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is the seat of various hardware manufactures, among them metal plated and tin-plated goods, buckles, fancy nails and brooches, and has iron-foundries and machine shops. From the counts of Altena Liidenscheid passed to the counts of the Mark, with which district it was ceded to Brandenburg early in the 17th century.

LUDHIANA, a town and district of British India, in the Iullundur division of the Punjab. The town is 8 m. from the present left bank of the Sutlej, 228 m. by rail N .W. of Delhi. Pop. (1901) 48,64Q. It is an important centre of trade in grain, and has manufactures of shawls, &c., by Kashmiri Weavers, and of scarves, turbans, furniture and carriages. There is an American Presbyterian mission, which maintains a medical school for Christian women, founded in 1894. A

The DISTRICT or LUDHIANA lies south of the river Sutlej, and north of the native states of Patiala, Jind, Nabha and Maler Kotla. Area 1455 sq. m. The district consists for the most part of a broad plain, without hills or rivers, stretching northward from the native borders to the ancient bed of the Sutlej. The soil is a rich clay, broken by large patches of shifting sand. On the eastern edge, towards Umballa, the clay is covered by a bed of rich mould, suitable for the cultivation of cotton and sugar-cane. Towards the west the sand occurs in union with the superficial clay, and forms a light friable soil, on which cereals form the most profitable crop. Even here, however, the earth is so retentive of moisture that good harvests are reaped from fields which appear mere stretches of dry and sandy waste. These southern uplands descend to the valley of the Sutlej by an abrupt terrace, which marks the former bed of the river. The principal stream has shifted to the opposite side of the valley, leaving an alluvial strip, ro m. in width, between its ancient and its modern bed. The Sutlej itself is here only navigable for boats of small burden. A branch of the Sirhind canal irrigates a large part of the western area. The population in 1901 was 673,097. The principal crops are wheat, millets, pulse, maize and sugar-cane. The district is crossed by the main line of the North-Western railway from Delhi to Lahore, with two branches.

During the Mussulman epoch, the history of the district is bound up with that of the Rais of Raikot, a family of converted Rajputs, who received the country as a lief under the Sayyid dynasty, about 1445. The town of Ludhiana was founded in 1480 by two of the Lodi race (then ruling at Delhi), from whom it derives its name, and was built in great part from the prehistoric bricks of Sunet. The Lodis continued in possession until 1620, when it again fell into the hands of the Rais of Raikot. Throughout the palmy days of the Mogul empire the Raikot family held sway, but the Sikhs took advantage of the troubled period which accompanied the Mogul decadence to establish their supremacy south of the Sutlej. Several of their chieftains made encroachments on the domains of the Rais, who were only able to hold their own by the aid of George Thomas, the famous adventurer of Hariana. In 1866 Ranjit Singh crossed the Sutlej and reduced the obstinate Mahommedan family, and distributed their territory amongst his co-religionists. Since the British occupation of the Punjab, Ludhiana has grown in wealth and population.-See

Ludhiana District Gazetteer (Lahore, 1907).

LUDINGTON, a city and the county-seat of Mason county, Michigan, U.S.A., on Lake Michigan, at the mouth of the Marquette river, about 85 m. N.W. of Grand Rapids. Pop. (1900) 7166 (225Qf01'€lg1'1-bOI'I'l); (1904, state census) 7259; (IQIO) 9132. It is served by the Pere Marquette, and the Ludington and Northern railways, and by steamboat lines to Chicago, Milwaukee and other lake ports. To Manitowoc, Milwaukee, Kewanee and Two Rivers, Wisconsin, on the W. shore of Lake Michigan, cars, especially those of the Pere Marquette railway, are ferried from here. Ludington was formerly well known as a lumber centre, but this industry has greatly declined. There are various manufactures, and the city has a large, grain trade. On the site of the city Pere Marquette died and was buried, but his body was removed within a year to Point St Ignace. Ludington was settled about 1859, and was chartered as a city in 1873. It was originally named Pere Marquette, but was renamed in 1871 in honour of James Ludington, a local lumberman.

LUDLOW, EDMUND (c. 1617-1692), English parliamentarian, son of Sir Henry Ludlow of Maiden Bradley, Wiltshire, whose family had been established in that county since the 15th century, was born in 1617 or 1618. He went to Trinity College, Oxford, and was admitted to the Inner Temple in 1638. When the Great Rebellion broke out, he engaged as a volunteer in the life guard of Lord Essex. His first essay in arms was at Worcester, his next at Edgehill. He was made governor of Wardour Castle in 1643, but had to surrender' after a tenacious defence on the 18th of March 1644. On being exchanged soon afterwards, he engaged as major of Sir A. Hesilrige's regiment of horse. He was present at the second battle of Newbury, October 1644, at the siege of Basing House in November, and took part in an expedition to relieve Taunton in December. In January his regiment was surprised by Sir M. Langdale, Ludlow himself escaping with difficulty. In 1646 he was elected M.P. for Wilts in the room of his father and attached himself to the republican party. He opposed the negotiations with the king, and was one of the chief promoters of Pride's Purge in 1648. He was one of the king's judges, and signed the warrant for his execution. In February he was elected a member of the council of state. In January 1651 Ludlow was sent into Ireland as lieutenant-general of horse, holding also a civil commission. Here he spared neither health nor money in the public service. Ireton, the deputy of Ireland, died on the 26th of November 1651; Ludlow then held the chief command, and had practically completed the conquest of the island when he resigned his authority to Fleetwood in October 1652. Though disapproving Cromwell's action in dissolving the Long Parliament, he maintained his employment, but when Cromwell was declared Protector he declined to acknowledge his authority. On returning to England in October 1655 he was arrested, and on refusing to submit to the government was allowed to retire to Essex. After Oliver Cromwell's death Ludlow was returned for Hindon in Richard's parliament of 1659, but opposed the continuance of the protectorate. Hesat in the restored Rump, and was a member of its council of state and of the committee of safety after its second expulsion, and a commissioner for the nomination of officers in the army. In July he was sent to Ireland as commander-in-chief. Returning in October 1659, he endeavoured to support the failing republican cause by reconciling the army to the parliament. In December he returned hastily to Ireland to suppress a movement in favour of the Long Parliament, but on arrival found himself almost Without supporters. He came back to England in January 1660, and was met by an impeachment presented against him to the restored parliament. His influence and authority had now disappeared, and all chance of regaining them vanished with Lambert's failure. He took his seat in the Convention parliament as member for Hindon, but his election was annulled on the 18th of May. Ludlow was not excepted from the Act of Indemnity, but was included among the fifty-two for whom punishment less than capital was reserved. Accordingly, on the proclamation of the king ordering the regicides to come in, Ludlow emerged from his concealment, and on the zoth of June surrendered to the Speaker; but finding that his life was not assured, he succeeded in escaping to Dieppe, travelled to Geneva and Lausanne, and thence to Vevey, then under the protection of the Canton of Bern. There he remained, and in spite of plots to assassinate him he 'was unmolested by the government of that Canton, which had also extended its protection to other regicides. He steadily refused during thirty years of exile to have anything to do with the desperate enterprises of republican plotters. But in 1689 he returned to England, hoping to be employed in Irish affairs. He was however remembered only as a regicide, and an address from the House of Commons was presented to William III. by Sir Edward Seymour. requesting the king to issue a proclamation for his arrest. Ludlow escaped again, and returned to Vevey, where he died in 1692. A monument raised to his memory by his widow is in the church of