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The International Folk-Lore Congress of the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago, July, 1893/The Northern Trolls

THE NORTHERN TROLLS.

BY DAVID MAC RITCHIE.


In the traditional and semi-historical literature of Scandinavia, there are many references to a race of beings known as "Trolls," who are described as in frequent contact with the ancestors and contemporaries of the saga-writers. That they originally constituted a distinct race, wholly different from the Scandinavian colonists, is indicated by Professor Nilsson, when he states that—"The name Troll is never given to any man or woman of the Saga, relating to the Asa race; it was given out to the foreign (i.e. aboriginal) tribes who were looked upon as conquered, for troll or tröll, seems to be the same as thrall,[1] and signifies "serf."[1] But he points to an amalgamation of the two peoples when he says, on another page[2] that a certain Scandinavian Chief, was the son of Stalbjörn, surnamed Half-troll, which shows that his mother was descended from a Troll race." That such an amalgamation was apparently general is also indicated by Mr. Du Chaillu in his Viking Age, "At the time of the arrival of the Asar on the Baltic Shores," says this writer, "they found the large Scandinavian Peninsula and that of Jutland, and the islands and shores of the Baltic, populated by a seafaring people whose tribes had constant intercourse with each other. . . . These people intermarried with the Asar . . . and hence arose tribes called half-Risar and half-Troll."[3] It will be seen from an extract which Mr. Du Chaillu makes[4] from the Hervarar Saga (ch. i.) that the term "Risar" has no reference to the invading people, for it is there stated that "before the Tyrkjar[5] and Asia-men (or Asar) came to the Northern lands, Risar and half-Risar lived there." It is unnecessary to enter into a consideration at this point of the precise significance of the word "Rise" (pl. Risar) and it is enough to observe that this is the Northern form of the German Riese, signifying a "giant." On the other hand the Trolls or Trows, as they are called in Orkney and Shetland are identified by Sir Walter Scott with the genuine Northern Dwarf.[6] Round both of these names an atmosphere of mystery and unreality has gathered; and the conclusion arrived at by so judicial an observer as Dr. E. B. Tylor is, "That the evidence brought forward by Grimm, Nilsson and Hanusch has "settled beyond question" that some, at least, of the tales relating to both classes are connected with the traditions of real indigenous or hostile tribes."[7]

So much, however, has been said and written from the opposite point of view that it may be necessary here to give a brief summary of Professor Nilsson's "Proofs that the Dwarfs and Pigmies of the Sagas were Human Beings (and) that they belonged to the same Race as the Laplanders of the present day." Professor Nilsson remarks as follows:—

"It has often been asserted that the dwarfs mentioned in the ancient Sagas were not real men, but mythical and allegorical beings, meant to typify certain powers and conditions of nature. . . . But in the description of dwarfs, as given by the Sagas, we find too many and too distinct ethnological characters to admit of any such theory."[8]

The chief points brought out by Professor Nilsson are these:—The dwarfs are said to have lived in caves, in underground structures, and in chambered mounds. The Lapps formerly occupied such dwellings, and even yet, the winter dwelling of the Lapp is practically only a modification of the "hollow-hill" of the dwarf. The Lapp is in stature dwarfish, if not actually a dwarf. Both the traditional dwarf and the actual Lapp are distinguished further by the characteristics: ugliness of feature, cowardice and cunning, a love of hoarding up glittering metals, a knowledge of witchcraft, skill as craftsmen; both of them speak the language of their conquerors imperfectly, both are regarded as of inferior race and both are described as wearing blue or red caps, and gray kirtles of reindeer skin.

