An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language/A

An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language  (1911)  by Alexander MacBain


a, vocative particle, Ir. a, O. Ir. á,a; W., Corn., Br. a; Lat. o; Gr.

a, his, her, Ir., a, O. Ir. á, ái (accented), W. ei, Br. e, Celtic esjo, esjâs; Skr. gen. asyá, asyâs. The gen. pl. is an, their, O. Ir. a n-, Celtic esjon (Stokes gives esan=Skr. gem. gen. pl. âsâm).

a, who, that (rel. pron.). In G. this is merely the verbal particle do of past time, used also to explain the aspiration of the future rel. sentence. Oblique cases are done by an, am (for san, sam, O. Ir. san, sam), the neut. of art. used as rel. (cf. Eng. that). The rel. locative is sometimes done by the prep. an, am: "An coire am bi na caoraich" (1776 Collection, p. 112).

a, out of, ex: see as.

a, from, in the adverbs a nall, a nìos, a nuas, a null; Ir., O. Ir. an-, as anuas, etc.; Celtic a(p)ona, a derivative from I. E. apo, whence Lat. ab, Gr. ἀπó; Ger. von, from, is the exact equivalent of the Celtic. The a before sìos and suas is due to analogy with a nìos, a nuas.

a, in to, as in a bhàn, a bhos, a nis, a stigh, a steach, is the prep. an, in, into, q.v.

a, as in a rìs, &c., and before verbs, is the prep. do, q.v.

a', the, at; see an, the, and ag, at.

ab, or ab ab, fie! The Ir. ab ab, M. Ir. abb is an interjection of defiance, obo, of wonder; cf. Lat. babæ, Gr. βαβαί. Hence doubtless M'A.'s abab, dirt.

aba, abbot, Ir. ab, O. Ir. abb, W. abad; from Lat. abbas, abbatis, whence also Eng. abbot. Hence abaid, abbey. M. Ir. apdaine, abbacy, in M. G. "abbey lands", whence placenames Appin, older Abbathania (1310), Abthein (1220), "abbey lands".

abadh, syllable, utterance; E. Ir. apad, proclamation: ad-ba-, Celtic ba, speak; Lat. fatur, fama, Eng. fame.

abaich, ripe, Ir. abaidh, M. Ir. abaid, E. Ir. apaig, *ad-bagi, O. Ir. apchugud, autumnatio; *ad-bog-, Celtic root bug, as in bog, q.v.; ad-bach, root of Eng. bake; Gr. φώγω. The W. addfed is from a root met.

abaideal, colic (M'A.):

abair, say, so Ir., O. Ir. epiur, Celtic ád-berô; Lat. re-fero; see root in beir.

abaisd, a brat, trifling, impudent person:

abalt, expert (M'A.); from Sc. apert? See aparr.

abar, confluence; only in Pictish place names: O.Gaelic (B.of Deer) abbor; W. aber, O.W. aper, Celtic ad-bero-, root ber; see beir. Modern Gaelic pronounces it obair (so in 17th cent.), which agrees with the O.W. oper; this suggests od-bero-, "out flow", as against the "to flow" of ad-bero-. The od is for ud, allied to Eng. out. Aporicum: *ati-boro-n (Holden).

abarach, bold; see abair above.

abardair, dictionary (Shaw); from abair, q.v.

abartach, talkative, bold; from abair q.v.

àbh, hand net; from Norse háfr, pock-net. Also tàbh, q.v. Spelt less correctly àmh and àbhadh.

abh, bark of dog; an onomatopaetic word.

abhainn, river, Ir. abhann (gen. abhann, now aibhne), O. Ir. abann, W. afon, Br. auon, Gallo-Brit. Abona; Lat. amnis (*ab-nis). Root abh; Sk. ambhas, water; Gr. ἀφρος (ὄμβρος, imber) (Zim. Neu., 270).

àbhacas, sport, irony; see the following word.

àbhachd, humour, sport, Ir. adhbhachd:

abhag, terrier, Ir. abhach; from abh, q.v. Cf. E. Ir. abacc, dwarf; W. afanc.

abhagas, rumour, false suspicion:

àbhaist, custom, Manx oaysh, Ir. abhest (O'R.), abaise (O'B.), ad+beus? M. Ir. ábaisi (pl.). See beus, custom. Ascoli compares the O. Ir. -abais of duabais, teter, and suabais, suavis. Meyer suggests from N. avist, abode : unlikely.

abhall, an orchard, apple-tree, M. Ir. aball, apple-tree. See ubhal.

abharr, silly jest (M'A.):

abharsair, Satan, Ir. aidhbherseóir, E. Ir. adbirseoir; from Lat. adversarius (Eng. adversary). Also aibhistear.

abhcaid, a jest; àbhachd.

abhlan, wafer, so Ir., O. Ir. obla, g. oblann; from Lat. oblationem, an oblation.

abhra, eyelid; see fabhra.

abhras, spinning, produce of distaff, Ir., M. Ir. abhras, O. Ir. abras, gestus, E. Ir. abras, handiwork, spinning, abairsech, needlewoman. Corm. (B) abras, who derives it from L. Lat. abra, ancilla.

abhsadh, the slackening of a sail, hoisting sail (N.H.); from Norse hálsa, clew up sail, from hâls, neck, allied to Lat. collum. Eng. hawser is also hence. Also allsadh.

abhsporag, a cow's stomach, tripe (H.S.D.), allsporag, cow's throttle (M'A.); borrowed evidently from a Scandinavian compound of háls, neck. Cf. abhsadh above.

ablach, a mangled carcase, Ir. ablach, carcase: *ád-bal-ac-, from root bal, bel, die, I. E. gel, whence Eng, quell. Irish has abailt, death, O. Ir. epeltu, atbail, perit, from the same root and prefix; the first of them appears in our Gaelic dictionaries through Shaw. From Gaelic comes Scotch ablach.

àbran, abran (M'A. and H.S.D.), an oar-patch on a boat's gunwale; see aparan.

Abraon, April, so Ir.; founded on Lat. Aprilis (Eng. April). The form is due to folk-etymology, which relates it to braon.

abstol, apostle, Ir. absdal, O. Ir. apstal, W. apostol; from Lat. apostolus, whence Eng. apostle.

acaid, a pain, stitch; *ád-conti-; see urchoid.

acain, sigh, complaint, E. Ir. accáine, W. achwyn; ád+caoin; see caoin, weep.

acair, anchor, Ir. ancaire, O. Ir. ingor; from N. akkeri: acairsaid, anchorage, from N. akkarsaeti, "anchor-seat". From Lat. ancora, whence Eng. anchor.

acair, acre, Ir. acra; from Eng. acre; Lat. ager.

acarach, gentle; Ir. acarach, obliging, convenient, which shades off into acartha, profit; W. achar, affectionate; ád-car-; see càr, friendly. M'A. has acarra, moderate in price, indulgence, which belongs to acartha.

acaran, lumber.

acartha, profit, so Ir.; see ocar, interest.

acastair, axle-tree; borrowed word from Sc. ax-tree of like meaning—Eng. axle, &c.

ach, but, Ir. achd, O. G. (B. of Deer) act, O. Ir. act, acht, *ekstos, possibly, from eks=ex; cf. Gr. ἐκτóς, without. For the change of vowel, cf. as, from eks. The Welsh for "but" is eithr, from ekster; Lat. exter-.

ach, interjection of objection and impatience; founded on above with leaning upon och, q.v.

achadh, a field, so Ir., O. G. achad, O. Ir. ached (locative?) campu lus (Adamnan), *acoto-; Lat. acies, acnua, field.

achain, prayer; dialect for achuinge, q.v.

acharradh, dwarf, sprite.

achd, statute, so Ir., M. Ir. acht; from Lat. actum, Eng. act.

achd, manner, condition, Ir., achd; same as above. There may be a native aktu- (*ag-tu, *pag-tu-?) underlying some meanings of the word, especially in Irish.

achdarr, achdartha, methodical, expert (H.S.D.):

achlaid, chase, pursuit, so Ir., M. Ir. acclaid, fishing, E. Ir. atclaid, fishes, hunts, pursues: ad-claidim; see claoidh.

achlais, arm-pit, Ir. ascall, M. Ir. ochsal, W. cesail. The divergence from regular philologic equivalence here proves borrowing - from the Lat. axilla; Norse öxl, Ger. achsel, Sc. oxter.

achlan, lamentation (M'L.); for och-lan? from och.

achmhasan, a rebuke, Ir. achmhusán, E. Ir. athchomsán; cf. aithis for root.

