"Thereupon, Yao confined Huan Tou on Mount Tsung; drove the chief of San-miao and his people into San-wei, and kept them there; and banished the Minister of Works to Yu Island.
- These words are quoted (with variants) from the Shu Ching or Canon of History. They refer to individuals who had misconducted themselves in carrying out the new régime.
But they were not equal to their task, and through the times of the Three Princes
- The Great Yü, T'ang, and Wên Wang, founder of the Chou dynasty.
the empire was in a state of great unrest. Among the bad men were Chieh and Chê; among the good were Tsêng and Shih. By and by, the Confucianists and the Mihists arose; and then came exultation and anger of rivals, fraud between the simple and the cunning, recrimination between the virtuous and the evil, slander between the honest and the dishonest,—until decadence set in, men fell away from their original virtue, their natures became corrupt, and there was a general rush for knowledge.
"The next thing was to coerce by all kinds of physical torture, thus bringing utter confusion into the empire, the blame for which rests upon those who would interfere with the natural goodness of the heart of man.
"In consequence, virtuous men sought refuge in mountain caves, while rulers of States sat trembling