This work is from the United States and in the public domain because it was not legally published with the permission of the copyright holder before January 1, 2003 and the author died more than 70 years ago. This is a posthumous work and its copyright in certain countries and areas may depend on years since posthumous publication, rather than years since the author's death. Translations or editions published later may be copyrighted.

This work may be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.

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This template categorises Author namespace pages into Category:Author-PD-old-US and all other pages into Category:PD-old-US.

Works first published after 2002 are in the public domain in the United States 70 years after the death of author.[1]


{{PD-old-US|year of author's death}}

This template is to be used when the author has died more than 70 years previously and the work was not published until January 1, 2003 or later.

Adding the year of the author's death is recommended but optional.

See alsoEdit

Please note, there is also the {{PD-posthumous}} tag for posthumous works.


  1. Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States