# The New International Encyclopædia/South Carolina

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SOUTH CAROLI′NA (popularly called the ‘Palmetto State’). A South Atlantic State of the United States. It lies between latitudes 32° 4′ and 35° 19′ N., and between longitudes 78° 28′ and 83° 18′ W., and is bounded on the north by North Carolina, on the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the southwest by Georgia. It is triangular in shape, with a base measuring 190 miles in a straight line fronting the ocean, and an apex 240 miles inland. Its area is 30,570 square miles, of which 30,170 square miles, or 19,308,800 acres, are land surface. It ranks thirty-sixth in size among the States.

Topography. South Carolina is divided about equally between the coastal and Piedmont plains, the line of division running nearly parallel with the coast and presenting an abrupt transition between the distinctive features of the two regions. The coast presents first a continuous firm, sandy beach from the northern boundary to Winyah Bay. South of that point it becomes more and more broken by inlets and estuaries, and is fringed with sandy islands (the Sea Islands), inclosing irregular lagoons lined with salt marshes. The coastal plain, extending 100 miles inland, is low, being everywhere less than 500 feet above the sea, and consists in general of a light sandy soil. Large areas are swampy, and pine forests predominate. Along its western margin runs a particularly sandy belt known as the Sand Hills or Pine Barrens, consisting of loose sand dunes partly covered with pine forests. To the west of this belt the land rises abruptly to the upland or Piedmont Plain, which rises gradually from an altitude of 500 feet at its eastern margin to 1000 feet in the extreme northwest. Here the Blue Ridge, whose crest forms the northwestern boundary, rises abruptly 2000 feet higher, Mount Pinnacle, the highest point in the State, being 3436 feet.

AREA AND POPULATION OF SOUTH CAROLINA BY COUNTIES.

 County Map Index. County Seat. Area in squaremiles. Population. 1890. 1900. Abbeville B 2 Abbeville 682 46,854 33,400 Aiken C 3 Aiken 1,096 31,822 39,032 Anderson B 2 Anderson 756 43,696 55,728 Bamberg C 3 Bamberg 363 ...... 17,296 Barnwell C 3 Barnwell 870 44,613 35,504 Beaufort D 4 Beaufort 943 34,119 35,495 Berkeley D 4 Monks Corner 1,316 55,428 30,454 Charleston E 4 Charleston 687 59,903 88,006 Cherokee C 2 Gaffney 361 ...... 21,359 Chester C 2 Chester 592 26,660 28,616 Chesterfield D 2 Chesterfield 823 18,468 20,401 Clarendon D 3 Manning 710 23,233 28,184 Colleton D 4 Walterboro 1,351 40,293 33,452 Darlington D 2 Darlington 649 29,134 32,388 Dorchester D 3 St. George 564 ...... 16,294 Edgefield D 2 Edgefield 715 49,259 25,478 Fairfield C 2 Winnsboro 776 28,599 29,425 Florence E 2 Florence 630 25,027 28,474 Georgetown E 3 Georgetown 827 20,857 22,846 Greenville B 2 Greenville 745 44,310 53,490 Greenwood B 2 Greenwood 495 ...... 28,343 Hampton C 4 Hampton 936 20,544 23,738 Horry E 3 Conway 1,075 19,256 23,364 Kershaw D 2 Camden 705 22,361 24,696 Lancaster D 2 Lancaster 501 20,761 24,311 Laurens B 2 Laurens 684 31,610 37,382 Lexington C 3 Lexington 885 22,181 27,264 Marion E 2 Marion 993 29,976 35,181 Marlboro E 2 Bennettsville 509 23,500 27,639 Newberry C 2 Newberry 594 26,434 30,182 Oconee A 2 Walhalla 641 18,687 23,634 Orangeburg D 3 Orangeburg 1,345 49,393 59,663 Pickens B 2 Pickens 531 16,389 19,375 Richland D 2 Columbia 605 36,881 45,589 Saluda C 3 Saluda 438 ...... 18,966 Spartanburg B 2 Spartanburg 762 55,385 65,560 Sumter D 3 Sumter 860 43,605 61,237 Union C 2 Union 495 25,363 25,501 Williamsburg E 3 Kingstree 991 27,777 31,685 York C 2 Yorkville 669 38,831 41,684

Note.—Lee County (D 2), with Bishopville as county seat, has been established, since the census was taken in 1900, from parts of Sumter, Darlington, and Kershaw counties.