achuinge, supplication; also athchuinge, so Ir., E. Ir. athchuingid; ath+cuinge; O. Ir. cuintgim, peto, con-tek-; Eng. thig. See atach.

acras, hunger, Ir. ocrus, E. Ir. accorus, occorus: *ad-co-restu-, possibly the root pres of Lat. premo: *careo (F4. 422).

acuinn, acfhuinn, apparatus, accoutrements, Ir. acfuinn, E. Ir. accmaing, means, apparatus: ad-cumang, O. Ir. cumang, potentia; see further under cumhachd.

ad, hat, M. Ir. at, W. het; from Eng. hat, N. hattr.

ad-, adh-, inseparable prefix, in force and origin the same as Lat. ad. It is to be separated, though with difficulty, from the ad- arising from aith- or ath-, q.v.

adag, shock of corn, Ir. adag; cf. Sc. hat, hot, hut, "to put up grain in the field, a small stack built in the field"; M.E. hutte, heap.

adag, a haddock; from the English.

adamant, adamant, so Ir.; from the English.

adha, ae, liver, Ir. aeghe, g. ae, O. Ir. óa, ae, W. afu, Br. avu, root av. Cf. adha for ae, cadha for cae.

adhan, proverb (M'A.); rather aghan, root agh, Lat. ajo, adagio, adage; Skr. ah, say.

adhal, flesh hook (Sh.), so Ir., O. Ir. áel, tridens: *pavelo-, Lat. pavire? But cf. Eng. awl, M. E. and Ag. S. awel, awl, flesh-hook.

adhaltrach, adulterous, Ir. adhaltranach, E. Ir. adaltrach; from Lat. adulter, whence Eng. adulterous.

adharc, horn, so Ir., O. Ir. adarc: ad-arc; root arq, defend, as in teasairg, q.v.; Lat. arceo, &c.
adharcan, lapwing, "horned bird"; from adharc; Dial. dhaoireagan. Ir. adaircín (P.O'C).

adhart, pillow, so Ir., E. Ir. adart: ad-art; art, stone? See airtein.

adhart, aghart, "progress" (Dict.). This is a ghost-word, made from the adverbial phrase air adhart, which in M. Ir. is araird, forward, bring forward; in O. Ir. arairt, prorsum. Hence it is air+àrd, q.v.

adhastar, halter, Manx eistyr, Ir. aghastor, M. Ir. adastar; cf. W. eddestl, steed.

adhbhal, vast, awful, so Ir., O. Ir. adbul: *ad-bol-; I. E. root bhel, swell, as in Eng. bloom, etc. Zimmer compares it with Skr. bala, strength. Stokes and Osthoff give root bel, bol, strong, big, Skr. balam, strength, Gr. βέλτερος, better, Lat. de-bilis, weak, Ch.Sl. bolijí, greater; whence bailceach (Osthoff) and bail, buil.

adhlac, burial, Ir. adhlacadh, O. Ir. adnacul, sepulcrum: ad-nank-otlo (*ad-nagtlo-, Zim.): root verb nankô, I bring; Lat. nanciscor; further I. E. nenk, enk, as in thig, q.v.

adhna, an advocate (Macd.): H.S.D. cfs. Heb. adhon, sustentator.

ag, at, with inf. only; see aig.

ag, agadh, refusal, doubt; E. Ir. ac, refusal, O. Ir. acc, no! W. acom, to deny. It is onomatopoetic? See next.

agadh, hesitancy in speech, Br. hak,hakal; cf. Skr. ac, speak indistinctly. See foregoing word.

agair, plead, so Ir., O. Ir. acre (n.), from ad-gar-; root gar, cry; see goir.

agallamh, conversation, Ir. agallamh, O. Ir. acaldam, for ad-glád-, O. Ir. ad-gládur, I converse: for root, see glaodh.

agh, a hind, Ir. agh, O. Ir. ag, W. ewig (*agîko-), Celtic agos-; Skr. ajás, buck; Lit. ożýs, goat. Zend. azi, Arm. ezn (St.).

àgh, also àdh, happiness, luck, Manx aigh, Ir. ágh, M. Ir. ada, buada, late M. Ir. ád, luck, ádh=sonas (P.O'C); root āg-, bring; see next.

àghach, warlike, so Ir., E. Ir. ágach, ág, war, *āgu-; Skr. ājís, contest; Gr. ἀγώv, Eng. antagonist.

aghaib, essay (M'A); see oidheirp.

aghaidh, face, so Ir., O. Ir. aged, *agitâ; I. E. root ag, lead. It is usually referred to the root oq, Lat. oculus, etc., but the phonetics are unsatisfactory.

aghann, pan, so Ir., O. Ir., aigen, Celtic aginâ; Skr. aga, water jar; Gr. ἄγγος, a vessel.

agus, and so Ir., O. Ir. acus, ocus, B.of Deer acus, O.W. ac, Br. hag; allied is fagus, near, O. Ir. ocus, W. agos, Br. hogoz: *aggostu-, ad-gos-; root ges, gos, carry; Lat. gero, aggestu-s, mound (Zimmer). Stokes refers it to the root angh, choke, narrow; Celtic aggúst-, from pre-Celtic aghnústu- (Lat. angustus), with accent on syllable after the root—gn with the accent on the following vowel being supposed, as in Teutonic, to produce gg. The derivation from root onk, enk, as in thig, is not tenable in view of the Welsh.

ai, sheep, swan (Carm.):

aibheil, huge (M'E.). See adhbhal.

aibheis, sea, the deep; Ir. aibheis, sea, abyss; E. Ir. aibéis, sea. This Stokes refers to a Celtic abensi-s, abhent-ti-s; root abh, as in abhainn. But cf. O. Ir. abis, from Lat. abyssus: W. affwys, bottomless pit.

aibheis, boasting; aibhsich, esaggerate; Ir. aibhseach, boasting: from the foregoing? Another form of aibhsich is aillsich.

aibhist, an old ruin (Stew.):

aibhistear, the Devil; another form of abharsair, q.v.

aibhse, spectre, so Ir.: see taibhse.

aibidil, alphabet, Ir. aibghitir, O. Ir. abbgitir, from L. Lat. abgetorium, abecedarium, the a, b, c, d, or alphabet. A dialectic form, aibirsidh, comes from the old learning system, beginning "A per se", a by itself=a, Eng. apersie. Analogised to caibideal (Meyer).

aice, proximity, Ir. aice; see taic.

aice, a lobster's burrow, also faiche.

àicheadh, deny, Ir. aithcheo, contradicting, M. Ir. aithceód: *ati-ceud- (?), "go back on"; cf. O. Ir. atchuaid, exposui, which Stokes refers to the root of chaidh, went, q.v.

aicheamhail, reprisal; cf. Ir. athghabháil; ath+gabhail.

aicme, race, Ir., O. Ir., aicme, W. ach, pedigree, *akk-, from ak, edge; Lat. acies? Stokes cfs. Skr. anka, lap, but this would give G. àk- (ā) and a W. anc. Norse átt, family, Ger. acht, property.

aidheam, joyous carol:

aidich, confess, Ir. admhuighim, O. Ir. addaimim, W. addef: ad-dam-; root dam; Lat. domo, Eng. tame.

aifrionn, mass, so Ir., E. Ir. oifrend, W. offeren; from Lat. offerendum (Eng. offer).

aig, at, Ir. ag, O. Ir. oc; for root, see agus.

àigeach, young or entire horse; also òigeach=òg+each, q.v. M. Ir. óc-ech, young steed (Eriu2 11).

aigeann, the deep, Ir. àigeun, E. Ir. oician, W. eigion: from Lat. oceanus, Eng. ocean. There is also a by-form aigeal.

aigeannach, spirited, E. Ir. aignech; see aigneadh. Ir. aigeanta, meditative.

aighear, mirth, Manx aigher; *ati-gar-; see gàirdeachas for root. Yet Ir. aiereach, merry, aerial, from aier, air, from Lat. aer, makes the matter doubtful. Ir. aerach (Hyde), merry, airy. Evidently the G. is borrowed from the Lat.

aigilean, ear-ring, tassel; cf. Sc. aiglet, tagged point, jewel in one's cap; eglie, needlework, from Fr. aiguille, needle; Lat. acus.

aigne, the swift, anything quick (Carm.):

aigne, aigneadh, mind, so Ir., O. Ir., aicned: ád-gn-eto-, root gnā, know, Gr. γιγνώσκω, Eng. know. Stokes refers it to the root of aicme, as he gives it. Ascoli makes the root cen, as in cineal. The Gaelic g is against any root with c.