"It has often been asserted that the dwarfs, mentioned in the ancient Sagas, were not real men, but mythical and allegorical beings, meant to typify certain powers and conditions of nature. . . But in the description of dwarfs as given by the Sagas, we find too many and too distinct ethnological characters to admit of any such theory. The reason for supposing that the dwarfs have no historical reality is probably, in the first instance, that they are said to have performed several supernatural and impossible feats, or, in other words, that they practised sorcery. But this does not fully entitle us to deny their historical existence. In that case, not only the Laplanders in Europe, but, also, the whole Esquimaux race in America, ought, for the same reason, to be regarded as mythical and allegorical, because it is not long since that people living in their neighborhood believed, and probably still believe, the former to be sorcerers; and the Indian tribes in America think, even to this day, that the latter are still acquainted with the black art."

As a proof that the Eskimos were so regarded by Europeans, as well as by Red Indians, I may here interpolate Sir John Lubbock's observation that "when Frobisher's crew, in 1576, captured an old Esquimau woman, they took her for a witch, and pulled off her boots to see if she had cloven feet."[9] And I shall also show that the term troll, which signifies "witch" and "wizard" as well as "dwarf," was applied to the natives of Greenland by the Scandinavians as recently as the fifteenth century.

It is impossible to repeat here all the various matter-of-fact incidents cited by Nilsson as showing that the dwarfs of Northern tradition "were corporeal and human beings, and considered as such by the narrators themselves, although of another race."[10] But one passage specially deserves quotation. Referring to the numerous instances in which the dwarfs are spoken of as inhabiting caves, underground dwellings and chambered mounds, Nilsson states that formerly this was also, a Lapp custom. Then he goes on to say:—

"The Laplanders, however, now live almost generally in huts, called "gammar" (which themselves are only modifications of the chambered mound). It is, therefore, very elucidative of our subject—continues Professor Nilsson—that at least, in one of our ancient Sagas it is expressly mentioned that a dwarf was living in a gamm. In Didrik of Bern's Saga (Chap, xvi) we are told how one day Didrik was out hunting on horseback in a forest, and that while chasing a stag, he saw a dwarf running at some distance from him. He hastened after him and seized hold of him before he had time to reach his gamm. The name of this dwarf was Alfrik; he was a famous thief and a great artificer. He had forged the sword Nageling, which was owned by Grim, whom he (the dwarf) advised Didrik to challenge."[11]

Now although Nilsson cites this as an exceptional instance, he omits to see that it is far from being so. It is merely a question of translation. The writer he quotes has employed the word still used to denote a Lapland mound-dwelling, whereas other writers make use of more archaic and descriptive terms. The name of the dwarf inhabiting this gamm was "Alfrik," and he appears in the Heldenbuch, the Vilkina saga and the Nibelungen Lied under various forms of the same name.[12] But the gamm inhabited by "Albric, the wild dwarf " of the Nibelungen Lied is, styled a "hollow hill." This is a perfectly correct description of the chambered mound, which is the prototype of the Lapp gamm. For the latter is obviously a modification of the former, "having the appearance of a large rounded hillock, which indeed it may be termed," to quote the words of a traveller of seventy years ago.[13]

If, therefore, the word gamm were to be substituted for the numerous terms which seem in old sagas and folk-tales (of which "pigmies," "hillock" and "elf hillock" are examples). Professor Nilsson's parallel would be still more clearly drawn. Nilsson briefly "sketches the outline of his parallel" as follows:—

(1) "The Laplanders are ugly and short, just as the dwarfs of the Sagas are represented to be." (He might have added that the Lapps and the dwarfs are each described as having disproportionately long arms.)[14]

(2) "The Laplanders are clothed in a gray reindeer kirtle, and they wear a blue or a red cap. The pigmies are also so identified in the Sagas."

(3) "The Laplanders, for instance,—in Norway,—speak the language of the country very badly. "When the Norwegians imitate the Laplanders it is done nearly in the same way as when the Danish peasant imitates the pigmy."

(4 & 5) Lapps and Dwarfs, alike, are represented as cowardly, cunning and deceitful.

(6) Lapps and Dwarfs are skilful craftsmen.

(7) Lapps and Dwarfs delight to hoard up glittering metals, especially silver. (Both are, also, noted for burying their hoards).