Hydrography. Several large rivers traverse the State from northwest to southeast, all the larger ones rising in the mountains of North Carolina. They are the Great Pedee, which, with the Little Pedee and the Lynches, flows into Winyah Bay in the north; the Santee, formed by the Wateree and the Congaree, traversing the centre; and the Savannah, marking the entire boundary between South Carolina and Georgia. The rivers cross the upland or Piedmont Plain as rapid and turbid streams; they generally have falls or rapids as they descend from the hard upland rock over the ‘fall line’ into the alluvial coastal plain. In the latter they become clear and sluggish, frequently overflowing wide areas. The larger rivers are navigable for steamers to the ‘fall line,’ and at the line they furnish considerable water-power.

Climate. The climate is mild, resembling that of Southern Europe. It is especially healthful in the uplands and pine barrens, but unhealthful in the low swamp regions. The mean annual temperature for the State is 61°; the mean for January is 44.6°, and for July 79.5°. The maximum is about 106°, and a temperature of 1° was observed in the northwestern highlands in 1900. Snow in measurable amounts generally does not fall on more than two or three days in a year, except in the mountains, where there is a considerable snowfall. The average annual rainfall is 47 inches, fairly evenly distributed both as to localities and seasons, though there is a maximum in summer and a minimum in autumn. Hurricanes visit the coast occasionally, and sometimes do considerable damage. In 1886 the State suffered from a severe earthquake which caused great destruction at Charleston.

Flora. The coast islands present a distinct semi-tropical aspect, the palmetto, live oak, and magnolia being here the characteristic plants. In the coastal plain the long-leaf pine is the predominating species in the great forests, covering the sandy regions, while the cypress grows in the swamp lands. In the upper pine belt, except in the sand hills, oaks and hickories begin to appear, and these, together with elms, maples, chestnuts, and other deciduous trees common to the Northern States, predominate in the upland. The persimmon, locust, and plane tree grow in this State. Wild grapes are abundant, as well as strawberries and fruit shrubs and trees common to the Eastern States.

For Fauna, see paragraph under United States.

Geology and Mining. South Carolina is nearly equally divided between the most ancient and the most recent of geological systems, the division corresponding to the topographical division into the Piedmont and coastal plains. The western half or Piedmont Plain belongs to the great Archæan belt, which flanks the eastern slope of the Appalachians. Granite predominates here, with gneiss and mica-slate in the higher regions. The eastern half belongs to the coastal plain formation, consisting of unindurated Tertiary and recent sands and clays. The granite industry is the most important of the mining industries, the output having increased rapidly from $37,820 in 1897 to$996,084 in 1901, the production in the latter year having been exceeded in only four States. Limestones are also quarried, but the mineral next in importance is rock phosphate, used as an artificial fertilizer, in the production of which the State ranked first until 1894, when larger beds were exploited in Florida. The product in 1893 was 502,564 long tons, valued at $2,157,014; in 1901 it had decreased to 321,181 tons, with a value of$961,840. Clay products rank next in value. Gold and silver are mined in small quantities, and the iron ores, though existing in considerable quantities, are but little worked.