àil, will; better àill, q.v.

ail, aileadh, ailt, a mark, impression, Ir. oil, mark (O'R), M. and E. Ir. aile, fence, boundary (Meyer). A t stem: oiledaib, *al-et.

ail, rock, Ir. and O. Ir. ail, *alek-, allied to Ger. fels; see further under mac-talla.

ailbheag, ring; see failbhe.

ailbhinn, flint, precipice; from ail, rock.

àile, air, scent, E. Ir. aél, ahél; W. avel, C., Br., awel, wind; Gr. ἀέλλα (St. Lec.), storm; *avel-, root ave, ve, wind; Lat. au-ra, Gr. ἀήρ, Eng. air.

aileag, hiccup, Ir. fail; cf. Lat. hālo, breathe, Eng. in-hale.

àilean, a green: *ag-li-? Cf. Lat. ager.

àilear, porch:

ailis, blemish, reproach, O. Ir. ail, disgrace, Got. agls?

ailis, mimicing (Wh.); bad atharrais, aith-lis, (M'A.) aithris.

àill, desire, so Ir., O. Ir. áil, W. ewyll, Br. ioul, Celtic avillo-; root av, desire, Lat. aveo, Eng. avidity. áil, pleasant, *pagli, Eng. fair (St. Bez.20 24).

àille, beauty, E. Ir. álde, for álnde; see álainn.

àilleas, àilgheas, will, desire; Ir. áilgheas, E. Ir. ailges, áilgidim, I desire; from áil and geas, request, q.v.

ailleagan, root of the ear, hole of the ear; also faillean, q.v.

àilleagan, darling, so Ir.; from àille, q.v.

aillean, elecampane: cf. Gr. ἑλενίον, Lat. inula. M. Ir. eillinn (Rev.Celt.9 231). inula quam alain rustici vocant (Isidor).

ailleant, shy, delicate; M. Ir. ail (O'Cl.), shamefaced.

ailleort, high-rocked; from aill, rock; see mac-talla.

aillse, diminutive creature, fairy, Ir. aillse;

aillse, cancer, Ir. aillis, O. Ir. ailsin, cancerem:

aillseag, caterpillar; from above.

ailm, the letter A, elm; Ir. ailm, palm (fir?) tree, letter A; borrowed from Lat. ulmus, Norse álmr, Eng. elm.

ailt, stately, high; Ir. ailt, Lat. altus, àilt (H.S.D.).

aim-, aimh-, privative prefix; see am-, amh-. See its use in aimhleas (=am-leas), hurt, aimhrea, aimhreidh, confusion (=am-réidh), aimbeart, distress, etc. (=am-bert). The vowel in the root is "small", and hence affects the a of am.

aimheal, grief, Ir. aithmhéal, repentance; aith+méala, grief, E. Ir. méla, sorrow, reproach; *meblo-, a shorter form of O. Ir. mebul, dedecus; Gr. μέμφομαι

aimhfheoil, ainfheoil, proud flesh; from aimh- and feòil, q.v.

aimlisg, confusion, mischief:

aimrid, barren, so Ir., M. Ir. immrit, barren, E. Ir. amrit; am-ber-ent-, "non-producing"; root ber of beir?

aimsichte, bold (Arms.); am-meas-ichte, "un-mannerly"? See meas.

aimsir, time, so Ir.; O. Ir. amser, W. amser, Br. amzer, possibly a Celtic ammesserâ; either a compound of am, time (ammensîrâ, from sír, long?), or amb-mensura, root mens, measure, Lat. mensus, Eng. measure. Ascoli and Stokes give the Celtic as ád-messera, from ad-mensura.

aimsith, missing of aim, mischance: am-mis-ith, Gaelic root mis of eirmis, q.v.

àin, heat (Dict.), light (H. M'Lean), O. Ir. áne, fulgor, from án, splendidus, latter a Celtic āno-s; Got. fôn, fire (from pân); Pruss. panno. Stokes suggests rather *agno-s, allied to Lat. ignis, Skr. agní, fire.

ain-, privative prefix; see an-.

ainbhtheach, stormy, M. Ir. ainbthech, *an-feth-ech, Gaelic root feth, breeze, from vet, Eng. weather, Lat. ventus, etc. See anfadh.

ainbi, ainbith, odd, unusual: an-bith, "un-world-like". See bith.

aincheas, doubt, M. Ir. ainches, E. Ir. ances, dubium.

ainchis, a curse, rage, Ir. aingeis, E. Ir. aingcess, ánces, curse, anguish; an+geas, q.v., or Lat. angustia?

aineamh, flaw, so Ir., E. Ir. anim, W. anaf, blemish, O. Br. anamon, mendæ; Gr. ὄvοναι, blame

àinean, a liver, liver of fish (N.H.); see adha.

àineartaich, yawning (aineartaich, M'A.); see àinich below.

aineas, passion, fury; an-theas, from teas, heat.

aingeal, angel, so Ir., O. Ir. angel, W. angel, Br. ael; from Lat. angelus, whence also the Eng.

aingeal, light, fire, Manx ainle, Ir. aingeal (Lh., O'B.), M. Ir. aingel, sparkling: *pangelos, Ger. funke, M.E. funke; further ong, fire, hearth; LIt anglis, coal, Skr. añgâra, glowing coal; I. E. ongli, ongôl; allied is I. E. ognis, fire, Lat. ignis. See Fick4 14. Skeat derives Sc. ingle from the Gaelic. Also ainneal, a common fire.

aingealachd, numbness: ang-eal-ach-, root ang, choke (Lat. ango)?

aingealtas, perversity, malignity; from the following.

aingidh, wicked, Ir. aingidhe, malicious, O. Ir. andgid, angid, nequam, wicked, andach, sin; *an-dg-id, root deg of deagh, good, q.v.

àinich, panting, also aonach; root ān-, long form of an, breath (see anail); Skr. ânana, mouth ("breather").

ainid, vexing.

ainis, anise; from the English. M. Ir. in ainis, gloss on "anisum cyminum dulce".

ainm, name, Ir. and O. Ir. ainm, pl. anmann, B. of Deer anim, W. enw, Br. hanv, *anmen-; Gr. ὄνομα; Pruss. emmens, Ch. Sl. imę; root ono, allied to in Lat. nomen, Eng. name.

ainmhide, a rash fool; see òinid.

ainmhidh, beast, brute, Ir. ainmhidhe, M. Ir. ainmide, *anem-itio-s, *anem-, life, soul; Lat. animal, etc. Ir. is also ainmhinte, "animans".

ainmig, rare; an-minig, q.v.

ainneamh, rare; see annamh.

ainneart, force; ain-, excess (see an-), and neart.

ainnighte, tame, from ainneadh, patience (Sh.); possibly from an-dam, root dam, tame.

ainnir, virgin, E. Ir. ander, W. anner, heifer, M. Br. annoer (do.), *anderâ; cf. Gr. ανθηρóς, blooming, ἀθάριοι, virgins (Hes.), *νθαρ-.

ainnis, ainniseach, needy: an+dìth, want?

ainstil, fury, over-fizzing: an+steall.

air, on, upon. This prep. represents three Irish ones:
(a) air=O. Ir. ar, air, ante, propter, W. ar, er, Br. er, Gaul are-, Celtic ari, arei, Gr. παρά, παραί, by, before; Lat. prae; Eng. fore, for. This prep. aspirates in Irish, and in Gaelic idioms it still does so, e.g. air chionn.
(b) air=O. Ir. for, "super", O. W. and O. Br. guor, Br. voar, oar, Gaul. ver-; Gr. ὑπέρ; Lat. s-uper; Eng. over. This prep. did not aspirate; it ended originally in r in Gaelic; as an inseperable prefix (vero-, viro- in Gaul.) it aspirated, as in the modern form of old names like Fergus, now Fearghuis or Fear'uis (gen. case).
(c) air=O. Ir. iar n-, after, pre-Celtic epron; Skr. aparám, afterwards, aparena, after; Got. afar, after, Eng. af-ter. Further come Gr. ὀπι-, behind, ἐπί-, to, Lat. ob-, op-. See iar. This is the prep. that is used with the inf. to represent a perfect or past participle in Gaelic—Tha mi air bualadh; "I have struck".

airbhinneach, honourable; air+beann?

airc, distress, so Ir., O. Ir. aircur, pressure; cf. Lat. parcus, sparing.

