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Page:Popular Science Monthly Volume 90.djvu/447

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Popular Science Monthly

��431

��described. The second, which is more accurate, is to put the papers into pile? of about the same degree of excellence and then to compare the specimens in each pile with one another and with the stand- ard. Still more trustworthy results may be obtained by having three persons work simultaneously by either of the above methods; at least two should agree upon the rating.

The preparation of the scale involved many difficulties. This was especially true in getting equal gradations between the eight divisions. Since writing is intended to be read, legibility was made the basis; it is a striking fact that as legibility improves so does appearance. The legi- bility was determined from the length of time required to read the sample under consideration. In all 15,789 accurately timed readings by ten paid investigators were made with 2,81'/ different samples.

An analysis of samples of writing making a good appearance, but having a low degree of legibility as shown by the _^

tests disclosed the fact that "

the most common short coming is the crowd- ing together of words on a line; next in importance is too little space between the lines. Lifting the pen in the middle of a word so that the word looks like two is also a common fault that leads to illegibility. Failure to dot the "i's" and cross the "t's" also tends to make read- ing difficult. Some writers insist upon abbreviating the simplest words.

In using the scale it may happen that three judges will rate the same sample 60, 70, and 80. It is possible, however, to come nearer to securing uniformity of grading with the chart than without it; and so far as is known no other equally effective and time-saving means has yet been devised for the purpose.

��A Pocket Revolver No Bigger Than an Ordinary Watch

A REVOLVER small enough to be carried in the vest pocket and fired when concealed within the hand has been invented by a Frenchman, Turbiaux. It differs completely from anything that has hitherto been made. Moreover, it has most of the refinements of the larger weapons, such as a safety device, a ten- cartridge magazine and a device which secures a perfect registration of the cart- ridge chamber with the barrel.

Briefly described, the revolver consists of a steel box, circular in form, within which is the magazine, hammer, trigger and safety mechanism. Lugs on each side of the barrel serve as bearing points for the fingers of the hand. The trigger is a pro- jecting portion which fits against the base of the thumb. Two rods connect it with the internal mechanism. When the trigger is pressed the lower rod operates the ham- mer, causing it to strike the cartridge; the upper rod moves the maga- zine. To secure perfect ^ registration of the chamber I with the barrel

the trigger is pro- vided with a rod

���MAGAZINE ROD

��DEPRESSIONS

1^ MAGAZINE

-J.

���The component parts of the miniature pocket revolver and the manner of using it.

��which engages notches on the circumference of the magazine. On top of the weapon is a sliding safety- bolt, which, when pushed toward the trigger, locks it and thus prevents an ac- cidental discharge.

To load the revol- ver, the safety-bolt is pushed forward, the entire cover is taken off and the weapon turned to one side, whereupon the magazine drops into the hand. The cartridges are intro- duced from the cen- ter, the magazine is returned to its posi- tion, the cover is re- placed, and the revolver is ready to be fired. Even when the ammunition is ex- hausted, the little revolver will still serv^e as a protection, for the barrel may be used as a handle and the other part as a hammer for delivering terrfic blows.

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