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CAMPBELL, J. F.—CAMPBELL, T.

process which runs through the book: “If Shakespeare was really articled to a Stratford attorney, in all probability, during the five years of his clerkship, he visited London several times on his master’s business, and he may then have been introduced to the green-room at Blackfriars by one of his countrymen connected with that theatre.” The only positive piece of evidence produced is the passage from Thomas Nash’s “Epistle to the Gentlemen of the Two Universities,” prefixed to Greene’s Arcadia, 1859, in which he upbraids somebody (not known to be Shakespeare) with having left the “trade of Noverint” and busied himself with “whole Hamlets” and “handfuls of tragical speeches.” The knowledge of law shown in the plays is very much what a universal observer must have picked up. Lawyers always underestimate the legal knowledge of an intelligent layman. Campbell died on the 23rd of June 1861. It has been well said of him in explanation of his success, that he lived eighty years and preserved his digestion unimpaired. He had a hard head, a splendid constitution, tireless industry, a generally judicious temper. He was a learned, though not a scientific lawyer, a faithful political adherent, thoroughly honest as a judge, dutiful and happy as a husband. But there was nothing admirable or heroic in his nature. On no great subject did his principles rise above the commonplace of party, nor had he the magnanimity which excuses rather than aggravates the faults of others. His life was the triumph of steady determination unaided by a single brilliant or attractive quality.

Authorities.—Life of Lord Campbell, a Selection from his Autobiography, Diary and Letters, ed. by Hon. Mrs Hardcastle (1881); E. Foss, The Judges of England (1848–1864); W.H. Bennet, Select Biographical Sketches from Note-books of a Law Reporter (1867); E. Manson, Builders of our Law (ed. 1904); J. B. Atlay, The Victorian Chancellors, vol. ii. (1908).

CAMPBELL, JOHN FRANCIS, of Islay (1822–1885), Gaelic scholar, was born on the 29th of December 1822, heir to the beautiful Isle of Islay, on the west coast of Argyllshire. Of this inheritance he never became possessed, as the estate had to be sold by his father, and he began life under greatly changed conditions. Educated at Eton and at Edinburgh University, he occupied at various times several minor government posts. His leisure was largely employed in collecting, translating and editing the folklore of the western Highlands, taken down from the lips of the natives. The results of his investigations were published in four volumes under the title Popular Tales of the West Highlands (1860–1862), and form a most important contribution to the subject, the necessary precursor to the subsequent Gaelic revival in Great Britain. Campbell was also devoted to geology and other scientific pursuits, and he invented the sunshine recorder, used in most of the British meteorological stations. He died at Cannes on the 17th of February 1885.

CAMPBELL, JOHN McLEOD (1800–1872), Scottish divine, son of the Rev. Donald Campbell, was born at Kilninver, Argyllshire, in 1800. Thanks to his father he was already a good Latin scholar when he went to Glasgow University in 1811. Finishing his course in 1817, he became a student at the Divinity Hall, where he gained some reputation as a Hebraist. After further training at Edinburgh he was licensed as preacher by the presbytery of Lorne in 1821. In 1825 he was appointed to the parish of Row on the Gareloch. About this time the doctrine of Assurance of Faith powerfully influenced him. He began to give so much prominence to the universality of the Atonement that his parishioners went so far as to petition the presbytery in 1829. This petition was withdrawn, but a subsequent appeal in March 1830 led to a presbyterial visitation followed by an accusation of heresy. The General Assembly by which the charge was ultimately considered found Campbell guilty of teaching heretical doctrines and deprived him of his living. Declining an invitation to join Edward Irving in the Catholic Apostolic Church, he worked for two years as an evangelist in the Highlands. Returning to Glasgow in 1843, he was minister for sixteen years in a large chapel erected for him, but he never attempted to found a sect. In 1856 he published his famous book on The Nature of the Atonement, which has profoundly influenced all writing on the subject since his time. His aim is to view the Atonement in the light of the Incarnation. The divine mind in Christ is the mind of perfect sonship towards God and perfect brotherhood towards men. By the light of this divine fact the Incarnation is seen to develop itself naturally and necessarily as an atonement; the penal element in the sufferings of Christ is minimized. Subsequent critics have pointed out that Campbell’s position was not self-consistent in the place assigned to the penal and expiatory element in the sufferings of Christ, nor adequate in its recognition of the principle that the obedience of Christ perfectly affirms all righteousness and so satisfies the holiness of God. In 1859 his health gave way, and he advised his congregation to join the Barony church, where Norman McLeod was pastor. In 1862 he published Thoughts on Revelation. In 1868 he received the degree of D.D. from Glasgow University. In 1870 he removed to Roseneath, and there began his Reminiscences and Reflections, an unfinished work published after his death by his son. Campbell was greatly loved and esteemed by a circle of friends, which included Thomas Erskine, Norman McLeod, Bishop Alexander Ewing, F. D. Maurice, D. J. Vaughan, and he lived to be recognized and honoured as a man whose opinion on theological subjects carried great weight. In 1871 a testimonial and address were presented to him by representatives of most of the religious bodies in Scotland. He died on the 27th of February 1872, and was buried in Roseneath churchyard.  (D. Mn.) 