àirc, the Ark, Ir. airc; from Lat. arca.

airchios, pity, clemency (Hend.): see oircheas.

aircill, to watch, listen, Ir. aircill; see faircill.

aircleach, a cripple; *airc-lach, from airc, q.v.

àird, point (of the compass), Ir. áird, E. Ir. aird, Gr. ἄρδις, a point. Hence Sc. airt.

àird, preparation, activity.

àirde, height, Ir. áirde, E. Ir. arde; see árd.

àirdeil, ingenious:

aire, heed, Ir., O. Ir. aire, Old. Brit. Areanos, native watchers who gave intimation to the Romans (Ammianus), pre-Celtic parjâ, par, seek; Gr. πεîρα, trial; Lat. ex-perior, Eng. experiment.

àireach, keeper of cattle. There is confusion in Gaelic between àireach and O. Ir. aire(ch), lord; the bó-aire, cow-lord, was the free tenant of ancient Ireland. For O. Ir. aire, see airidh. G. àireach owes its long vowel to a confusion with àraich, rear. See àiridh for root.

àireamh, number, so Ir., O. Ir. áram, W. eirif, *ad-rîm-, Celtic rîmâ, number; Ag. S. rîm, number, Eng. rhyme; Gr. ἀριθμóς, number.

airean, ploughman, herdsman; Ir. oireamh, g. oiramhan, ploughman, the mythic Eremon, Airem(on), *arjamon-, Skr. Arjaman, further Aryan(?); root ar, plough.

airfid, music, harmony; see oirfid.

airgiod, silver, so Ir., O. Ir. arget, W. ariant, Br. arc'hant, Gail. Argento-, Argento-coxus (a Caledonian prince): Lat. argentum; Gr. ἄργυρος. Eng. argent is from the Lat.

àiridh, better àirigh, hill pasture, sheiling (airghe, in Lh. for Gaelic); cf. E. Ir. airge, áirge, place where cows are, dairy, herd of cattle; E. Ir. airgech, herdswoman (of Brigit); Ir. airghe, pl. áiríghe (O'B.), a herd of cattle; airgheach, one who has many herds; *ar-egia; Lat. armentum? But see àraich, rear. Norse or Danish erg from Gaelic equals Norse setr (Ork. Sag.). This Norse form proves the identity of Gaelic with E. Ir. airge; airge=ar-agio, *agio, herd.

airidh, worthy, Ir. airigh (Ulster), airigh, nobleman (O'B.), O. Ir. aire(ch), primas, lord; Skr. árya, good, a lord; ârya, Aryan, âryaka, honourable man. *parei?

airilleach, a sleepy person; from †aireal, bed, M. Ir. aired (O'C.):

airleag, leng, Ir. airligim, O. Ir. airliciud, lending; from leig, let, which is allied to Eng. loan, Got. leihvan, Ger. leihen. See leig.

airleas, pledge, earnest, arles; from Sc. arles, older erles, which, through O. French, comes from Lat. *arrhula, dim. of arrha, pledge. Eng. earnest, whence W. ernes, is probably from the same origin. See eàrlas.

airleig, a strait:

airmis, hit; see eirmis.

àirne, a sloe, so Ir., M. Ir. arni, sloes, W. eirin, plums, Br. irinenn, sloe, Celtic arjanio- (Stokes); Skr. araṇi, tinder-stick "premna spinosa", araṇka, forest.

àirneach, murrain in cattle:

airneis, àirneis (M'L. & D.), furniture; Ir. áirneis, cattle, goods, etc., M. Ir. airnis, tools, furniture. The word can hardly be separated from the Romance arnese, accotrements, armour, whence Eng. harness, armour for man or horse. The word is originally of Brittonic origin (Br. harnez, armour), from *eisarno-, iron; see iarunn.

airtein, a pebble, so Ir., E. Ir. arteini (pl.), O. Ir. art; possibly Gaul. arto- (Arto-briga), Artemia, name of a rock.

airtneal, airsneal, weariness:

àis, milk (Carm.), M. Ir. as (O'Dav.).

àis, wisdom (Carm.), ais (O'Cl.) See cnoc (Carm.).

ais, back, backwards; so Ir., E. Ir. aiss, daraaiss, backwards; Gaelic air ais. The forms ais, rithisd (rìs), thairis, seem compounds from the root sta, sto, stand; cf. fois, bhos, ros; ais may be for ati-sta-, or ati-sti-. Ascoli refers ais to an unaccented form of éis, track, which is used after tar and di (di a éis, post eum; see déis) for "after, post", but not for "back", as is air ais, with verbs of rest or motion.

aisead, delivery (obstetrical), E. Ir. asait, vb. ad-saiter, is delivered; *ad-sizd-; Lat. sīdo, assīdere, a reduplication of the root sed, of suidhe, q.v. From ad-sem-t, root sem as in taom (Stokes).

aiseag, a ferry, Ir. aiseog (Fol.):

aiseal, axle; it seems borrowed from Eng. axle, Norse öxull, but the W. echel, Br. ahel, *aksila, makes its native origin possible, despite the absence of the word in Irish.

aiseal, jollity (Sh., Arms.); see aisteach.

aisean, rib, Ir., E. Ir. asna, W. eisen, asen, Cor. asen; cf. Lat. assula, splinter, asser, beam (Stokes). Formerly it was referred to the same origin as Lat. os, ossis, bone, Gr. ὀστέον, but the root vowel and meaning are both unfavourable to this etymology.

aisearan, weanling (Argyle); from ais?

aisg, a request (Sh.), E. Ir. ascid; *ad-skv-, root seq., as in sgeul, q.v.

aisgeir, a ridge of high mountains, Ir. eiscir, aisgeir (Lh. for latter); *ad-sker-(?), as in Eng. skerry, G. sgeir, q.v. Cf. W. esgair (Meyer).

aisig, restore, so Ir., E. Ir. assec; possibly=*as-ic, "out-bring", ic=enl; see thig, come.

aisir, aisridh, path; see astar.

aisith, strife; as-sìth, as-, privative, and sìth, q.v.

aisling, a vision, dream, so Ir., O. Ir. aislinge; possibly *ex-líng-ia, "a jump out of one-self, ec-stasy", the root being leng of leum, q.v. Nigra suggested the root sil, or sell of seall, see, q.v.; he divided the word as as-sil-inge, Stokes as ad-sell-angia (Beiträge, Vol. VIII)

aisneis, rehearsing, tattle, E. Ir. same, O. Ir. áisndís; aisnédim, I relate; (as-ind-fiad-im, O. Ir. in-fiadim, I relate); fiad=veid, know; see innis; root vet, Lat. veto (Stokes), but this does not account for í of O. Ir. aisndís.

aisteach, a diverting fellow, Ir. aisdeach, witty:

ait, glad, Ir., E. Ir. ait, O. Ir. ait, euge! adverbium optantis:

àite, a place, Ir., E. Ir. áit. Possibly Celtic pōd-ti, *panti? root pōd, ped, Lat. oppidum, Gr. πέδον, ground, Skr. padám, place; as in eadh, q.v. Stokes has referred áit to the root that appears in Ger. ort, place, Norse oddr, O. Eng. ord, point, Teutonic uzd-, I. E. uzdh-; but this in Gaelic would give ud or od.

àiteag, a shy girl, see faiteach.

aiteal, breeze, ray, small portion. In the sense of "ray", cf. Gr. ἀκτίς, ray; in the sense of "quantulum", it may be divided as ad-tel, O. Br. attal, an equivalent, root tel, weight, money; see tuarasdal. actualis?

aiteam, a people, a tribe (Arms.):

aiteamh, a thaw; *aith-tā-m, W. toddi, melt; Lat. tabes; Gr. τήκω, melt; Eng. thaw. The Ir. word is tionadh (O. Ir. tinaid, evanescit), Manx tennue, the root of which is ten, Lat. tener, Eng. thin.

aith-, "re-"; see ath-.

aitheamh, fathom, O.W. atem, filum; *(p)etemâ; Eng. fathom; I. E. pet, extend, Lat. pateo, etc.

aithinne, fire-brand, Ir., O. Ir. aithinne: *aith-tén-io-? Root of teine? The root and, kindle, as in O. Ir. andud, accendere, adandad, lighting up, is also possible, *aith-and-io- being the form in that case. amhailte (Glen-moriston).

aithis, a reproach, affront, so Ir., O. Ir. athiss; *ati-vid-tu-; Got. idveit, Eng. twit; root vid, wit, know.

aithlis, a disgrace; cf. leas in leas-mhac.

aithne, knowledge, so Ir., O. Ir., aithgne, W. adwaen: ati-gn-io- for Ir.; I. E. gen, gnā, gnō, to know; Lat. cognosco; Gr. γιγνώσκω; Eng. know.

