San Tzu Ching/Appendix 3


[The following eighteen lines are given in the edition of 王相 Wang Hsiang, and were probably written by himself, in order to bring the history section down to the beginning of the present dynasty. They have not been translated by either Père Zottoli or Eitel.]

254A. Under the Liao and the Chin dynasties,
Liao2 3 chin1
Liao with chin

Liao is composed of the walking radical and a common phonetic. It means distant, and is also the dynastic name adopted by the 契丹 Kitan Tartars who shared in the empire of China from A.D. 907 to about half-way through the 12th century.

see line 87.

Chin see line 66. Here the dynastic name adopted by the 女眞 Nü-chên Tartars who shared in the empire of China from A.D. 1115 to 1234.

254B. there was confusion of Imperial titles;
Ti4 hao4 fên1
Ruler name confusion

Ti see line 180.

Hao see line 137.

Fên is composed of 糸 ssŭ silk as radical, and 分 (line 232) as phonetic. [This line is taken by the commentator to mean that confusion arose from the various personal names and tribal names of these Tartar monarchs. But the term ti hao may well be the equivalent of 尊號 tsun hao the Imperial title, the confusion being caused by two sets of Emperors, either Sung and Liao or Sung and Chin, reigning at the same time.]

254C. when the Liao dynasty was destroyed,
Tai4 mieh4 liao2
Reach destroy Liao

Tai see line 235.

Mieh see line 245.

Liao see line 254a.

254D. the Sung dynasty still remained.
Sung4 yu2 ts'un2
Sung still keep

Sung see line 227.

Yu see line 290.

Ts'un is composed of 子 tzŭ son as radical, and 才 ts'ai (line 49) as phonetic, and originally meant to enquire compassionately. It now means to keep, to preserve, to be alive, etc. [The Sungs, after the destruction of the Liaos (line 254), found themselves on even worse terms of hostility with the Chins, whose rulers had taken the Imperial title.]

254E. When the Yüan dynasty arose,
Chih4 yüan2 hsing1
Arrive yüan arise

Chih see line 94.

Yüan is composed of 一 i one, and 兀 wu which originally meant high and level. Hence it means beginning, origin. It here stands for the Mongol dynasty, the foundations of which were laid by Genghis Khan, the first actual Emperor being Kublai Khan, A.D. 1260–1295. It was formerly classed under radical 一 i one, but in K'ang Hsi's dictionary it was stupidly placed under 人 jen man. See also line 94.

Hsing see line 215.

254F. the line of the Chin Tartars came to an end,
Chin1 hsü4 hsieh1
Chin clue cease

Chin see lines 66, 254A.

Hsü see line 238.

Hsieh is composed of 欠 ch'ien to yawn (hence to be deficient, to owe) as radical, and a common phonetic. It means to stop, to leave off, to rest, which senses are partially indicated by the radical.

254G. and the House of Sung
Yu3 sung4 shih4
Have Sung generation

Yu see lines 14, 183.

Sung see line 227.

Shih see line 177. [This line is literally "the have-got-Sung generations."]

254H. was destroyed together with it.
I1 t'ung2 mieh4
One destroy together

I see title.

T'ung see line 106.

Mieh see line 245. [The Chin and the Sung dynasties did not disappear simultaneously, the former ending as stated under line 254A in A.D. 1234, while the latter dragged on until 1279 though all vestiges of power had long since passed from it. The text however is near enough for its purpose.]

254I. It united the Middle Kingdom,
Ping4 chung1 kuo2
Unite middle nation

Ping see line 212.

Chung see line 64.

Kuo see line 155. [Under the Mongol sway there was once more a united China.]

254J. and attached to the empire the tribes of the north and west.
Chien1 jung2 ti3
Unite jung ti

Chien is composed of 手 shou a hand holding two 禾 ho ears of grain. The latter combination was formerly its radical; it is now classed under radical 八 pa (line 88).

Jung is composed of 戈 ko spear as radical, and a contraction or corruption of 甲 chia a cuirass. It is a general term for weapons, but here refers to a race of barbarians.

