured goods and agricultural capacity. After three years in which there was

implements which it could not fulfill. The lack of hardly any foreign trade, due to the allied boycott of

initiative on the part of the peasants resulted in the Russia, it picked up again in 1920, following the peace

decrease of 18 per cent in the total quantities of land with Esthonia, where most of Russia's port outlets are

cultivated in 1918, as compared with 1916. situated. A trade agreement between the British

Economics. — The principal industries are nation- Government and Soviet Russia was signed on 16

alized , and are concentrated under the various depart- March , 192 1 .

ments of the Supreme Economic Council. Organized Education. — The highest educationid authority is labor in Russia is by no means overwhelmingly Bol- centered in the Commissariat for Education which nas shevik, as many of the trade unions are Social Kevo- jurisdiction even over the art schools, theatres, labor lutionaries and Anarchists, or belong to the Menshe- schools, music, and libraries. The unified labor school viks, or minority faction of the Marxists. Owing to has been introduced by the Soviets to replace the the enormous depreciation of the ruble, due to colMsal various types of the elementary and secondary schools emissions of paper money, payment is generally being of the pre-revolutionary period. Education is corn- made in kind. Industrial production has depreciated pulsory and free; children are provided with lunchea greatly; the production of the coal mines in 1920 being and necessary books. In 1919 there were in the Soviet only 20 per cent, of their normal pre-war output; of republic, 63,317 schools and 4,796,284 pupils. All cast-iron 2 per cent.; textiles 5 per cent.; paper 21 per the schools have been secularized. New universities cent; sugar 6 per cent. In the Ural the mines yielded have been established at Jarolslav, Smolensk, Kos- only half of their pre-war output. The sole cause of troma, Tambov, Astrakhan, Tashkent, Samara, this deplorable state of affairs is to be found in the Simbirsk, Orel, Ekaterinburg, Ekaterinodar. and Communist Government, which balks at every turn, Veliki Ustivig. The number of students, which waa the activities of labor and has brought the country to 117,000 in 1919, has risen to 120,000 (1920). In ruin. The membership of the Russian labor unions in 1921 there were 3,758 technical schools with 298,263 January, 1921, aggregated 6,970,000, of whom 30 students. In 1919 the education budget was 17,244, per cent, were specialists, 7 per cent, were clerical million rubles; in 1920, 100,049 mUlion rubles, workers, and 63 per cent, manual workers. TTie Government. — ^The Russian republic is a Federal struggle between the labor unions and the Soviets for Socialist community Government under the constitu- supremacy was so grave that in March, 1921, it was tion of 19 July, 1918, adopted in the fifth All-Russian announced that the purely communistic state was an Soviet Congress. Ail central and local authority is impossibility and that for the sake of economic devel- vested in Soviets of workers, soldiers, and peasants; opment Russia must compromise with the capitalistic all private property is abolished, all mines, factories, bourgeoisie. More concessions were made at the same and means of production belons to the State. There time to which the more radical Communists objected, is compulsory military service, freedom of conscience. These included more freedom in exchange of goods, and universal obligation to labor. The centre and abandonment of compulsory requisitioning of farm source of executive power is the All-Ru8.sian Congress produce, more liberty for private mitiative, and lastly of Soviets, consistmg of representatives from the greater freedom for co-operative societies. There is town Soviets on the basis of one for every 25,000 elec- hardly any faith in the Soviet Government's ability to tors, and from provisional congresses on the basis of

gay its financial obligations. In February, 1918, the one for every 125,000 inhabitant*. The executive

oviets repudiated all the debts of Russia contracted authority is entrusted to the All-Russian Central

up to 1917. confiscated the banks, and maritime enter- Executive Committee of not more than 200 members,

prises, and on 23 April, nationalized foreign trade, elected by Congress. This is called the Council of

The French, who had loaned the State about 1,300,- the People's Commissioners and at present has 18

000,000 rubles, were for that reason reluctant to members. The government was removed on 14

recognize the present Government of Russia. In 1920 March, 1918, from Petrograd to Moscow. (See

French credit in Russia was about 13,540,000,000 Bolshevism; Soviet.)