àithne, command, Ir., O. Ir. aithne, depositum, command; immánim, delego, assign; W. adne, custody; the root seems to be ān or an, judging from verbal forms, though these scarcely agree with the noun forms. See tiomnadh further.

aithreach, repentant, so Ir., O. Ir. aithrech, Corn. edreck, repentance, Br. azrec (do.), *ati-(p)reko-, *ati-(p)rekiâ; root, prek, Lat. precor, Ger. fragen, ask, etc. Ascoli makes the root reg, come (see rach).

aithris, tell so Ir. *ati-ris, E. Ir. ris, a story, *rt-ti, rat, rēt, Ger. rede, speech, Got. rathjo, speak, Lat. ratio. Cf. O. Ir. airissim, from iss.

àitidh, damp:

aitionn, juniper, Ir. aiteann, O. Ir. aitenn, W. aith, eithin, Cor. eythinen, O. Br. ethin (gl. rusco), *akto-, I. E. root ak, sharp, Lat. acidus, Eng. acid, edge, Gr. ἄκρος, extreme, etc. The nearest words are Lit. ákstinas, sting, Ch. Sl. ostinu. Also aiteal. *at-tenn-, "sharp bush or tree"; from root at, sharp, E. Ir. aith, sharp, *atti-, atto-. For -tenn, see caorunn. Cf. Ir. teine, furze.

aitreabh, a building, Ir. aitreibh, E. Ir. aittreb, W. adref, homewards, Gaul. Atrebates; *ad-treb-, the Celtic root treb corresponding to Lat. tribus, Eng. thorpe.

àl, brood, Ir. ál, W. ael, al: *(p)aglo-; cf. Lat. propâgo, Eng. propogate. Hence àlaire, brood mare. Ger. adel, nobility.

àlach, a brood, set, bank of oars (M'E.):

àlach, nails: *āl-lach, āl-, from (p)agl-, Lat. pālus, stake; root pag, pāg, fasten, whence Gr. πήγνυμι, Lat. pango, fix, Eng. page.

alachag, alachuin, see ealachainn.

àlainn, beautiful, Ir. áluin, O. Ir. álaind; *ad-lainn; see loinn. Stokes prefers referring it to áil, pleasant, *pagli-, Eng. fair, root pag. But ra-laind, pleasant, *ad-pland (Holden).

all-, over; see thall.

allaban, wandering:

allail, noble, M. Ir. all, aill, *al-no-s, root al, as in Lat. altus.

alladh, fame (either good or bad), Ir. alladh, excellency, fame, E. Ir. allud; see above.

allaidh, fierce, wild, Ir. allta, O. Ir. allaid; possibly from all-, over, the idea being "foreign, barbarous, fierce;" cf. W. allaidd of like meanings, from W. all, other. See next.

allmharach, a foreigner, foreign, fierce; Ir. allmharach, foreigner, transmarine; E. Ir. allmarach. From all-, beyond, and muir, sea, "transmarine" (K.Meyer).

allsadh, a jerk, suspending, leaning to one side; see abhsadh.

allsmuain, a float, great buoy:

allsporag, cow's throttle (M'A.); see abhsporag.

allt, a stream, Ir. alt, height , (topographically) glen-side or cliff, O. Ir. alt, shore, cliff, O.W. allt, cliff, Cor. als, Br. aot, shore; all allied to Lat. altus. The Gaelic form and meaning are are possibly of Pictish origin.

all-tapadh, mishap, ill-luck (Wh.); mischance: from all- and tapadh.

alm, alum; from the English.

almsadh, charity (Hend.), M. Ir. almsain.

alp, also ealp (Wh.), ingraft, join closely together: alp in tinkers' Ir., a job of work, hill; ealp=Sc. imper, graft.

alt, joint, Ir., E. Ir. alt, *(p)alto-s; root pel, whence Eng. fold, Norse, faldr, Ger. falz, groove; Gr. -πλάσιος, doubled, for πλάτιος. "air alt"=in order that (Wh.).

altach, a grace (at food), Ir. altughadh, O. Ir. attlugud, rendering thanks, atluchur bude, I give thanks: *ad-tlukôr, root, tluq; Lit. tulkas, interpreter; Lat. loquor for tloquor.

altair, altar, Ir., O. Ir. altóir, W. allor, Cor. altor, Br. auter; from Lat. altare, altar, "high place".

altrum, fostering, Ir. altrom, O. Ir. altram, W. alltraw, sponsor; root al, nourish, whence Lat. alo, Got. alan, grow, Eng. old.

àm, time Ir. am, pl. amanna, E. Ir. am, *ammen-, from *at-s-men-, root at, Got. aþn, year; possibly Lat. annus (at-s-no-).

am-, privative prefix; this is the labialised form of an-, q.v.; and being labialised, it is also aspirated into amh-. The forms before "small" vowels in the subsequent syllable are aim-, aimh-.

amach, vulture, so Ir.:

amadan, fool, Ir. amadán: am+ment-, "non-minded", Celtic root ment (dearmad, farmad, etc.), mind; Lat. mens, menti-s, Eng. mind, etc. The shorter root men is found in meanmna.

amail, mischief; E. Ir. admillim, I destroy: ad+mill, q.v.

amail, hindrance: ad+mall; q.v. But Norse hamla, hinder.

amal, swingle-tree; *ad-mol; mol, a beam, especially "a mill shaft", E. Ir. mol. Cf. Norse hamla, oar-loop.

amar, channel, mill lead; E. Ir. ammor, ammbur, a trough, *amb-or-; Gaul. ambes, rivos, rivers, Ambris, river name; Lat. imber; Gr. ὄμβος, rain; Skr. ambu, water. Zimmer considers the Ir. borrowed from Ag. S. ámber, amphora, Ger. eimer; but the Gaelic meaning is distinctly against his theory. A borrowing from Lat. amphora is liable to the same objection.

amarlaich, blustering (M'A.):

amarlaid, blustering female; not amarlaich.

amart, need (Hend.). Hend. now questions it, aimbeairt.

amhailte, large ember of wood (Glen-moriston).

amas, hitting, O. Ir. ammus, an aim: *ad-mes-; see eirmis.

amasguidh, aimsgith, profane, impure: *ad-mesc-id-, "mixed"; see measg.

amh, raw, Ir. amh, E. Ir. om, W. of; root om, ōm, whence Gr. ὠμóς; Got. amsa; Skr. amsas.

amhach, neck: *om-âk-â; Lat. humerus, shoulder (*om-es-os); Gr. ὦμος; Got. amsa; Skr. amsas.

amhain, entanglement by the neck (M'A.); from above.

a mhàin, only, Ir. amháin, E. Ir. amáin; cf. O. Ir. nammá (W. namyn, but?)=nan-n-má "ut non sit major"(?). The main root is or , more, with the negative, but the exact explanation is not easy; "no more than"(?). amháin=a-(a[p]o)+màin, *mani; Gr. μάνος, spärlich, μονος (St. Z.).

amhainn, river; better abhainn, q.v.

amhaltach, vexing; see aimheil.

amhan, a marsh, or lòn (Glen-moriston).

amharc, looking, seeing; so Ir., M. Ir. amarc, amharc=a-(apo)+marc, Ger. merken, perhaps Lith. mérkti, wink, blink (St.). Roots marc, marg.

amhartan, luck, Ir. amhantur, abhantur, from Fr. aventure, Eng. adventure.

amharus, suspicion, so Ir., O. Ir. amairess, infidelitas, am+iress, the latter meaning "faith"; O. Ir. iress=air-ess, and *ess is from *sistâ, standing, root stâ, stand, reduplicated; cf. Lat. sisto, etc. The whole word, were it formed at once, would look like *am-(p)are-sistâ, or *am-are-sistâ.

amhas, amhusg, wild man, beast man; Ir. amhas, a wild man, madman; E. Ir. amos, amsach, a mercenary soldier, servant. Conchobar's amsaig, or mercenaries, in the E. Ir. saga of Deirdre, appear misunderstood as our amhusgan, monsters; there is probably a reminiscence of the Norse "bear-sarks". Borrowed from Gaul. Lat. ambactus (=servus, Festus), through *ambaxus; Cæsar says of the Gaulish princes: "Circum se ambactos clientesque habent". The roots are ambi- (see mu) and ag, go, lead (see aghaidh). Hence many words, as Eng. ambassador, Ger. amt, official position, etc. Ir. J., 154, 156, has amhas, in G. force.