(8) "It was thought that the Dwarfs were skilled in sorcery, the same was believed of the Laplanders."

(9 & 10) " The Lapland race is considered inferior . . . The Laplanders, therefore, marry and hold feasts only amongst themselves as was the case with the mountain-pigmies. (As regards intermarriage, however, there are many exceptions to this rule, both in the case of the modern Lapps and of traditional Dwarfs.)

These, then, are the chief points of Professor Nilsson's argument; which receives scant justice when set forth in this very condensed form. And it appears to me, as it has appeared to others, that he is very successful in proving his case. To believe this, does not, of course, imply a belief in his infallibility.

Crossing the Atlantic, we find similar evidence in North America. According to the "Algonquin Legends of New England," as these have been collected by Mr. C. G. Leland,[15] the region which embraces Maine, Nova Scotia, and Eastern Canada was inhabited by "little men," "dwellers in rocks," at a time when there were, as yet, no red Indians in that territory—"only wild Indians very far to the West." The date of arrival of the Beothuks in Newfoundland, and of the Algonquins in the St. Lawrence region, is only of minor importance in the present question. And yet it can be approximately fixed by means of these same "little men, dwellers in rocks," who preceded them. Because, when the Norsemen first landed on the northeastern coast of North America, in the beginning of the eleventh century, the red Indians had not, as yet, appeared upon the scene. The chief Norse accounts of those landings are so well known, having been before the world ever since the publication of Rafn's Antiquitates Americanæ in 1837, that it is unnecessary to do more than to refer very briefly to the description there given of the people whom the explorers encountered. They seem to have been most frequently styled "Skroelings," a word which "Rafn" renders by Homunculi, i. e., "little men."

An equivalent translation is that given by Claus Magnus in the 16th century, at which period his map shows that the eastern part of Greenland was inhabited by "pigmies" commonly called "Skroelings." Rafn's remark that the descriptions of the 11th century "Skroelings" of the New England coast coincide with the accounts given of modern Greenlanders or Lokimoes,[16] is not only fully justified by those descriptions, but it is still further corroborated by the statement of Claus Magnus that the people of Eastern Greenland in the 16th century were "Skroelings." And this word he also regards as a synonym for a "dwarf." For all these reasons, then, we find that the Norse records fully bear out the traditions of the Algonquins that their sors in the territory stretching on both sides of the Gulf of St. Lawrence were "little men." With regard to the dwellings of those "little men," the Algonquin tradition is also justified by the Norse records. One reads in the Saga of Thorfinn Karlsefne that when that leader and his followers were in the territory now known as New Brunswick, in the year 1011, they encountered five Skroelings, of whom two were boys. They captured the boys, but the adult Skroelings disappeared "beneath the ground." From the boys, whom the Norsemen carried away with them to Iceland, they learned that the Skroelings possessed no houses, but dwelt in caves and dens. Thus the Indian tradition that they were preceded by "little men, dwellers in rocks," is wholly verified by European Chronicle.[17]

In connection with these references, especially with that of Glaus Magnus as to the "pigmies" or "Skroelings" of Eastern Greenland, the account of the Italian voyager, Antonio Zeno, was also fitly cited. According to this traveller the natives of Eastern Greenland seen by him in the latter part of the fourteenth century, were "half-wild" people of small stature, di picciola statura, and very timorous, who, as soon as they were seen, hid themselves in caverns.[18]

The eleventh century cave-dwellers of Maine and the St. Lawrence region were not, however, only styled "Skroelings " by the Norse writers. Arnas Magnusson, a native of Iceland, writing about seven centuries after the first encounter with the Skroelings, observes: "These people are called 'Lapps' in some books."[19] This reference is very suggestive. To what extent modern Lapps and modern Eskimos resemble one another is not a question that needs to be considered here. ' The important fact is, that the Norsemen applied the term "Lapp" to a dwarfish people, inhabiting cayes and underground retreats on the northwestern shores of the Atlantic, just as they did to a people of similar characteristics, living on its northeastern shores. In short, they regarded the words "Lapp" and "Skroeling," otherwise "pigmy," as synonyms. And this is what Professor Nilsson contends.