Fisheries. In 1897 there were 2139 persons engaged in the fisheries, of whom 1865 were employed on inshore or boat fisheries. The figures for the yield for that year were $210,456. The most valuable species are oysters, whiting, shad, and sea-bass. Agriculture. In 1900, 72.4 per cent. of the land area was included in farms, and of this 41.3 per cent. (5,775,741 acres) was improved—a large increase over all earlier years. The average size of farms in 1900 (90 acres) was only one-sixth as large as the average size in 1850. In 1900, 36.7 per cent. of the farms were let for cash rent, and 24.3 per cent. share rent. Considerably over half of the farms are operated by negroes, and only 18.2 per cent. of these properties are owned by them. In probably no State is the cotton crop so predominant as in South Carolina. In area it annually exceeds every other crop and is several times as important as any other crop with respect to value. The acreage in 1900 was larger than for any other census year, as was also the number of bales produced (881,422), the crop being nearly three times as great as in 1850. Of the total area of cotton, 23,902 acres were in the sea-island variety. Corn, the second crop in importance, made large gains in the decade 1890-1900. During that period there was also a revival in wheat culture and a decrease in the cultivation of oats, but neither crop is of great importance. Rice is the only other cereal worthy of mention. It has been grown in South Carolina since 1700, and the State took first rank in its cultivation until 1861. The increasing destructiveness of the freshets since the deforestation of the mountain slopes has greatly hampered the growth of the industry. However, in the decade 1890-1900 it almost regained the ground which it had lost in the preceding ten years. The State is now exceeded by Louisiana alone in rice production. The acreage in hay increased 264.3 per cent. in the decade 1890-1900. Considerable attention is given to the raising of peas, and tobacco and sweet potatoes are products of some importance. The area devoted to tobacco in 1900 was 65 times as great as in 1890. The following table shows the acreage of the leading crops:  CROPS 1900 1890 Cotton 2,074,081 1,987,469 Corn 1,772,057 1,345,990 Oats 222,544 308,056 Wheat 174,245 115,510 Rice 77,657 42,238 Dry pease 143,070 .......... .mw-parser-output .nowrap,.mw-parser-output .nowrap a:before,.mw-parser-output .nowrap .selflink:before{white-space:nowrap}Hay and forage 106,124 29,132 Sweet potatoes 48,831 46,086 Tobacco 25,993 394 Stock-Raising. In 1890-1900 there was a large increase in the number of all kinds of domestic animals except sheep. There is a smaller number of all varieties of live stock (except mules) than in 1850—less than half as many cattle and less than one-fifth as many sheep. The following table shows the number of domestic animals on farms:  ANIMALS 1900 1890 Dairy cows 126,684 107,184 Other cattle 216,214 161,109 Horses 78,419 59,888 Mules and asses 117,616 86,306 Sheep 52,436 79,421 Swine 618,995 494,696 Manufactures. Prior to 1880 the manufacturing industry had been quite insignificant. Its growth has since been rapid. The total value of products increased 90.7 per cent, from 1880 to 1890, and 84 per cent. in the following decade, being estimated in 1900 at$58,748,731. The wage-earners engaged in manufactures in the latter year numbered 48,135 (3.6 per cent. of the total population), of whom 8,560 were children under 16 years of age. The State's abundant supply of raw materials, its excellent water-power, facilities for transportation, and low cost of living, are greatly to the advantage of the manufacturing industry. The recent development is confined largely to manufactures of cotton. Absolute increase in value of cotton products between 1890 and 1900 exceeded that in any other State, and gave South Carolina first rank among the Southern States and second in the Union. In 1900 the amount of cotton used by the local mills was considerably over half the total yield of the State. The manufacture of cottonseed oil and cake also made a marked gain in the decade 1890-1900. The State's supply of phosphate rock and cottonseed meal has given rise to the manufacture of fertilizers, and Charleston is the second largest manufacturing centre of this product in the country. Flour-milling scarcely meets the local demand.

The following table shows the figures for the leading industries:

INDUSTRIES  Year  Number of
establishments
Average
number
wage-earners
Value of products,
including custom
work and repairing

 ⁠Total for selected industries for State ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$
1900 1,640  39,066  $48,041,940 1890 1,169 15,565 21,927,098 Increase 1890 to 1900 ...... 471 23,501$26,114,842
Per cent. of increase ...... 40.3  151.0  119.1

 Per cent. of total of all industries in State ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$
1900 43.6  81.2   81.8
1890 49.1  68.4   68.7