CAMPBELL, LEWIS (1830–1908), British classical scholar, was born at Edinburgh on the 3rd of September 1830. His father, Robert Campbell, R.N., was a first cousin of Thomas Campbell, the poet. He was educated at Edinburgh Academy, and Glasgow and Oxford universities. He was fellow and tutor of Queen’s College, Oxford (1855–1858), vicar of Milford, Hants (1858–1863), and professor of Greek and Gifford lecturer at the university of St Andrews (1863–1894). In 1894 he was elected an honorary fellow of Balliol. As a scholar he is best known by his work on Sophocles and Plato. His published works include: Sophocles (2nd ed., 1879); Plato, Sophistes and Politicus (1867), Theaetetus (2nd ed., 1883), Republic (with Jowett, 1894); Life and Letters of Benjamin Jowett (with E. Abbott, 1897), Letters of B. Jowett (1899); Life of James Clerk Maxwell (with W. Garnett, new ed., 1884); A Guide to Greek Tragedy for English Readers (1891); Religion in Greek Literature (1898); On the Nationalisation of the Old English Universities (1901); Verse translations of the plays of Aeschylus (1890); Sophocles (1896); Tragic Drama in Aeschylus, Sophocles and Shakespeare (1904); Paralipomena Sophoclea (1907). He died on the 25th of October 1908.

CAMPBELL, REGINALD JOHN (1867–), British Congregationalist divine, son of a United Free Methodist minister of Scottish descent, was born in London, and educated at schools in Bolton and Nottingham, where his father successively removed, and in Belfast, the home of his grandfather. At an early age he taught in the high school at Ashton, Cheshire, and was already married when in 1891 he went to Christchurch, Oxford, where he graduated in 1895 in the honours school of modern history. He had gone to Oxford with the intention of becoming a clergyman in the Church of England, but in spite of the influence of Bishop Gore, then head of the Pusey House, and of Dean Paget (afterwards bishop of Oxford), his Scottish and Irish Nonconformist blood was too strong, and he abandoned the idea in order to take up work in the Congregational ministry. He accepted a call, on leaving Oxford, to the small Congregational church in Union Street, Brighton, and quickly became famous there as a preacher, so much so that on Joseph Parker’s death he was chosen as his successor (1903) at the City Temple, London. Here he notably enhanced his popularity as a preacher, and became one of the recognized leaders of Nonconformist opinion. At the end of 1906 he attracted widespread attention by his vigorous propagation of what was called the “New Theology,” a restatement of Christian beliefs to harmonize with modern critical views and beliefs, and published a book with this title which gave rise to considerable discussion.

CAMPBELL, THOMAS (1777–1844), Scottish poet, eighth son of Alexander Campbell, was born at Glasgow on the 27th of