àmhghar, affliction, Ir. amhgar; am- (not) +gar; cf. O. Ir. ingir, tristia, from gáire, risus. See gàir, laughter, for root. E. Ir. so-gar, do-gar, *χαρα (St.).

amhladh, distress, dismay (Hend.). See amhluadh.

amhlair, fool, boor, silly talker or behaver (Arg.); Ir. amhlóir, O. Ir. amlabar, mute; from am- (not) and labair, speak, q.v. Cf. suilbhir.

amhlaisg, bad beer, taplash:

amhluadh, confusion, distress:

amhra, wonderful; *am-porios (St.), ἄπειρος.

amhran, song, Ir. amhrán, abhrán, M. Ir. ambrán, Manx, arrane; see òran. Cf. Ir. amhra, eulogy, especially in verse; amhra, famous (Lec. 69).

amhsan (ansan), Dial osan, solan goose; from Lat. anser?

amhuil, like, as, Ir. amhluidh, O. Ir. amail, amal, O. W. amal, W. mal, Br. evel; from a Celtic samali-, which appears in samhail, q.v.

amhuilt, a trick, deceit (H.S.D., M'E. àmhuilt): Cf. aith-méla.

àmhuinn, oven, Ir. òigheann; borrowed from Eng. oven.

amlach, curled, amlag, a curl, M. Ir. amlach, from the prep. ambi-, as in mu, q.v.

amraidh, àmraidh (M'E.), cupboard, Ir. amri (O'B.), W. almari; all borrowed from Eng. (Gaelic from Sc. aumrie?) ambry and M.E. almarie, from O. Fr. almarie, from Lat. armarium, place of tools or arms, from arma.

an, a', the, Ir. an, O. Ir. in (mas. and fem.), a n- (neut.); a t- appears before vowels in the nom. masc. (an t-athair), and it is part of the article stem; a Celtic sendo-s (m.), sendâ (f.), san (n.). Sendo-s is composed of two pronominal roots, dividing into sen-do-; sen, judging by the neuter san, is a fixed neuter nom. or acc. from the Celtic root se (I. E. sjo, beside so-, allied to Ag. S. se, the, seó, now she. The -do- of sendo-s has been referred by Thurneysen and Brugmann to the pron. root to- (Eng. tha-t, Gr. τó); it is suggested that to- may have degenerated into do- before it was stuck to the fixed form sen. Sen-to- could not, on any principle otherwise, whether of accentuation or what not, produce the historical forms. It is best to revert to the older etymology, and refer do- to the pronominal root appearing in the Latin fixed cases (enclitic) -dam, -dem, (qui-dam, i-dem, etc.), the Gr. δέ, -δε (as in ὅ-δε, this), Ch. Sl. da, he. The difference, then, between Gr. ὅ-δε and Gaelic sen-do-s is this: the Gr. inflects the first element (=so) and keeps the δε fixed, whereas Gaelic reverses the matter by fixing the sen and inflecting the do-; otherwise the roots are the same ultimately, and used for almost similar purposes.

an, in, Ir. a n- (eclipsing), O. Ir. i, i n-, W. yn, Br. en; Lat. in; Gr. ἐν; Eng. in, etc. Generally it appears in the longer form ann, or even as ann an; see ann.

an, interrogative particle, Ir. an, O. Ir. in; Lat. an; Got. an.

an-, negative prefix, Ir. an-, O. Ir., an-, in-; W., Cor., Br. an-; Celtic an, I. E. ṇ-, Lat. in-, Gr. ἀ-, ἀν-, Eng. un-, Skr. a-, an-, etc. It appears before labials and liquids (save n) as am-, aspirated to amh-; with consequent "small" vowels, it becomes ain-, aim-, aimh-. Before g, it becomes ion-, as in iongantas. Before c, t, s, the an- becomes eu- and the t and c become medials (as in beud, breug, feusag). See also next word.

ana-, negative prefix, O. Ir. an-, sometimes aspirating; G. ana-creidimh, disbelief, O. Ir. ancretem, but ainfhior, untrue; M. Ir. ainfhír. This suggests a Celtic anas- for the first, and ana- for the second, extensions of the previous an-; cognate are Gr. ἂνις, ἂνευ, without; Ger. ohne, Got. inu, without.

ana-, an-, ain-, prefix of excess; Ir. an-, ain-, M. Ir. an-; Ir. aspirates where possible (not t, d, g), Gaelic does so rarely. Allied are Gr. ἀνά, up, Got. ana, Eng. on. Hence ana-barr, excess; ain-neart, violence; ain-teas, excessive heat, etc.

anabas, dregs, refuse, also green, unripe stuff cut; from an-abaich.

anabhiorach, centipede, whitlow:

anacail, defend, save; Ir. anacail, protection, E. Ir. anacul (do.). This Ascoli refers to the same origin as adnacul; see adhlac.

anacair, sickness, affliction, so Ir., an-shocair. Ir. Jl. 156. See acarach.

anadas, regret (M'D):

anagna, irregularity, unusualness (Hend.), ana+gnáth.

anail, breath, Ir. and O. Ir. anál, W. anadl, anal, Cor. anal, Br. alan, Celtic anatlâ; an, breathe, Got. anan, to breathe, Skr. anila, wind. See anam also.

anainn, eaves, top of house wall:

anam, soul, so Ir., O. Ir. anim (d. anmin), Cor. enef, M. Br. eneff, Br. ene, Celtic animon- (Stokes); Lat. animus, anima; Gr. ἄνεμος, wind.

anamaint, lust, perversity (Hend.), ana+mèin.

anart, linen, Ir., E. Ir. anairt, O. Ir. annart *an-arto-; root pan, pān; Lat. pannus, cloth; Gr. πηνóς, thread on the bobbin; Got. fana, cloth, Ag. S. fana, small flag, Eng. vane, fane.

ànart, pride:

anasta, stormy; *an-fadh-asta; see anfadh, storm.

ancachd, adversity (Hend.):

an dràsta, now; for an-trâth-sa, "the time here", q.v.

anfadh, storm; proper G. is onfhadh, q.v.

anfhann, weak, Ir. anbhfann, M. Ir. anbfann, anband; an+fann, "excessive faint". See fann.

anlamh, annlamh, misfortune; an- (not)+lamh; see ullamh for lamh.

ann, there, Ir., O. Ir. and, *anda (Stokes); Cyprian Gr ἄνδα (= αὕτη, this, she); Lit. àndai, newly, àns, anà, ille, illa; Ch. Sl. onŭ, that; Skr. ana, this (he).

ann, ann an, in, Ir. ann, E. Ir. ind, O. Ir. ind-ium (in me), Celtic endo (Stokes); Lat. endo, indu, into, in; Gr. ἔνδον, within, ἔνδοθεν; Eng. into. The roots are en (see an), in, and do (see do), to. In ann an, the two prepositions ann and an are used. The form anns is used before the article and relative; the -s properly belongs to the article; anns an, in the, is for ann san.

annaid, annoid, a church, M. Ir. annóit, O. Ir. andoóit, mother-church. Stokes refers it to L. Lat. antitas, for antiquitas, "ancient church". In Scottish place-names it appears as Annet, Clach na h-Annaid, etc. Cf. annone, church (O'Dav.), from Hebrew.

annaladh, era, calendar, Ir. analach, chronicle; from Lat. annalia.

annamh, rare, M. Ir. annam, E. Ir. andam; *an-dam-, "non-tame"; root dam, home, home, etc.; Eng. domestic, tame. Hence annas, rarity.

annlamh, vexation, etc.; see anlamh.

annlan, condiment, E. Ir. annland, W. enllyn; possibly an+leann.

annrach, ànrach, wanderer, stranger; either from *ann-reth-ach, root reth, run (see ruith, faondradh), or from *an-rath-ach, "unfortunate", root rath, luck, q.v.

annrath, distress, Ir. anrath; an+rath; see rath, luck. The E. Ir. andró appears to be of a different origin.

annsa, dearer, better liked, so Ir., M. Ir. andsa, preferable:

ao-, privative prefix; for eu-, this is for an- (not), before c and t. See an-

aobhach, joyous; see aoibhinn.

aobhar, cause, Ir. adhbhar, O. Ir. adbar, *ad-bero-n; root ber, I. E. bher, whence Lat. fero, Eng. bear, etc.

aobharrach, a young person or beast of good promise, hobble-dehoy; from aobhar, material.