But the identification may be made still more complete. Not only were those North Americans of the eleventh century referred to as "Lapps" and "pigmies"; they were also styled "trolls." This will be seen from the following extracts from the monograph of Monsieur E. Beauvois, entitled "Les Skroelings, Ancétres des Esquimaux dans les temps pre-colombiens,"[20] to which I am indebted for much information upon that subject.

M. Beauvois points out that when Ari Frodi, writing in the twelfth century, described Eric the Red's first visit to Greenland (in 985), he mentions that Eric observed, both on the eastern and western coasts, various relics which showed that these places had been visited by men of the race inhabiting Vinland (understood to be the modern New England) whom the Greenlanders (that is the twelfth century Norsemen in Greenland), call Skroelings."[21] As M. Beauvois remarks, the home of the Eskimos was still on the American continent at this period, and although they had paid several visits to Greenland, they had not yet begun to settle there in sufficient numbers to displace the Norsemen. Thirteen years after Eric the Red's visit, his fellow-countryman, Thorgils, (the step-son of Orrabeen), was shipwrecked on the eastern coast of Greenland, He and his companions were without food, until Thorgils happened to find a stranded whale beside which were two "troll" women. They had cut off a quantity of the meat, and one of them was stooping to pick up her bundle, when Thorgils made a slash at her with his sword and cut off her hand. The "troll" woman, thereupon, let the bundle fall, and fled with her friend.[22] That these two "troll" women were female Skroelings is taken for granted by M. Beauvois, and as no other race is mentioned as then inhabiting or visiting Greenland, it is difficult to avoid arriving at this conclusion. "These trolls," says Beauvois, referring to an incident of later date, "could be no other than Eskimos, travellers not haying reported any other natives of Greenland than the Kalalis, called Skroelings by some writers and 'trolls' by others." The special incident which called forth his remark occurred in the latter part of the fourteenth century. In, or about the year 1385, an Icelander named Bjoern Einarsson was wrecked along with his followers, on the Greenland coast. During his stay there, he happened to rescue two young trolls, a brother and a sister who had taken refuge on a reef which the flowing tide would soon have submerged. They swore allegiance to him, and from that moment he never lacked food, for, by their skill in hunting and fishing, they were able to procure him everything he required. The young girl esteemed it a great favor when her mistress, Solveig, allowed her to carry and caress her infant. She also wished to have a head-dress like the lady's and made one for herself from whale-gut. The brother and sister killed themselves by leaping into the sea from the crags in endeavoring to follow the ship of their dear master, Bjoern, who had not wished to carry them with him to Iceland."[23]

Contemporaneous with this episode is the visit of the Italian voyagers, Nicolo and Antonio Zeno to Greenland. Those whom the former saw in the northeast of Greenland are, as M. Beauvois says, obviously Eskimos, or Skroelings. Apparently, Zeno does not apply any special name to them, merely styling them "natives." But their skin canoes, as described by him,[24] are the Eskimo kayaks.

Those seen by his brother, at Cape Farewell, the "half-wild people, of small stature and very timorous, who took refuge in caverns at the sight of man," "correspond well with the Skroelings of the Sagas"—to quote again the words of M. Beauvois.[25]

Those Italian voyagers do not, of course, use the Norse word "troll," but the author from whom so many of these references are obtained gives us an instance of its application, in the same locality, so recently as the middle of the fifteenth century. The Danish Governor of Iceland, at that period, was one Bjoern Thorleifsson, and he and his wife were on one occasion wrecked on the coast of Greenland, being the sole survivors of the ship's company. "Two old trolls, a man and a woman," then arrived on the scene and befriended the castaways. These trolls carried large hampers on their shoulders, and the male troll, placing Thorleifsson in his basket, while the female carried the governor's lady in hers, the party made their way to the residence of the Danish Bishop at Gardhs, where the two refugees passed the winter.[26]

From these various references, therefore, we see that the Norsemen, during a period of several centuries, applied the three terms—"Lapp," "troll" and "pigmy"[27] to one people on the western shores of the Atlantic, and it is the contention of Professor Nilsson and others that they applied the same three terms to one people on the eastern side of the Atlantic. It is obvious that they regard the three words as synonymous, when used in America; and this being so, one can hardly avoid the inference that they had previously regarded them as synonyms when used in Scandinavia.