 Cotton goods ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$
1900 80  30,201  29,723,919
1890 34  8,071  9,800,798
 Fertilizers ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$
1900 22  1,772  4,882,506
1890 20  1,102  4,417,658
 Flouring and grist mill products ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$
1900 556  281  2,347,790
1890 512  630  2,083,126
 Lumber and timber products ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$
1900 729  4,585  5,207,184
1890 352  2,590  2,146,750
 Lumber, planing mill products ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$
1900 53  490  1,016,328
1890 27  370  711,838
 Oil, cottonseed, and cake ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$
1900 50  734  3,103,425
1890 17  416  927,772
 Rice, cleaning and polishing ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$
1900 18  112  973,132
1890 143  315,056
 Turpentine and rosin ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$
1900 132  886  787,656
1890 201  2,243  1,524,100

Forests. It is estimated that the woodland covers 20,500 square miles, or 68 per cent. of the State's area. In the Piedmont region the hard woods predominate. South of this region lies an extensive belt of yellow pine. Cypress covers the low coast lands. Lumbering made little progress prior to the decade 1890-1900. The increase for that period is shown in the above table. The greater part of the timber cut is of the yellow-pine variety. The value of planing-mill products is increasing, but the manufacture of turpentine and rosin is decreasing in consequence of the exhaustion of the timber from which the product is obtained.

Transportation and Commerce. The coast waters and navigable rivers offer excellent advantages for water transportation. The Savannah River is navigable for 158 miles; the Santee, for its entire length; the Pedee, for 120 miles; the Congaree, nearly to the city of Columbia; and the Wateree, to Camden. Railroad mileage has increased from 973 miles in 1860 to 1427 in 1880, 2289 in 1890, and 2919 in 1900. The railroads are mostly owned or controlled by three huge systems—the Southern, the Seaboard Air Line, and the Atlantic Coast Line. A considerable foreign trade, principally exports, passes through the port of Charleston, which ranks tenth among the Atlantic coast ports.

Banks. The State Bank of South Carolina had an exceptionally successful career. It was established in 1812 to remedy the financial disturbances caused by the impending war with England. It was entirely under State control, and its president and directors were chosen by the Legislature. The capital was furnished by the State and the bank was the repository for all State funds. All State expenditures were paid through the medium of the bank. It was free to do a regular banking business, but its debts could not exceed twice the capital exclusive of deposits. Branch banks were established at Columbia, Camden, and Georgetown. The work of the bank is best illustrated by the official report of 1848, which showed that it had received and paid out State moneys to the amount of $28,000,000 without any loss. In 1852 its charter was renewed and it continued to do a most satisfactory business until 1870, when it was put in liquidation. The following table gives the State banking statistics as reported as to principal items in 1902:  Nationalbanks State and stock savings banks Number 18 46 Capital$2,048,000 $2,269,000 Surplus 691,000 451,000 Cash, etc. 510,000 708,000 Loans 8,346,000 9,400,000 Deposits 5,810,000 9,828,000 Government. The Constitution now in force was ratified in convention December 4, 1895. Voters must have resided in the State two years, in the county one year, in the polling precinct four months, and must have paid all taxes collectible during the previous year. A residence of only six months in the State, however, is required of ministers and of teachers in the public schools. Every elector must enroll once in ten years, but enrollment may be secured in any year for those not previously registered. It was required of those registering prior to January 1, 1898, that they should be able to read any section of the State Constitution or understand and explain it when read to them. Those applying for registration after that date must be able to read and write any section of the State Constitution or to show that they own and have paid all taxes collectible during the previous year on property in the State assessed at$300 or more. The capital is Columbia.

Legislature. There are 124 Representatives elected upon the basis of population from county districts every two years. Each county elects a Senator, who serves four years. Elections are held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November of even years. Revenue bills must originate in the Lower House. Sessions of the Legislature are held annually.

Executive. A Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary, Comptroller-General, Attorney-General, Treasurer, Adjutant and Inspector-General, and Superintendent of Education are elected for terms of two years each. The Lieutenant-Governor and president pro tem. of the Senate are in the line of succession to the Governorship in case of vacancy. The Governor is given the usual pardoning power and the authority to call extra sessions of the Legislature. The Governor's veto of a bill or of any item of an appropriation bill may be overridden by a two-thirds vote of each House. An act of the Legislature becomes a law if not returned within three days.

