San Tzu Ching/Appendix 4


[The following 24 lines form the continuation sanctioned, and possibly written, by 賀興思 Ho Hsing-ssŭ.]

254a. The Liao Tartars and the Chin Tartars
Liao2 3 chin1
Liao with Chin

Liao see line 254A.

see line 87.

Chin see line 66.

254b. all took the Imperial title.
Chieh1 ch'êng1 ti4
All style ruler

Chieh see line 250.

Ch'êng see line 186.

Ti see line 180.

254c. The Yüans (Mongols) destroyed the Chin Tartars,
Yüan2 mieh4 chin1
Yüan extinguish chin

Yüan see lines 94, 254E.

Mien see line 245.

Chin see line 66.

254d. and put an end to the House of Sung.
Chüeh2 sung4 shih4
End sung generations

Chüeh is composed of 糸 ssŭ silk as radical, with 刀 tao knife over an obsolete word for half a tally. Its original meaning was to cut silk in two. [The radical 色 colour is a corruption of 人 jen man over the half tally.]

Sung see line 227.

Shih see line 177.

254e. They governed the Middle Kingdom,
Li4 chung1 kuo2
Govern middle State

Li is composed of 水 shui water as radical and 位 wei a seat, an official post. It is often written 莅 .

Chung see line 64.

Kuo see line 155.

254f. and also the wild tribes of the north and west;
Chien1 jung2 ti2
Together jung ti

Chien see line 212.

Jung see line 254J.

Ti is here used for 狄 ti, which is composed of 犬 ch'üan dog as radical, with an abbreviation of 亦 i also as phonetic. The barbarians in question were thought to have descended from dogs. See line 254J.

254g. after ninety years
Chiu3 shih2 nien2
Nine ten years

Chiu see line 33.

Shih see line 45.

Nien see line 221. [A round number; see 254g.]

254h. their mandate was exhausted.
Kuo2 tsu4 fei4
State prosperity fail

Kuo see line 155.

Tsu is composed of 示 shih divine manifestation as radical, with 乍 (line 123) as phonetic.

Fei is composed of the obsolete radical 广 yen a shelter, with 發 (line 293) as phonetic. It originally meant a falling house.

254i. Then T'ai Tsu arose,
T'ai4 tsu3 hsing1
Extreme ancestor arise

T'ai see line 254K.

Tsu see line 89.

Hsing see line 215.

254j. his dynasty being known as Ta Ming.
Kuo2 ta4 ming2
State great bright

Kuo see line 155.

Ta see line 127.

Ming see line 110. [The famous founder of the Ming dynasty raised himself to the throne from the obscure position of a tender of cattle; hence he is sometimes spoken of as the Beggar King, and also as the Golden Youth. He was for a time a novice in a Buddhist temple, and altogether led a very chequered life.]

254k. He took as his year-title Hung Wu,
Hao4 hung2 wu3
Style vast military

Hao see line 137.

Hung is composed of 水 shui water as radical, with 共 kung (line 100) as phonetic. It originally meant an inundation (line 187).

Wu see line 189.

254l. and fixed his capital at Chin-ling (Nanking).
Tu1 chin1 ling2
Capital gold tombs

Tu see line 230.

Chin see line 66.

Ling see line 230.

254m. At length, under the Emperor Ch'êng Tsu,
Tai4 ch'êng2 tsu3
Reach complete ancestor

Tai see line 235.

Ch'êng see line 26.

Tsu see line 89. [Reigned A.D. 1399—1424, and better known by his year-title 永樂 Yung Lo.]

254n. a move was made to the Swallow City (Peking).
Ch'ien1 yen1 ching1
Move swallow capital

Ch'ien see line 6.

Yen see line 13.

Ching see line 254O. [The capital was transferred from Nanking to Peking in 1421.]

254o. There were seventeen reigns in all,
Shih2 ch'i1 shih4
Ten seven generation

Shih see line 45.