Of several customs uniting the Scandinavian Lapps to the so-called Lapps of North America, perhaps the most striking is the use of semi-subterranean and wholly underground dwellings. Of this, there is ample evidence on both sides.

Yet, in spite of many strong reasons for regarding the Lapps and Eskimos as the representatives of the legendary dwarfs or trolls, there are other considerations which would lead one to believe that they are so only in a modified degree. Both races have traditions of underground folk of still smaller stature with whom, in the case of the Lapps, at any rate, their forefathers intermarried. This tradition quite accords with the statements referred to by Paulus Jovius, a writer of of the first half of the sixteenth century, who says that the territory lying between the Varanger Fiord, on the east, and Tromsö on the west (the territory known as Scrid-scrit, or Scric Finnia), was reported to be inhabited by veritable pigmies. "Several trustworthy witnesses have reported," he says, "that beyond the country of the Lapps in the twilight region between the Northwest and the North (of Scandinavia) pigmies are to be met with." He adds that their adults are scarcely taller than Italian boys of ten; and refers to the timorousness and general inferiority of the race. These[28] statements would not have much weight if they depended solely upon the assertions of Jovius, himself a very unreliable author. Jovius, however, is now only repeating here the accounts of earlier writers, but very similar evidence is given in the following century by the Dutch scholar, Vossius, who is cited in this connection by his contemporary. Professor Scheffer of Upsala—"It is almost peculiar to this people to be all of them of low stature," says the writer last named, speaking of the Lapps, "which is attested by the general suffrage of those writers who have described this country. Hence the learned Isaac Vossius observes that Pygmies are said to inhabit here."[29] These two scholars, therefore, Vossius and Scheffer, both residents of seventeenth-century Sweden, had no doubt as to the identity of the Northern Pygmies and the Lapps, or a race occupying the same territory that is now Lapland. But it is to be observed that Jovius and other early writers tend to corroborate the Lapp traditional belief, that they are partly descended from a race of smaller stature, now quite lost in the great Lapp population.[30]

This appears to me all the more probable because, while the Eskimoid tribes that stretch half way round the Arctic Circle declare themselves to be the kinsmen of those Skroelings, Lapps or Trolls whom the early Norsemen encountered in America, yet there is another race[31] which, in several respects, answers more fully to the trolls of tradition. As one goes westward from Alaska into Asia, via Kamchatka and the Kurile Islands, the Eskimo type becomes gradually blended with the Ai'no. The Eskimo "kayak" is found in the Kuriles, the sledges of the Ai'nos are drawn by teams of curly-haired "Eskimo" dogs, and there are other links of custom, and even of physique, uniting the Eskimo to the natives of the Kuriles, of Yesso and of Saghalien. Now, the people have scarcely yet relinquished the custom of living in half-underground houses, during winter,—a custom which was formerly more general.[32] And, in these islands, the people living in such habitations and in caves were, according to history and tradition, dwarfs. Chinese records of very early date speak of an island, understood to be Saghalien, in which there was a nation of dwarfs, living in grottoes, and having no covering but their own shaggy skins. Japanese and Ai'no tradition further states that those earth-dwelling dwarfs "were only about three or four feet in height," and that "their arms were very long in proportion to their bodies."[33]