Judicial. The Supreme Court consists of the Chief Justice and three associate justices, who are all elected by the General Assembly for terms of eight years. The State is divided into judicial circuits and for each a judge is elected by the General Assembly to serve for four years. There are two circuit courts, namely, a Court of Common Pleas and a Court of General Session. There is a Court of Probate at Charleston.

Finances. The debt of South Carolina at the outbreak of the Civil War amounted to but $3,814,862 and the State was on a firm financial basis. In 1867 the debt had increased to about$5,500,000. This debt was increased until in 1870 it reached $6,314,000. At this time there were also outstanding against the State bonds to the amount of$20,827,608 and a railroad debt of $6,787,608. The financial condition of this period is also shown by the fact that in 1872-73 appropriations aggregating$2,418,872 had been made, while the receipts from all sources were but $1,719,728. An act authorizing an annual tax sufficiently large to pay the interest on the State debt failed to have the desired effect. In 1880, however, it was enacted that holders of consolidated bonds, stock, or interest-bearing coupons which were due and unpaid before July 1, 1878, might exchange them for new bonds with interest at 6 per cent. and in every respect equal to the value of the bonds, stock, or interest coupons surrendered. This proved to be an efficient remedy, and the credit of the State was restored. In 1880 the public debt was$7,175,454 and in 1902 it had been reduced to $6,514,674. In the latter year the total receipts were$3,976,659 and the expenditures $3,783,605, which, together with the money on hand at the beginning of the year, left a total cash balance of$430,797.

State Dispensary. The State abolished the old saloon system for the sale of liquors and substituted in its place a State dispensary system. At the dispensaries sealed packages of liquor containing not less than one-half pint are sold, but cannot be opened at the dispensary. Profits accruing are divided between the State, county, and municipality. In 1902 the dispensaries sold liquors (exclusive of fresh beer) to the amount of $2,406,213, and purchased liquors to the amount of$1,664,870. The total net earnings were $566,898. Of this amount$443,198 was divided equally between towns and counties, and $142,755 was paid into the school fund. Militia. In 1900 there were 236,767 men of milithi age. The militia in 1901 numbered 3029. Population. The population increased from 249,073 in 1790 to 502,741 in 1820; 668,507 in 1850; 703,708 in 1860; 705,606 in 1870; 995,577 in 1880; 1,151,149 in 1890; and 1,340,316 in 1900. In the last year the State ranked twenty-fourth in population. There were 44.4 persons to the square mile. Only one other State in the Union had a smaller foreign-born population, this element numbering only 5528 in 1900. South Carolina ranks fourth in negro population, it having been increased from 688,934 in 1890 to 782,321 in 1908. The number of towns exceeding 4000 inhabitants increased from 4 in 1890 to 16 in 1900, constituting in the latter year 11.7 per cent. of the total population. In 1900 the largest cities were as follows: Charleston, 55,807; Columbia, 21,108; Greenville, 11,860; and Spartanburg, 11,395. South Carolina sends 7 members to the National House of Representatives. Religion. The Methodist Church is the largest, followed closely by the Baptist. These two represent the bulk of the church membership of the State. Education. South Carolina has a negro population greatly in excess of the white, and has consequently had to deal with most serious problems in the matter of providing adequate educational facilities. The considerable success attained is shown by the decrease in illiteracy. In 1900, 35.9 per cent. of the total population above ten years of age could not read, as against 55.4 per cent, in 1880. The percentage of illiteracy among the native whites is only 13.6, as compared with 52.8 for the colored population; but the colored illiteracy has been reduced from 78.5 per cent. in 1880. The length of the school term is short, but is becoming longer. In 1901 the average term for the white schools was 21.17 weeks, for the negro schools 14.12 weeks. No compulsory attendance law has been passed. The State Governor appoints the State Board of Education. This board appoints the county boards, and the latter in turn appoint the trustees in the small districts. Educational progress is seriously handicapped by a lack of financial support and the resulting inadequacy of teachers' wages. In 1901 white teachers received an average annual wage of$188.91 and the negro teachers $80.30. The new Constitution increased the State school tax from two to three mills, and in the school year 1900-01 the receipts from this source amounted to$520,294. In 1900-01 the expenditure for white schools was $726,825 and for negro schools$211,287. Any school district may levy special taxes for schools, but only a small number have availed themselves of this privilege. In 1900 there were 281,891 pupils enrolled and 201,295 in average attendance. There were 2422 male and 3142 female teachers. Normal school education for females is provided by the State at the Winthrop Normal and Industrial College at Rock Hill. The State provides higher education for both sexes at the South Carolina College (q.v.), located at Columbia. There are also a number of small denominational and coeducational colleges. Of the nine colleges and seminaries for females Converse College, a non-sectarian institution at Spartanburg, is the largest. The State has an agricultural college at Clemson College, at which also courses in civil, electrical, mechanical, and textile engineering are given.