Ch'i see line 84.

Shih see line 177.

254p. down to and including Ch'ung Chêng.
Chih4 ch'ung2 chêng1
Reach eminent auspicious

Chih see line 94.

Ch'ung see line 254Q.

Chêng see line 254Q.

254q. The hold on the people was relaxed,
Ch'üan2 yen1 ssŭ4
Power extend loose

Ch'üan is composed of 木 mu tree or wood as radical, with an obsolete word meaning small goblet and pronounced kuan as phonetic.

Yen is composed of 大 ta great as radical, with 申 shên to extend as phonetic. One of its original meanings was to open out.

Ssŭ is composed of 長 ch'ang long as radical, with 隶 tai (line 235), here read shih, as phonetic. [The Rev. J. Doolittle gave the following translation of this line:—"The crafty eunuchs caused a revolt." But 奄 and 閹 do not appear to have been used interchangeably, each having a separate entry in the Shuo Wên.]

254r. and rebels sprang up thick as forests.
K'ou4 ju2 lin2
Rebels like forests

K'ou is composed of 攴 p'u to tap as radical, and 完 wan to finish. It originally meant violent, and has been explained as referring to the completion of a gang or force previous to issuing forth. It is now classed under radical 宀 mien shelter, roof.

Ju see line 133.

Lin is composed of two 木 mu trees, and is an obvious ideogram.

254s. Then came Li Ch'uang,
Chih4 li2 ch'uang3
Reach li ch'uang

Chih see line 94.

Li is composed of 木 mu tree as radical over 子 tzŭ child as phonetic. It means plum, but is here a surname.

Ch'uang is composed of 門 men a, door as radical, and 馬 ma a horse, q.d. a horse rushing out, bursting forth, etc., but is here a name taken by the rebel 李自成 Li Tzŭ-ch'eng, to whose sedition the fall of the Ming dynasty was mostly due.

254t. and the Imperial regalia were destroyed.
Shên2 chi'i4 fên2
Divine utensil burn

Shên see line 325.

Ch'i see line 26.

Fên is composed of 火 huo fire as radical below 林 lin a forest (see 254r) as phonetic. [This line refers to the looting of the palace when Li Ch'uang captured and temporarily held Peking.]

254u. The founder of the Ch'ing or Pure dynasty
Ch'ing1 t'ai4 tsu3
Pure extreme ancestor

Ch'ing is composed of 水 shui water as radical, with 青 ch'ing the colour of nature as phonetic. See line 84.

T'ai see 254K.

Tsu see line 89. [The T'ai Tsu in this line is the Manchu chieftain Nurhachu, A.D. 1559–1626, who was the real founder of the present dynasty, though he never mounted the throne.]

254v. responded to the glorious summons;
Ying4 ching3 ming4
Respond glorious order

Ying see line 64.

Ching is composed of 日 jih sun as radical, with 京 ching city as phonetic; q.d. the sun shining on a city.

Ming is composed of 口 k'ou mouth, its old radical, with 令 ling a command (see 271) as phonetic. It is also commonly used in the sense of destiny, as being the command or will of God.

254w. he tranquillised the four corners (N.S.E. and W.),
Ching4 ssŭ4 fang1
Quiet four square

Ching is composed of 立 li to establish as radical, with 青 ch'ing the colour of nature as phonetic. See lines 84, 254u.

Ssŭ see line 37.

Fang see line 14.

254x. and achieved the final settlement of the empire.
K'o4 ta4 ting4
Achieve great settle

K'o is regarded as a picture of a man carving wood in a house, and originally meant to bear on the shoulders. It is now classed under radical 儿, No. 10.

Ta see line 127.

Ting is composed of 宀 mien roof or shelter as radical, with 正 chêng (line 326) as phonetic. [Mr. Doolittle translated this line "so that prosperity prevailed," which seems to be somewhat off the line of thought.]