As recently as 1613, an English traveller reports a remnant of the dwarfs then living in the north of Yesso;[34] and indeed the Ai'nos of to day are regarded by some as their modified descendants. Be this as it may, those dwarfs of northeastern Asia resemble the trolls of Scandinavian tradition more closely than do the Lapps and Eskimos, not because of their pit-dwellings and their cave-dwellings (for that does not distinguish them from the others) nor even because of their disproportionately long arms (for that, too, is a Lapp characteristic) but because of their shaggy skins. It is true that the male "Skroeling" who escaped from Karlsefne's party was described as "bearded"; but that only seems to denote that he was a man, as distinguished from the females. In this respect, therefore, the earth-dwelling dwarfs of Yesso more nearly represent the hairy trolls of Scandinavia than any modern race. But the Picts of British tradition, although extinct for many centuries (as a separate race) show us the European wing of the same army. For they are described as possessing all the desired qualities,—low stature, hirsute bodies, alleged "supernatural" qualities, and the residence in underground galleries and chambered mounds which is so characteristic of the traditional dwarfs. The Picts, therefore, in Europe, and the Ai'no or semi-Ai'no dwarfs of Asia seem to represent the ancient type which preceded the Lapps themselves.

These conclusions, too briefly stated to be as lucid as I could wish, are nearly or quite the same as those arrived at by Mr. Charles H. Chambers in 1864. Writing to the Anthropological Review in that year, Mr. Chambers says:—"I believe the race which inhabited the northern shores of Europe to have been akin to the Lapps, Finns and Esquimaux and the Pickts or Pechts of Scotland, and to have given rise to many of the dwarf, troll and fairy stories extant among the Sagas and elsewhere."

In this paper I have adhered to Sir Walter Scott's acceptation of the trolls as "the genuine northern dwarfs"; a definition endorsed by many others. But various other meanings are attached to the word. Some of these, such as "magician," "serf," and "wicked person,"—do not in any way contradict the assumption that the trolls were dwarfs. But there is one interpretation sometimes given to the word that, at first sight, seems quite inconsistent with this belief. This is the term "giant." Nevertheless, there is much evidence tending to show that the "giants" of many popular tales were merely savages,—of no greater height than their foes. Indeed, there are instances where "giant" and "dwarf" are applied to the same people. It thus appears that the word "giant" was often employed without conveying the meaning of unusual height; and even with an opposite signification. In short, just as one may speak of "a little wonder," without denoting anything of great size, so a "giant" of tradition was obviously in some cases not gigantic (paradoxical though that sounds[35]) . When the Norsemen applied the name "troll" to these North American natives whom they also called "Lapps" and "puny people" or pigmies" (Skroelings), it is evident that they did not understand the word "troll" to imply a person of even so great stature as their own. Mr. Benjamin Thorpe has also recognized this apparently contradictory state of things when he identifies the jotuns with the fates, who, he says, were not Danes, but seem to have been "a still earlier (Finnish) race, out of whom the Gothic conquerors made their trolls and giants."[36]

With this last reference I must bring these remarks to a conclusion. I have purposely ignored many considerations which naturally present themselves to one; but my object has been, not to deal with the magical and unreal qualities often attributed to the trolls, but to demonstrate that the people so designated by the Norsemen were actual flesh-and-blood. Nobody who reads the references to the "trolls" on the western side of the Atlantic can assert that those were anything but real people, and it can hardly be assumed that the word "troll," when used by the same Norsemen on the eastern side of the Atlantic, a month sooner or a month later, bore a perfectly different meaning.