Charitable and Penal Institutions. The State hospital for the insane, the orphan asylum, the institution for the deaf and the blind, and the State penitentiary are at Columbia. The State maintains farms for convict labor.

History. In 1562 Jean Ribaut (q.v.), acting for Admiral Coligny, attempted to form a colony of French Huguenots at Port Royal. The colony, however, was abandoned the next year, and other attempts were made farther south. Charles I. granted in 1630 to Sir Robert Heath all the territory between 31° and 36° extending from sea to sea. No settlement was made, and in 1663 Charles II. granted the same to eight Lords Proprietors, favorites at Court. In 1665 the limits were extended to 29° and 36° 30′. Full proprietary rights were given, but the Proprietors were to legislate “by and with the advice, assent, and approbation of the freemen.” Permission to grant religious freedom was given, and subinfeudation was allowed. The terms to settlers were at first liberal, but in 1669 the attempt was made to put into effect the ‘Fundamental Constitution’ drawn by John Locke. (See North Carolina.) An expedition consisting of 200 persons under William Sayle settled upon the Ashley River in 1670. A ‘parliament’ consisting of the five deputies of the Proprietors and twenty members elected by the freeholders was established in 1671. In 1680 the settlement was removed to the present site of Charleston. Immigration was rapid, and by 1700 the colony contained 5500 inhabitant's.

The colony was turbulent from the beginning. It refused to adopt the Fundamental Constitutions, quarreled over the quit-rents, and in 1693 secured the right of initiative in legislation. In May, 1704, the Proprietors ordered the enforcement of the Test Act requiring conformity to the Church of England, but an appeal to the Whig House of Lords led to the annulment of the Test Act in the colony in 1706, though the Church was still established. The colony was divided into North and South Carolina in 1710. The Yemassee Indians, instigated by the Spanish at Saint Augustine, attacked the settlements in 1715, and the Proprietors refused to grant aid. When appeal was made to the Crown it was shown that no aid could be given unless the government was vested in the King. Numerous other grievances led to the assembling of a convention which assumed the powers of government, and James Moore (q.v.) was chosen to act as Governor until the King's pleasure was known. The Royal Governor, Sir Francis Nicholson, arrived in 1721 and in 1729 the Crown purchased the proprietary rights. From this time the assembly never relinquished a single right it gained, and before the Revolution claimed all the rights and privileges of the British Parliament. The first printing press was set up in 1730, and the South Carolina Gazette was established two years later. The colony joined Oglethorpe's unsuccessful expedition against the Spaniards in 1740, and was occupied with Indian troubles in 1755, 1760, and 1765. The Cherokees ceded their lands in 1755, and the Scotch-Irish began to fill them up. The colony was prompt in its resistance to the Stamp Act, and troops were quartered in Charleston. It agreed to the non-importation agreement in 1769-70, and sent money and supplies to Boston in 1774. Delegates were sent to the Continental Congress in 1774 and the Provincial Congress met January 11, 1775. At the second session in June, 1775, troops were voted, and Lord William Campbell tried in vain to restore royal authority. In March, 1776, sovereignty was claimed and a government was established. Fort Moultrie (q.v.) was unsuccessfully attacked by the British June 28th. Several battles (among them Camden, King's Mountain, Cowpens, and Eutaw Springs) were fought during the Revolution within the State. Famous leaders of irregular bands of patriots were Sumter and Marion. Charleston was captured by the British in 1780, and held until 1782. The State adopted the Federal Constitution May 23, 1788, Columbia was made the capital in 1790, and a new constitution was adopted which gave the Legislature practically all power. The differences between the sections began to be apparent. The eastern part of the State had the wealth and was strongly Federalist. The western part had the population and was strongly Anti-Federalist. In 1808 a compromise was effected which lasted until 1868. By its terms the Lower House of the Legislature was to consist of 124 members, 62 to represent population and 62 wealth. Each district was given as many Representatives as it had sixty-seconds of population and wealth. With the adoption of this compromise State politics practically ceased.

