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Jean-Pierre-Alexandre Marcou, of the Society of pupils, 428 Christian doctrine schools with 17,500

Foreign Missions of Paris, appointed titular Bishop pupils, 1 hospital and 6 orphanages with 1243 orph-

of Lysias 18 April, 1895, and named vicar 16 April, ans. The priests are permitted to minister in 1 public

1901. He resides at Phat-Diem and is assisted by a hospital. A diocesan fund for native clergy is estab-

coadjutor, Rt. Rev. Louis-Christian-Marie de Coo- lished. During the World War 19 of the missionaries

man, titular Bishop of Thacia-Montana. Although were mobilized of whom 7 returned to France and

the work of the missionaries in this territory has met served there; 1 was wounded and 2 received the croix

with marked success from a spiritual point of view, de guerre. When the Indo-Chinese regiments were

they encounter great difficulties in the matter of edu- organized about 250 Annamite Cathohcs from this

cation. The largest part of the population is of the vicariate volunteered and niany of these also won tho

peasant class, engaged chiefly in farming, with the croix de guerre. result that a great scarcity of teachers for the schools,

is foimd. To overcome this difficulty however, Tong-king, Upper, Vicariate Apostolic of

catechism schools have been established and the (Tom-kim Superioris, cf. C. E., VII — 774d), com-

children learn the alphabet from the catechism. In poises the provinces of Son-tay, Tuyem-gnang and

all the centers of new Christians catechists, numbering Hung-Hoa, under the collective title of Xu-doai. It

about forty in all. give instruction. This territory is entrusted to the Foreign Missions of Paris, the

embraces a Catholic population of 109,000, and by present vicar being Rt. Rev. Paul-Marie Ramond,

latest statistics comprises 54 parishes, 405 churches a{^x)inted titular Bishop of Linoe and named first

and chapels, 521 Christian communities, 37 inission- vicar apostolic of this territory 18 April, 1895. As in

ary priests, 100 native priests, 187 catechiste, 3 other sections of Ton^-king,tne great handicap to the

seminaries, 1 school for catechists, 269 seminarians, work of the inission is the great scarcity of schools.

11 houses of religious women, and 143 native religious. There are a number of schools teaching religion, but

The institutions include 68 elementary schools with no professional school, and a great need exists for

80 teachers and 1915 pupils, 4 asylums, 5 hospitals, some secondaiy schools, and at least one high school.

6 homes, 6 nurseries, 1 leper asylum with 68 lepers In all Tong-kmg ther& are 800,000 Christians whose

(aided by the State), and 1 school for deaf mutes, children are forced to use the government schools

•The Society of Priests Adorers is organized amon^ the which are often antagonistic toward religion. If the

clergy and a bi-monthly journal or review is published missionaries were in a position to establish schools

for them. During the past year there were 1452 thev would be patronized not only by Christian

baptisms of infidels, 8196 baptisms of dving children children, but by numbers of pagans, and thus the work

of infidel parents, 4709 baptisms of children of Chris- of conversion would be greatly facilitated. However,

tian parents, 495,964 confessions, and 1,660,291 the very inadequate resources of the mission have

communions. One of the most renowned of the a]wa3rs had to be devoted to the work of the native

clergy who has served in this territory, was the late clergy in spreading the Faith and in holding those

Father Six, an Annamite priest, pastor of Phat-Diem already converted. By latest statistics (1922) the

before the erection of Tong-Kin^ Maritime. He was vicariate comprises 16 parishes, 180 churches and

well known for his wisdom and his ability at the court chapels, 16 Cnristian communities, 230 stations, 51

of Hu6 and in dealing with the high French ofiicials. secular priests of whom 23 are European and 28 na-

He was made an honorary minister of the king, the tive, 5 European and 34 native Bisters, 2 lower

only priest who has ever had this honor, and a ' seminaries, 68 seminarians, 56 elementary schools

chevalier of the ligion d*honneur. with 56 teachers and 750 pupOs. 4 astylums, 4 hos- pitals, and 5 nurseries, besides places m each parish

Tong-klng, Northern, Vicariate Apostolic op for receiving children, where they ave cared for or

(ToM-KiM Septentrionalis; cf. C. E., VIII — ^778b). entrusted to Christian families. The Association of

an ecclesiastical division of the French Colony ot Priests Adorers is formed among the clergy, and parish

Tong-king in Asia. It is entrusted to the Dominicans, bulletins in French and Annamite are published at

its present vicar being Rt. Rev. Maximim Velasco, Hanoi. Each year three retreats are neld at the

appointed titular Bishop of Amorium and coadjutor episcopal residence at Hung-hoa, for the missionaries,

at Northern Tong-king, 28 July, 1889, succeeding as for the native clergy ana for the catechists. The

vicar apostolic 7 February, 1902. His coadjutor at Catholics of the vicariate now number 33,500. Dur-

present (1922) is Rt. Rev. Theodore Gordaliza, ap- ing the World War five of the missionaries from this

gointed titular Bishop of Abdera 10 August, 1915. territory went to the front and one was killed, one

•y a decree of 31 December, 1913, the provinces of wounded, one decorated with the midaiUe nUlitaire,

Lang-son and Cao-bang, and the delegations of Bao- and two with the croix de guerre, A large number of

lac, Quan-ba and Dong-yan, in the province of Ha- Annamite chieftains took part in the fighting,

giang, were separated from the vicanate and erected m «-j ttt *t a

into a prefecture apostolic. The only statistics pub- Tong-Wng, Western, Vicabiatb Apostolic of

lished are those collected before this division was (Tom-kim occidbntalis, cf. C. E., VII— 774d), a

made. division of the French colony of the same name m

Indo-China. It is entrusted to the Society of Foreign Tong-klng, Southern, Vicariate Apostouc of Missions of Paris, the present vicar apostolic beine (Tom-kim meridionalis, cf. C. E., VII — 774d), Rt. Rev. Pierre-Jean-Marie Gendreau appointed separated from Western Ton^-king in 1846, this ter- titular Bishop of Chrysopolis 26 April, 18S7, and co- ritory is entrusted to the Society of Foreign Missions adjutor to the vicar of Western Tong-Idng, whom he of Paris, with episcopal residence at Xa-doai. The succeeded 25 April, 1892. He was named an assistant present vicar apostolic is Rt. Rev. Andr6-L^once- at the pontifical throne 11 June, 1912. His coadjutor Joseph Eloy, appointed titular Bishop of Ma^dos is Rt. Kev. Louis-Marie-Henri Bigolet, titular Bishop and vicar apostolic 11 December, 1912. The vicari- of Antiphrae. Latest statistics credit the vicariate ate embraces a Catholic population of 126,000, and is with 93 parishes, 721 churches and chapels, 786 mis- divided into 16 districts and 94 parishes. Latest sion stations, 137 native secular priests and 36 mis- statistics credit it with 512 churches or chapels, 604 sionaries, 461 Sisters, 2 seminaries, 270 seminarians » stations, 8 convents with 130 native Sisters (Amantes 2 hieher schools for bovs with 16 teachers and 539 de la Croix), 29 European missionaries and 133 native pupus, 1 higher school tor girls with 10 teachers and priests, 210 catechists, 2 seminaries, 265 seminarians, 280 pupils, 156 elementary schools with 172 teachers 20 elementary schools with 20 teachers and 520 and 1489 pupiLs, 5 industrial schools with 9 teacheis