San Tzu Ching/Appendix 6

APPENDIX VI.


[These eight lines were inserted by some unknown writer of the Ming dynasty.]


254α.

Then the bearded Yüans waxed powerful,
Hu2

yüan2

shêng4

Beard

yüan

prosperous


Hu is composed of 肉 jou flesh as radical and 古 ku ancient (line 261) as phonetic. It originally meant dewlap, and having the same sound as the common word for beard, was applied contemptuously to the large beards of the Mongols.

Yüan see lines 94, 254E.

Shêng see line 186.


254β.

and destroyed the Liao and Chin dynasties.
Mieh4

liao2

chin1

Destroy

liao

chin


Mien see line 245.

Liao see line 254A.

Chin see line 254A.


254γ.

They took over the sceptre of the Sungs,
Ch'êng2

sung4

tung3

Receive

sung

clue


Ch'êng see line 228.

Sung see line 227.

T'ung see line 238.

254δ.

fourteen rulers in all.
Shih2

ssǔ4

chün1

Ten

four

prince


Shih see line 45.

Ssǔ see title.

Chün see line 54. [This list of fourteen Emperors includes Genghis Khan who never actually mounted the throne, and excludes Achakpa.]


254ε.

Then the Great Ming dynasty arose,
Ta4

ming2

hsing1

Great

ming

rise


Ta see line 127. [The use of this word is said to show that the writer was born under the dynasty, but see line 254j.]

Ming see lines 110, 254K.

Hsing see line 215.


254ζ.

drove out the Mongol Emperor,
Chu2

yüan2

ti4

Expel

yuan

ruler


Chu is composed of the walking radical and 豕 shih a pig (lines 78, 192), the latter said to be here a contraction of 豚 t'un a pigling. Hence its primary meaning to follow, derived from the idea of a pigling running away and the big pig running after it.

Yüan see lines 94, 254E.

Ti see line 180.


254η.

bringing Chinese and barbarians alike under its sway;—
T'ung2

hua2

i2

Control

flowery

barbarian


T'ung see line 238.

Hua is composed of 艸 ts'ao vegetation as radical, with an obsolete character which meant flowers of plants and trees. Hence it came to signify the glory of flowers, and now means flowery, variegated, especially applied to China, which is often spoken of as the Flowery Land.

I is composed of 大 ta great as radical, and 弓 kung a bow. It originally meant level, and then barbarians, in which sense its usage as applied to British subjects was forbidden under the Treaty of Nanking in 1842.


254θ.

may it endure for ever and ever!
Ch'uan2

wan4

shih4

Transmit

myriad

generation


Ch'uan see line 163.

Wan see line 48.

Shih see line 177.