The State early became dissatisfied with the tariff policy of the general Government, and as early as 1828 the ‘South Carolina Exposition’ was adopted by the Legislature. On the passage of the Clay Tariff Bill in 1832, a convention was called which declared, November 24th, that no duties should be collected after February 1, 1833. President Jackson was resolved to enforce the law, but an actual conflict was averted by a compromise. (See Calhoun, John C.; Nullification.) On the election of President Lincoln in 1860, a convention was called on December 20th, which unanimously passed an ordinance of secession. The attack on Fort Sumter in April, 1861, precipitated the Civil War. (See Civil War.) The State furnished 60,000 soldiers to the Confederate armies, though her voting population was only about 47,000. Charleston withstood the Federal attacks until February, 1865, when the Confederates were finally compelled to evacuate it. South Carolina suffered from Sherman's march northward. A provisional Governor was appointed at the close of the war and a new constitution adopted. On the refusal of the State to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment, a military government was established. In 1868 another constitution allowing negro suffrage was adopted and the State was re-admitted June 25th. The next years were a carnival of official crime and corruption. Illiterate negroes and carpetbaggers filled the highest offices and the debt increased from $5,407,306 in 1868 to$20,333,901 in 1873. The campaign of 1876 was of unexampled bitterness. Intimidation and bloodshed were called into play. Both sides claimed the victory, and there were for a time rival State governments. When President Hayes withdrew the Federal troops from the State the Republican claimant, Governor Chamberlain, gave up the contest and Wade Hampton (q.v.) was recognized as Governor. Several of the State officers were tried on charges of malfeasance and sentenced to varying terms of imprisonment. Since this time, by various methods, the negro majority in the State has been kept powerless in all elections. A severe earthquake, of which Charleston seemed to be the centre, destroyed property valued at \$5,000,000, August 31, 1886. In 1893 a great storm on the coast caused the loss of more than 1000 lives. The growth and development of the Farmers' Alliance led to the capture of the Democratic Party in 1890, when B. R. Tillman was elected Governor after a campaign of bitterness second only to that of 1876. In 1901-02 the South Carolina Interstate and West Indian Exposition was held at Charleston. In national elections the State has been always Democratic, except in 1792, when the Federalists secured the electors, and during the Reconstruction period, 1868-76, when the vote was given for the Republican candidates. See Electoral Commission.