Ti is composed of 羽 feathers as radical and 隹 chui birds. It means a kind of pheasant, feathers, etc., but here refers to a race of barbarians. Also read tsê, and in Peking chai.

254K. The founder of the Ming dynasty
Ming2 t'ai4 tsu3
Ming extreme ancestor

Ming see lines 110, line 254ε.

T'ai was originally an old form of 大 ta great. The dot was added in order to distinguish between the two after the reduction of their old forms into one and the same symbol. Also written 泰. It is here the equivalent of 高 kao in line 215.

Tsu see line 215. [The monarch in question was named 朱元章 Chu Yüan-chang. Before he succeeded in destroying the Mongol power and raising himself in A.D. 1368 to the throne he had been a novice in a Buddhist temple. He is generally known by the title of his reign as 洪武 Hung Wu.]

254L. was for a long time engaged in warfare.
Chiu3 ch'in1 shih1
Long personal soldier

Chiu see line 202.

Ch'in see line 31.

Shih see line 20. [He was fighting for some twenty years before he mounted the throne.]

254M. He had transmitted the throne to Chien Wên
Ch'uan2 chien4 wên2
Transmit chien wên

Ch'uan see line 163.

Chien see line 216.

Wên see line 44. [ Chien Wên was the title of the reign of the second Emperor of the Ming dynasty, who was grandson of the first and who came to the throne in A.D. 1399.]

254N. only four years,
Fang1 ssŭ4 ssŭ4
Only four year

Fang see line 14.

Ssŭ see title.

Ssŭ means to sacrifice; hence, probably in reference to the great annual sacrifices, it comes to mean a year. [That is to say, the second Emperor sat on the throne only four years with his capital at Nanking.]

254O. when the capital was transferred to Peking,
Ch'ien1 pei3 ching1
Remove north capital

Ch'ien see line 6.

Pei see line 61.

Ching is composed of a contraction of 高 kao high and a vertical line, and is supposed to picture a high mound (cf. capitolium). It was formerly a radical, but is now classed under 亠 t'ou, the meaning of which is unknown. [The capital is 京師 ching shih, transliterated by Marco Polo as Quinsai or Kinsay, in reference to Hangchow (line 254) which was the capital from A.D. 1129 to 1280.]

254P. and Yung Lo succeeded the latter.
Yung3 lo4 ssŭ4
Yung lo connect

Yung is a picture of water flowing away, and means long, for ever, eternal = dum defluat amnis. It is now classed under radical shui water. See line 158.

Lo see line 154. [Yung Lo is the title of the reign of the third Emperor of the Ming dynasty. He was the fourth son of the founder (line 254K). He deposed his nephew (line 254M) in 1403, and removed the capital from Nanking to Peking.]

Ssŭ is composed of a bundle of tokens of authority given by the suzerain to his vassals, with 口 k'ou mouth above as radical, and 司 ssŭ official as phonetic (line 80). It is commonly used in the senses of heir, to inherit.

254Q. At length Ch'ung Chêng
Tai4 ch'ung2 cheng1
Reach ch'ung chêng

Tai see line 235.

Ch'ung is composed of 山 shan hills as radical, and 宗 tsung ancestral as phonetic. It means high.

Chêng is composed of 示 shih divine manifestation as radical and 貞 chêng or chên chaste as phonetic. It means lucky, but here stands, with Ch'ung, for the title of the reign of the last Emperor of the Ming dynasty, who came to the throne in A.D. 1628.

254R. died on the Coal Hill.
Mei2 shan1 shih4
Coal hill pass

Mei is composed of 火 huo fire as radical and 某 (line 43) as phonetic. It means soot, and is also used for charcoal.

Shan see line 13.

Shih is composed of the walking radical with 折 shê (line 145) as phonetic, and means to go, to pass away. [Ch'ung Chêng, after the capture of Peking by rebels, committed suicide on a hill said to be of coal which stands within the precincts of the Imperial palace, A.D. 1644. The rebels were driven out by the Manchus, and the present dynasty was established.]