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Babadel, Armand (well-known as Pdre Pie de are Engaged in Sabotage of the supply of the arm}/'

Langogne), theologian and canonist , b. at Langogne, was issued. On this date another decree. No. 30,

France, on 16 November, 1850: d. at Rome on 4 May, was issued pertaining to the measures for ^'Combat-

1914. He entered the Capucnin order in 1873, was ing the sabotage among the employes of higher rank

ordained two years later, and, after teaching theology in postal and telegraph institutions." Therein the

at Crest, was called to Rome as secreta^ to the same term is used in connection with organized oppo-

definitor-seneral of his order. In that position he sition to the wealth-owning classes in general. The

revealed himself as a theologian and canonist of hi^ decree urges the combating of "sabotage of the bour-

rank. His ability was recognized, and he was ap- seois coition," and it suggests to the workers that

pointed successively by the Holy See consultor to five they themselves get rid of '^very kind of sabotage of

of the more important congregations. He was intru- the people's power. Later the term sabotage has

mental in bringing about some of the reforms in the been found repeatedly in the Soviet press,

marriage procedure included in the decree '/Ne In practice the term sabotage is applied in Soviet

Temere. He was named titular Bishop of Corinth Russia to any kind of opposition to the Soviet au-

in 1911 , and died just as Pius X was about to raise him thorities. Thus, the stoppage of work in industrial

to the cardinalate. He was a favorite director of concerns for improving the living conditions of the

many of the leading Catholic lait^ in Rome. He is workers is classed as sabotage. The same term is

the author of lives ofBlessed Crispm of Viterbo (Paris, used for describing desertions from the Red Army.

1899) and Venerable Philom6ne de^ Sainte-Colombe The full title of the "Cheka" is "Extraordinary Com-

6r CombatingCounter-revolution, l^cula- Sabotage." The penalty for sabotage varies imprisonment for short terms to capitalpimish-

honor of Our Lady. ment. The term sabotage is frequently applied by

» . . Tx /a t r\ T* the Bolsheviki to the passive resistance of the peasants

Sablna, Diocese of (Sabinensis; cf. C. E., ^ ^y^e Soviets, especially as regards their refusal to

XIII--290d). a suburbicanwi see m Italy, with the ^^w more wheat than they nwdfor themselves: also

perpetual tide of Abbot of Farfa. The chapter and {J connection with the marked tendency of the

clergy of St.Blaise and St. Giles at Palombara,8abma, peasants to decrease the area of land under cul-

were given new laws by consistonal decree of 3 Febru- tivation. Thousands of Russians have been shot on

ary 1918. TJe present bishop is Carding Gaetano the charge of sabotage, which, in many instances, is

de Lai, b. 1853, ordamed 1876, created cardinal used as a synonym for the word "counter-revolution."

deacon 1907, chose the suburbicanan see of Sabina "^ "^ Bobib Brasol. 27 November, 1911, consecrated by Pius X at the

Vatican 17 December, and enthroned 31 December Saeramentals (cf. C. E., XIII — ^292d) are

following. Rt. Rev. Antonio Nicozzi, titular Bishop things or actions made use of by the Church after

of Cflesarea Philippi, is auxiliary bishop of Sabina. the tnanner of the sacraments to obtain spiritual

The Catholic population of the diocese is 54,200. blessings, especially through the prayers of the

There are 35 parishes, 66 secular priests, 52 regular Church, which alone has power to constitute, in-

priests, 27 seminarians, 72 churches and chapels. terpret, change or abolish them. The only legitimate

^ ^ ^ ^ j-j* xi_ i?„ I. J minister of the saeramentals is a cleric authorized

SaboUge, a term derived from the French word f^, ^^^ purpose; however, the term sacramental is

Mbot, meaning foot-wear canred out of wooden blocks, gometim^ loosely used to include holy water and the

Spanish zapoto. This kind of foot-wear is iw»d in i^ which may be used by the laity themselves,

some French rural distncts. The root of t^^ No one but a bishop can consecrate unless he is

word «a6oMs probably derived from the Ibenan dialect, authorized by canon law or by an Apostolic indult.

The term «a!>ote^« has different meaninip but common- ^ j^ ^^ ^^^ blessing, however, except

ly It signifies a dishonest act committed by a w;orkman ^j,^ expressly reserved to bishops or others; if he

while performing his work for the puipose of injuring ^ reserved blessing it would ordinarily be vaHd

the interests of his employer, m which sense the word g^^ unlawful. Deacons and lectors can give only the

IS frequently used in French Syndicalist hteiuture. blessings specified in the law. If a minSter neglects

The use of the term in its present sense may be ex- ^ employ the formula prescribed by the Church for

^^^^^f ,,«...« «^x..^.w^^ v.-^ «-2 — ^. -. w. — ^ — ~ jjQ^ loroiaaen it, to non-c;atnoiics aiso, m oraer tnai

ployed, threw their sabots into the wheeb, thus ^^ey may obtain the light of faith or even health

causmg the stoppage of the work and the d^niction ^^^ ^(^ faith. A cleric under peraonal interdict

of the machines. In our day, the word sabotage is jQ^y ^lot administer the saeramentals, nor, as a rule,

widely used m official decrees of the Soviets m Russia. ^^ ^^ ^ excommunicated, though sometimes this

i^eTrfeT^ft^hr^^^^^^ '^.f^^^I^^'^^lfl^^^

first public document in which the word sabotage was ^^^^ P"«^ « avaUable, Finally the sacramentab

officially used by the Soviets dates back to 8 December may not be used by excommumcates ntandi or

1917, when the notorious "Decree for Combating the tolerated excommumcates after condemnatory or

Bourgeoisie and their Agents, as well as those who declaratory sentence.