affairs. We hear of him, in April 1653, obtaining a license to transport Irishmen to foreign parts, and on 6 Aug. 1654 Cromwell appointed him one of the committee established to determine differences among the adventurers for Irish lands (Collection of Cromwell's Ordinances). Two years later Baillie wrote to Spang about Clotworthy's plan of founding a college in Antrim (Baillie, Letters, iii. 312).
On the Restoration Clotworthy once more took a leading part in public affairs. He was sent to England in March 1660 to represent the interests of the Irish adventurers and the soldiers settled in Ireland (for his instructions see Hist. MSS. Comm. 9th Rep. 99). In their interests he proposed an act to confirm all estates of soldiers and adventurers as they stood on 7 May 1659 (Carte, iv. 26), and while making very favourable terms for them, provided still better for himself (ib. p. 61). At the same time he vigorously defended the cause of the Irish presbyterians. 'Only Sir John Clotworthy, wrote Clarendon, 'dissembled not his old animosity against the bishops, the cross, and the surplice, and wished that all might be abolished; though he knew well that his vote would signify nothing towards it. And that spirit of his had been so long known, that it was now imputed to sincerity and plain dealing, and that he would not dissemble, and was the less ill thought of, because in all other respects he was of a generous and jovial nature, and complied in all designs which might advance the king's interest and service' (Life, ii. 380). This compliance was rewarded by the title of Viscount Massereene (21 Nov. 1660), which he enjoyed for five years, dying on 25 Sept. 1665.
[Archdall's Peerage of Ireland; Foster's Peerage; Carte's Life of Ormonde (edit. 1851); Gilbert's Contemporary History of Affairs in Ireland; History of the Irish Catholic Confederation; Rushworth; Clarendon's History of the Rebellion; Walker's History of Independency; Cal. State Papers, Dom.]
CLOUGH, ARTHUR HUGH (1819–1861), poet, was the second son of James Butler Clough, by Anne, daughter of John Perfect, a banker at Pontefract. Richard Clough [q. v.], of Plas Clough in Denbighshire, was agent to Sir Thomas Gresham at Antwerp in the sixteenth century. His descendants continued to live at Plas Clough. A Hugh Clough, born in 1746, was a fellow of King's College, Cambridge, a friend of Cowper and Hayley, and a writer of poetry. The brother of this Hugh, Roger of Bathafern Park, Denbighshire, was the father of James Butler Clough. James Butler Clough was the first of his family to leave the neighbourhood. He settled as a cotton merchant at Liverpool, and had four children. In the winter of 1822-3 he emigrated to Charleston, South Carolina. He was of a lively, sociable, and sanguine temperament, and strongly attached to his children. His wife was of simple, lofty, and retiring character, and during her husband's absences made a special companion of her son Arthur. In June 1828 the doughs sailed for England, returning to Charleston in October. Arthur and his elder brother Charles were sent to a school at Chester in November, and to Rugby in the summer of 1829. Arnold had then been head-master for a year. Clough spent his holidays with relations, except in the summer of 1831, when his parents visited England, and his recollections of the time are turned to account in 'Mari Magno.' The long separation from his family made him prematurely self-reliant and thoughtful. He distinguished himself at school work, winning a scholarship open to the whole school at the age of fourteen; he contributed to, and for some time edited, a school magazine; and was excellent at football, swimming, and running. He became a favourite with Arnold, whose system had a powerful influence in stimulating his moral and mental development. In July 1836 his family returned to settle at Liverpool. In the following November he gained the Balliol scholarship, and in October 1837 went into residence. He became known to his most distinguished contemporaries, especially to W. G. Ward, to B. Jowett (the present master of Balliol), Dean Stanley, Professor Shairp, Bishop Temple, and Dr. Arnold's two eldest sons, Matthew and Thomas. The influence of Newman was stirring all thoughtful minds at Oxford, and Clough, whose intellect had been aroused and perhaps overstrained at Rugby, took the keenest interest in the theological controversies of the time. The result in his case was a gradual abandonment of his early creed. He never became bitter against the church of his childhood, but he came to regard its dogmas as imperfect and untenable. His lofty principle, unworldliness, and intellectual power won general respect, and his friends were astonished when he only obtained a second class in 1841. In the following spring, however, he was elected to a fellowship at Oriel, then the greatest distinction obtainable at Oxford. In 1843 he was appointed tutor, and continued to reside in college, taking reading parties in the long vacation, one of which suggested the 'Bothie.'
Family troubles were coming upon him. His younger brother died of fever at Charleston at the end of 1842, and his father never