Hering, 1896; Lister, 1897; Hoff, 1903; Koch, 1903; Agassiz, 1907; Baeyer, 1907. France: Lister, 1893; Newcomb, 1895; Suess, 1900; Hooker, 1900; Schiaparelli, 1902; Koch, 1903; Agassiz, 1904. As the number selected is nearly the same in each of the four societies, it might be expected that several of the men would be chosen by all. Of the fifteen men, no one was selected by all four societies, two were selected by three, six by two, and according to Table II. with one exception belong to either six or seven societies. Seven men were elected as honorary members of one society only, and the names of two of them do not appear in Table II.
Nearly every other honor than that of foreign associate depends on other considerations than eminence. Thus, honorary degrees from the great universities are often regarded as an excellent test of distinction. But many universities give degrees only when candidates are present, and accordingly, one who always remained at home, from illness or other causes, would be at a great disadvantage. This is still more markedly the case with decorations, which are often given for services rendered, or to the representative of a country, wholly independently of his personal eminence.
Table III. gives for each country represented in Table II., the name, the population, the number of members belonging to 7, 6, 5, 4, 3 and 2 societies, respectively, and to all combined. The total number of memberships is given in the next column. Thus, if there were two members each belonging to 5 societies, and one belonging to 4, the total membership would be 14. The average number, or the number of memberships divided by the number of members, is given in the following column. The population expressed in millions divided