  1. 1.0 1.1 The Primitive Inhabitants of Scandinavia, by Sven Nilsson, 3d edit., London, 1868, p. 239. Note. In Larsen's Dansk-Norsk Engelsk Ordbog, troll is a "thrall," "serf," etc., trœlle-flok is a "crowd of slaves;" and trœllo-hœr is an "army of serfs."
  2. Op. cit., p. 221.
  3. Viking Age, Vol. 1. p. 51.
  4. Ibid.
  5. This word may be translated "Turks" or "Saracens" or "Indians."
  6. Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft; Letter IV.
  7. Primitive Culture. Vol. i. p. 385.—3d edition.
  8. Op. cit., p. 207. et seq.
  9. Note by Sir John Lubbock, p. 264 of Prof. Nilsson's Book.
  10. Op. cit., p. 810.
  11. Op. cit., pp. 212-3.
  12. Grimm refers to him as "Alpris," more correctly Alfrikr," and again as Alfrigg, Elperich, Alerich, Alberon, Auberon, and Oberon (these three last being derived through the French, in the 13th century). However, as the name seems only to signify Elf King, it may have been applied to various dwarfs.
  13. Sir Arthur de Chapell Brooke, A Winter in Lapland, London, 1827, p.318.
  14. See a paper read by Dr. J. G. Garson at a meeting of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, June 9th, 1885.
  15. London; Sampson Low. 1884.
  16. Antiq. Amer., p. 45, n.
  17. Antiq. Amer, p. 149, n.
    Dr. A. S. Packard ("The Labrador Coast." New York, N. D. C. Hodges, 1891, chap, xiii.) gives many interesting references which show that the Eskimos were still pretty numerous in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the eighteenth century. At that time they frequently visited Newfoundland, spending the summer months there, and in 1771 one of them was seen in his "kayak" hunting the great auk, off the east coast of Newfoundland, south of the 5th parallel. Assuming that they had retreated from more southern regions at a similar rate, it is easy to accept the first quarter of the 15th century, (the date given by M. Beauvois, Les Skroelings, p. 48), as the period when they were finally expelled by the Algonquins from Maine and the adjoining territories.)
  18. Les Skroelings. par E. Beauvois (extracted from the Revue Orientale et Americaine. Paris, 1879, p. 45.
  19. Antiq. Amer., p. 196.
  20. Paris. 1879; extracts from the Revue Orientale et Americaine.
  21. Quoted by M. Beauvois (op., cit. p. 39) from the Islendingalok. 5.
  22. Quoted by M. Beauvois (op. cit. p. 30) from Greenlands Historske. Mindesmaerker, Copenhagen, 1838-1845. Vol. iii. p. 108. See, also, pp. 93-98 of Thorgils' Historie (the Floamanna Saga), Copenhagen, 1809,
  23. Les Skroelings, p. 41; quoted from Groenl. Hist. Mind, vol. iii. pp. 436-439.
  24. See pp. 43–44 of Les Skroelings.
  25. Op. cit., p. 45.
  26. Les Skroelings, p. 42 (quoted from Groenl. Hist Mind, vol. iii. p. 469).
  27. "Pygmei onlgo Screlinger dicti." (Claus Magnus.)
  28. Jovius is quoted by Dr. Edward Tyson, in his "Essay Concerning the Pygmies of the Ancients," London, 1699, p. 361.
  29. The History of Lapland, by John Scheffer, Oxford, 1676, p. 12.
  30. Of a family of Lapps exhibited at a meeting of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland on June 9th, 1885, the men averaged 5 feet 1 1-2 inches, and the women 4 feet 11 1-8 inches. These were regarded as typical Lapps. But this stature is considerably above that of the Italian boy of ten years, the height of the ultra-Lapponian pygmies, according to Jovius.
  31. Professor Romyn Hitchcock, The Ancient Pit-Dwellers of Yezo and the Ai'nos of Yezo, Smithsonian Report of 1890, gives much information on the subject See also my monograph, "The Ai'nos (Supplement to Vol. IV. of Internationales Archiv fur Ethnographie, Leiden, 1893.)
  32. Professor Schlegel of Leiden has established the identity, Toung Poo, Leiden, May, 1893.
  33. See page 47 of my Ai'nos.
  34. "Purchas his Pilgrimes," London, 1625, p. 384.
  35. See Dr. J. G. Garson's remarks at meeting of Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, June 9th, 1885.
  36. Thorpe's Beowulf; London, 1875; Pp. 76— 77 and 320.