aobrann, ankle, O. Ir. odbrann, W. uffarn: *od-bronn, *ud-brunn-, "out-bulge"; ud-=Eng. out, and brunn-, see brù, belly. Stokes (Academy, June, 1892) makes od- to be for pod, foot, Gr ποúς, ποδ-óς, Eng. foot, etc.

aodach, clothes, Ir. eudach, O. Ir. étach, *ant-ac-os; root pan, as in anart, q.v. Cf. Lit. pinti, plait, twine, Ch. Sl. pęti, wind, Lat pannus, etc. Strachan cfs. Alb. ent, int, weave, Gr. ἄττομαι, weave.

aodann, face, Ir. éadan, O. Ir. étan, Celtic antano- (Stokes); Lat. ante; Gr. ἀvτί, against; Eng. and; Skr. ánti, opposite.

aodraman, bladder, Ir. éadromán; see aotrom.

aog, death; see eug.

aogas, aogasg, face, appearance, M. Ir. écosg (O'Cl), O. Ir. écosc, habitus, expression, *in-cosc; see casg, check. Cf. O. Ir. in-cho-sig, significat.

aoghaire, shepherd, so Ir., M. Ir. aegaire, O. Ir. augaire, *ovi-gar-; for ovi-, sheep, see óisg. The -gar- is allied to Gr. ἀγείρω, ἀγορά, meeting place, market.

aoibh, civil look, cheerful face, Ir. aoibh, pleasant, humour, E. Ir. áeb, O. Ir. óiph, beauty, appearance, *aibâ (Thurneysen), mien, look, Prov. Fr. aib, good manners. Ascoli refers it to the root of éibheall (q.v.), a live coal, the underlying idea being "shining, sheen". This would agree as to the original force with taitinn, please, taitneach, pleasant.

aoibhinn, pleasant, joyful, so Ir., E. Ir. áibind, óibind. See above word for root.

aoideag, hair-lace, fillet, from root of aodach.

aoigh, guest, Ir. aoidhe, pl. aoidheadha, O. Ir. óegi, pl. óegid, *(p)oig-it; cf. the Teutonic *faig-iþ-, whence Norse feigr, doomed to die, Ag.S. fáege, doomed, Eng. fey (Schräder). Stokes gives the Celtic as (p)oik-it, poik, whence Eng. foe (cf. Lat. hostis, hospes); but the Gaelic gh of aoigh is against this otherwise satisfactory derivation. As against Schräder's etymology, might be put a reference to the form found in Gr. οἴχομαι, go, Lit. eigà, going, gurther root ei, go; the idea being "journey-taker". Commonly misspelt aoidh.

aoigh, pleasant countenance, Ir. aoibh.

aoine, fast, Di-haoine, Friday, Ir. aoine, Friday, O. Ir. oine, fast, Br. iun; from Lat. jejunium, a fast, fast-day, Eng. jejune. Stokes suggests Gr. πεινάω, hunger, as cognate, making it native: *poin-io-. Unlikely.

aoineadh, a steep brae with rocks, Manx eaynee, steep place:

aoir, a satire, Ir. aor, E. Ir. áer, O. Ir. áir. *aigrâ, ἀισχος, Got. aiviski: aigh (St.). Prellwitz gives Gr. and Got. and root. Ascoli refers this word and O. Ir. tatháir, reprehensio, to tàir, q.v.

aoir, sheet or bolt-rope of a sail:

aoirean, airean, ploughman, herdsman, Ir. oireamh, g. oireamhan, ploughman, the mythic Eremon, Airem(on), *arjamon-, Skr. Arjaman, further Aryan(?); root ar, plough.

aoirneagan. See aonagail.

aois, age, Ir. aois, O. Ir. áes, áis, óis, W. oes, *aivestu-; Lat. œvum, œtas, Eng. age; Gr. αἰές, αἰεί, always; Eng. aye. From *aie-tu, Lat. oitor, utor, δί-αιτα (Th. St. Arch. 276).

aol, lime, Ir. aol, O. Ir. áel: *aidlo-, from aidh, light, fire, Gr. αἰθω, gleam (St.). See Mackay.

aolach, dung, Ir. aoileach, O. Ir. ailedu, etercora, W. add-ail, eluvies. Ascoli compares O. Ir. áil, probrum, but this word is probably cognate with Got. agls, aglus, difficult, shameful, and may not be allied to aolach.

aolais, indolence:

aolmann, ointment: founded on the Eng. ointment. Cf. iarmailt, armailt.

aom, incline, Ir. aomadh, inclining, attracting:

aon, one, Ir. aon, O. Ir. óin, óen, W., Cor., Br. un; Lat. unus (=oinos); Got. ains, Eng. one.

aonach, moor, market place, Ir. aonach, fair, assembly, O. Ir. óinach, óenach, fair, *oin-acos, from aon, one, the idea being "uniting, re-union". Some have compared the Lat. agonium, fair, but it would scarcely suit the Gaelic phonetics.

aonach, panting; see àinich.

aonadh, ascent:

aonagail, aonairt, aoineagan, wallowing (H.S.D.); see uainneart; uan=foam.

aonais, want; see iùnais.

aorabh, bodily or mental constitution:

aoradh, worship, Ir. adhradh, O. Ir. adrad; from Lat. adoratio, Eng. adoration.

aotrom, light, Ir. éadtrom, O. Ir. étromm; *an+trom, "non-heavy". See trom.

ap, ape, Ir. ap, W. ab; from Eng. ape.

aparan, apron, gunwale patch (N.H.): from the Eng.

aparr, expert; from Sc. apert, from O.Fr. aparté, military skill, from Lat. aperio, open, Eng. aperient, expert, etc.

aparsaig, knapsack; from Eng. haversack.

ar, ar n-, our, so Ir. and O. Ir. *(s)aron; this form may have arisen from unaccented ṇs-aron (Jub.), like Got. uns-ar (us of Eng. and ar), Ger. unser, Eng. our (Thurneysen). Stokes refers it to a Celtic (n)ostron, allied to Lat. nostrum. See further at bhur.

ar, seems; ar leam, methinks, Ir. M. Ir. dar, E. Ir. indar, atar, with la, O. Ir. inda, ata, da; where ta, tar is the verb tha (thathar), is, with prep. or rel. in before it. Tha leam-sa (Mrs Grant). See na, than.

àr, plough, E. Ir. ar, W. ar, ploughed land; Lat. aro; Lit. ariù Got. arjan, Eng. ear, plough.

àr, battle, slaughter, Ir. and O. Ir. ár, W. aer, *agro-; root ag, drive; Gr. ἄγρα, chase; see àgh.

àra, kidney, Ir. ára(nn), O. Ir. áru, g. áran, W. aren, *ṇfron-; Lat. nefrōnes; Gr. νεφρóς, Ger. nieren. Stokes refers ára to ad-rên, the ren being the same as Lat. ren.

arabhaig, strife; cf O. Ir. irbág, arbag, *air-bāg, Norse bágr, strife.

àrach, rearing; see àiridh, shealing. It is possible to refer this word to *ad-reg-, reg being the root which appears in éirich.

àrachas, insurance, so Ir., E. Ir. árach, bail, contract, *ad-rig-, root rig, bind, which see in cuibhreach.

àradh, a ladder, Ir. aradh, E. Ir. árad:

araiceil, valiant, important, Ir. árach, strength, árachdach, puissant, *ad-reg-, root reg, rule, direct.

àraidh, certain, some, Ir. áirighe, M. Ir. áiridhe, *ad-rei-; cf. W. rhai, rhyw, some, certain, which Rhys compares to Got. fraiv, seed.

ar-amach, rebellion; for *eirigh-amach, "out-rising".

aran, bread, Ir., M. Ir., arán; root ar, join, Gr. αραρισκω, ἄρτος. See next.

arbhar, corn, so Ir., E. Ir. arbar; O. Ir. arbe, frumentum; Lat. arvum, field. Also Gaul. arinca, "frumenti genus Gallicum" (Pliny), Gr. ἄρακος, vetch, Skr. arakas, a plant.

arbhartaich, dispossess; *ar-bert-; ar for ex-ró?

arc fungus on decayed wood, cork, arcan, cork, a cork, stopple, Ir. arcan, cork (Lh.):

archuisg, experiment (Sh.):

arcuinn, cow's udder:

àrd, high, Ir., E. Ir. ârd, Gaul. Ardvenna; Lat. arduus; Gr. ὀρθóς

àrd-dorus, lintel, Ir. ardorus, fardorus; àrd- here is a piece of folk etymology, the real word being ar, air, upon. See air and dorus.

arfuntaich, disinherit; *ar-fonn-. See arbhartaich.

argarrach, a claimant; *air+gar; see goir.

argumaid, argument, Ir. argumeint, O. Ir. argumint; from Lat. argumentum.