Governors of South Carolina

 UNDER THE PROPRIETORS Sir John Yeamans, Lieutenant-General and Gov. 1665 William Sayle 1669-70 Joseph West (acting) 1670-72 Sir John Yeamans 1672-74 Joseph West 1674-82 Joseph Morton 1682-84 Richard Kyrle 1684 Robert Quarry (acting) 1684-85 Joseph West 1685 Joseph Morton 1685-86 James Colleton 1686-90 Seth Sothell (Southwell) 1690-91 Philip Ludwell 1691-93 Thomas Smith 1693-94 Joseph Blake (acting) 1694 John Archdale 1694-96 Joseph Blake 1696-1700 James Moore (acting) 1700-02 Sir Nathaniel Johnson 1702-08 Edward Tynte 1708-09 Robert Gibbes (acting) 1709-12 Edward Craven 1712-16 Robert Daniel (acting) 1716-17 Robert Johnson 1717-19 James Moore (chosen by convention) 1719-21 UNDER THE CROWN Sir Francis Nicholson 1721-25 Arthur Middleton (acting) 1725-30 Robert Johnson 1730-35 Thomas Broughton (Lieutenant-Governor) 1735-37 William Bull (acting and Lieutenant-Governor) 1737-43 James Glen 1743-56 William Henry Littleton 1756-60 William Bull, 2d, (Lieutenant-Governor) 1760-61 Thomas Boone 1761-64 William Bull, 2d, (Lieutenant-Governor) 1764-66 Lord Charles Greville Montagu 1766-68 William Bull, 2d, (Lieutenant-Governor) 1768 Lord Charles Greville Montagu 1768-69 William Bull, 2d, (Lieutenant-Governor) 1769-71 Lord Charles Greville Montagu 1771-73 William Bull, 2d, (Lieutenant-Governor) 1773-75 Lord William Campbell 1775 STATE John Rutledge President 1776-78 Rawlins Lowndes “ 1778-79 John Rutledge Governor 1779-83 John Mathews 1782-85 Benjamin Guerard 1783-87 William Moultrie 1785-89 Thomas Pinckney Democrat-Republican 1787-82 Charles Pinckney “⁠“ 1789-94 Arnoldus Vanderhorst 1792-96 William Moultrie 1794-98 Charles Pinckney Democrat-Republican 1796-90 Edward Rutledge Federalist 1798-1802 John Drayton Democrat-Republican 1800-02 James B. Richardson “⁠“ 1802-04 Paul Hamilton “⁠“ 1804-06 Charles Pinckney “⁠“ 1806-08 John Drayton “⁠“ 1808-10 Henry Middleton “⁠“ 1810-12 Joseph Alston “⁠“ 1812-14 David R. Williams “⁠“ 1814-16 Andrew Pickens “⁠“ 1816-18 John Geddes “⁠“ 1818-20 Thomas Bennett “⁠“ 1820-22 John L. Wilson “⁠“ 1822-24 Richard I. Manning “⁠“ 1824-26 John Taylor “⁠“ 1826-28 Stephen D. Miller Democrat 1828-30 James Hamilton “ 1830-32 Robert Y. Hayne “ 1832-34 George McDuffle “ 1834-36 Pierce M. Butler “ 1836-38 Patrick Noble “ 1838-40 B. K. Hennegan (acting) 1840 John P. Richardson Democrat 1840-42 James H. Hammond “ 1842-44 William Aiken “ 1844-46 David Johnson “ 1846-48 W. B. Seabrook “ 1848-50 John H. Means “ 1850-52 John L. Manning “ 1852-54 James H. Adams “ 1854-56 Robert F. W. Allston “ 1856-58 William H. Gist “ 1858-60 Francis W. Pickens “ 1860-62 M. L. Bonham “ 1862-64 A. G. Magrath “ 1864-65 Benjamin F. Perry Provisional 1865 James L. Orr Democrat 1865-68 Robert K. Scott Republican 1868-72 Franklin J. Moses, Jr. “ 1872-74 Daniel H. Chamberlain “ 1874-77 Wade Hampton Democrat 1877-79 W. D. Simpson (acting) “ 1879-80 T. D. Jeter (acting) “ 1880 Johnson Hagood “ 1880-82 Hugh S. Thompson “ 1882-86 John C. Sheppard (acting) 1886 John P. Richardson Democrat 1886-90 Benjamin R. Tillman “ 1890-94 John Gary Evans “ 1894-97 William H. Ellerbe “ 1897-99 M. B. McSweeney “ 1899-1903 Duncan C. Heyward “ 1903—

Bibliography. Hemphill, “Climate, Soil, and Agricultural Capabilities of South Carolina and Georgia,” in U. S. Department of Agriculture Special Report 47 (Washington, 1882); Hammond, South Carolina, Resources, Population, Institutions, and Industries (Charleston, 1883); Whitney, “Bibliography of the Colonial History of South Carolina,” in American Historical Association Annual Report for 1894 (Washington, 1895); Smith, South Carolina as a Royal Province (New York, 1903); McCrady, History of South Carolina Under Proprietary Government, 1670-1719 (New York, 1897); id., Under Royal Government, 1719-76 (ib., 1899); id., In the Revolution, 1775-80 (ib., 1901); Ramsay, History of South Carolina (2d ed., Newberry, S. C., 1858); Houston, Critical Study of Nullification in South Carolina (New York, 1896); Pike, The Prostrate State (ib., 1874).