àrlas, chimney, E. Ir. forlés, roof light; air+leus, q.v.

arm, weapon, Ir., O. Ir. arm, W. arf; from Lat. arma, whence Eng. arms. Stokes says unlikely from Lat.

armadh, working wool in oil, the oil for working wool. Cf. aolmann.

àrmunn, a hero, Ir. armann, sn oggivrt, E. Ir. armand, from an oblique case of Norse ármaðr (g. ármanns, harmost, steward.

àroch, hamlet, dwelling:

àros, a dwelling, Ir. árus, M. Ir. aros, W. araws, aros; *ad-rostu-; Eng. rest is allied to rostu-.

arpag, a harpy; from Lat. harpyia, Eng. harpy.

arraban, distress: *ar-reub-?

arrabhalach, treacherous fellow; see farbhalach.

arrachar, rowing, steering (Arm.): *ar-reg-, root reg, direct.

arrachd, spectre, Ir., E. Ir. arracht; *ar-rig-; see riochd for root. Ir. has also arrach, contour, spectre.

arrachogaidh, the first hound that gets wind of, or comes up to the deer (Sh.):

arraghaideach, careless (Sh.):

arraideach, erratic: from the Eng.? earraid, hermit?

arraidh, farraidh, suspicion (M`D).

arraing, a stitch, convulsions, so Ir.; *ar-vreng-? Eng. wrench, etc.

arral, foolish pride:

arronta, bold; see farranta.

àrrusg, awkwardness, indecency, arusg (M'A.):

ars, arsa, quoth, Ir. ar, E. Ir. ar. The s of the Gaelic really belongs to the pronoun or , said he, said she, "ar sé, ar sì". Cf. M.G. "ar san tres ughdar glic"—said the third wise author (san being the full art.; now ars an. The E. Ir. forms bar and for, inquit, point to the root sver, say, Eng. swear, answer. Stokes refers it to the root ver, verdh, Eng. word, adducing E. Ir. fordat, ordat, oldat, inquiunt, for the verdh root. Thurneysen objects that ol or for is a preposition, the -dat being the verb ta on analogy with other forms indás, oldáte. The original is al, propter, "further" (see "thall"), like Lat. tum ("tum ille"—then he), later or or for, and later still ar—all prepositions, denoting "further".

àrsaidh, old, Ir. ársaidh, O. Ir. arsid: *ar-sta-; sta, stand. It was not observed that Stokes had the word; but the same conclusion is reached. His stem is *(p)arostât, from paros, before, and stât, Skr. purástât, erst.

arsnaig, arsenic; from the Eng.

arspag, large species of sea-gull, larus major:

artan a stone; see airtein.

artlaich, baffle; see fairtlich.

àruinn, a forest; *ag-ro-ni-, root ag, Gr. ἄγρα, the chase.

as, a, out of, from, Ir. as, O. Ir. ass, a, W. a, oc, Br. a, ag, Gaul. ex-; Lat. ex; Gr. ἐξ, etc. as- is also used as a privative particle.

asaid, delivery; see aisead.

asair, also fasair, the herb "asara bacca"; borrowed from Latin name.

asair, harness, shoemaker, Ir. asaire, shoemaker, assain, greaves, etc., O. Ir. assa, soccus; Gr. παξ, sandal (Hes.), Lat. baxea; root pāg, fit, Gr. πήγνυμι (Stokes).

asal, an ass, so Ir., M. Ir. assal, W. asyn, Cor. asen. G. and Ir. are borrowed from Lat. assellus, the W. and Corn. from Lat. asinus.

asbhuain, stubble; *as-buain, "out-reaping", q.v.

ascaoin, unkind, wrong side of cloth (caoin is ascaoin); as-, privative, and caoin, q.v.

ascart, tow, Ir. asgartach, M. Ir. escart, W. carth, Br. skarz, *ex-skarto-, *skarto-, dividing, root sker, separate; Gr. skw/r, dung; Eng. sharn; etc.

asgaidh, present, boon, E. Ir. ascad, O. Ir. ascid (Meyer); for root, see taisg.

asgailt, a retreat, shelter; see fasgadh, sgàil: *ad-scath-, ascaid.

asgall, bosom, armpit, so Ir., Br. askle, W. asgre, bosom. The same as achlais (q.v.) be metathesis of the s.

asgan, a grig, merry creature, dwarf (Arm.). See aisteach.

asgnadh, ascending, so Ir.; *ad-sqendô-; :at. scando, etc.

aslach, request, Ir., O. Ir. aslach, persuasio, adslig, persuades; for root, see slighe, way.

aslonnach, prone to tell (Arm.), E. Ir. asluindim, I request; *ad-sloinn, q.v.

asp, an asp, W. asp, from the Eng.

àsran, a forlorn object, Ir. asránnach, astrannach, a stranger: from astar?

astail, a dwelling; see fasdail.

astail, a contemptible fellow (M'A.):

astar, a journey, Ir. asdar, astar, E. Ir. astur; *ad-sod-ro-n, root sod, sed, go; Gr. ὁδóς, way, Ch. Sl. choditi, go; Eng. ex-odus. Stokes (Bez. Beit.21 1134) now gives its Celtic form as *adsîtro-, root sai of saothar, toil.

àsuing, àsuinn, àsuig, apparatus, weapon; see asair(?).

at, swell, Ir. at, O. Ir. att, *(p)at-to-, root pat, extend, as in aitheamh, q.v. Stokes gives Celtic as azdo- (Got. asts, twig, etc.); but this would be Gaelic ad.

atach, request, B.of Deer attác, E. Ir. atach, O. Ir. ateoch, I pray, *ad-tek-; Eng. thig.

atach, cast-off clothes (Uist, etc.)=ath-aodach.

ataig, atuinn, a palisade, stake:

atamach, fondling, caressing (M'A):

ath, next, again: see ath-.

ath, flinch; from ath-, back. Hence athach, modest.

ath-, aith, re-, so Ir., O. Ir. ath-, aith-, ad-, *ati, W. ad-, Br. at-, az-; Gaul. ate: Lat. at, but, at- (atavus); Lit. at-, ata-, back, Slav. otŭ; Skr. ati, over. Stokes divides Celtic ati- into two, meaning respectively "over" and "re-"; but this seems unnecessary.

àth, a ford, Ir., O. Ir. áth, *jâtu-; Skr., to go; Lit. jóti, ride (Stokes). Beul-àth:

àth, a kiln, Ir. áith, W. odyn. Stokes refers this to a pre-Celtic apati-, apatino-, parallel to Eng. oven, Got. auhns, Gr. ἰπνός. Bezzenberger suggests the Zend. âtar, fire, as related.

athach, a giant, Ir. fathach, athach; root pat, extend?

athach, a breeze, Ir., O. Ir. athach; Gr. ἀτμός, vapour, Eng. atmosphere; Ger. atem, breath; etc.

athainne, embers, so Ir.; *ath-teine(?) See aithinne.

athailt, a scar; see ath-ail; see ail, mark.

athair, father, so Ir., O. Ir. athir; Lat. pater; Gr. πατήρ; Skr. pitár; Eng. father.

athair-neimh, serpent, Br. aer, azr; for nathair-neimh, q.v.

athair-thalmhainn, yarrow, milfoil, Ir. and M. Ir. athair talman; "pater-telluris!" Also earr-thalmhainn, which suggests borrowing from Eng. yarrow.

athais, leisure; ath+fois = delay, q.v.

athar, evil effect, consequence (M'A., Whyte), *at-ro-n from ath, "re-". See comharradh. Sc. aur=athailt.

athar, sky, air, Ir. aiéur, air, sky, O. Ir. aér, aier, W. awyr; from Lat. aer, whence Eng. air. See St. for aér, *aver? Cf. padhal, ataidhir, adhal.

atharla, heifer; possibly ath-ar-laogh, "ex-calf". Cf. E. Ir. aithirni, calf.

atharnach, second crop, ground cropped and ready for ploughing (N.H.) ath-eòrn-ach? *ath-ar-nach, root ar, plough.

atharrach, alteration, Ir. atharrach, O. Ir. aitherrach, Br. adarre, afresh, arre, *ati-ar-reg-, root reg of èirich. Stokes analyses it into ati-ex-regô, that is ath-éirich.

atharrais, mocking, imitating (M'K.); (Dial. ailis): ath-aithris, "re-say", Ir. aithris, tell, imitation. See aithris.