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Birds of North and Middle America, part V/Genus 24. Sericotes Reichenbach

 

Genus SERICOTES Reichenbach.

[Anthracothorax] γ. Sericotes Reichenbach, Aufz. der Colib., 1854, 11. (Type, Trochilus holosericeus Linnæus.)

Rather large Trochilidæ (length about 100-120 mm.) very closely related to Eulampis, but differing in more naked tarsi, rounded, instead of emarginate, tail and very different coloration, the remiges nonmetallic, and general coloration green, the upper tail-coverts blue and a blue or violet patch on chest.

Bill longer than head, rather stout, nearly terete but broader than deep at base, distinctly decurved; culmen rounded but basally contracted into a narrow ridge; terminal portion of maxillary tomium minutely serrate; mandible with a broad longitudinal median groove. Nasal operculum narrow, concealed by dense appressed frontal feathering, which extends to or slightly beyond anterior end of nostril, forming a short and narrow point or antia on each side of mesorhinium. Tarsus naked except for upper frontal portion; middle and inner toes about equal in length, the outer slightly shorter, the hallux shorter than outer toe. Wing about three times as long as exposed culmen, the outermost primary longest. Tail decidedly more than half as long as wing, slightly but distinctly rounded, the rectrices broad, with nearly truncate tip, the lateral rectrices strongly incurved.

Coloration. — General color green (brighter below), but this relieved by a blue or violet jugular patch, the tail-coverts also blue or greenish blue; tail blue-black or violet-black. Sexes alike.

Range. — Lesser Antilles and adjacent small islands of the Greater Antilles (St. Thomas, Tórtola, Virgin Gorda, Anegada, and St. Croix) ; also island of Tobago. (Monotypic.)

SERICOTES HOLOSERICEUS HOLOSERICEUS (Linnæus).

GREEN CARIB.

Adult male. — Above metallic-green or bronze-green (often suffused with bronze or coppery bronze), passing into bluish-green (sometimes into greenish blue or, rarely, violet-olive) on upper tail-coverts; tail slightly glossy blue-black (the middle rectrices sometimes more greenish), the under surface more violaceous-black, tipped with blue- black or dark steel blue; remiges dusky, faintly glossed with violaceous, the inner secondaries more strongly glossed with greenish; malar region, chin, throat, and foreneck bright metallic yellowish green (apple green to light grass green), passing on sides of chest into a more bluish green and this on center of chest into blue or greenish blue, forming a more or less well-defined patch; under parts of body black, glossed, more or less distinctly, with bluish green, green, or bronzy; under tail-coverts bright metallic green or bluish green, with a subterminal area of blue or violet-blue; femoral and lumbar tufts white; bill dull black; iris dark brown; feet dusky; length (skins), 99-121 (111); wing, 57-63 (61); tail, 31.5-36.5 (33.8); culmen, 20-26 (21. 9).[1] Adult female. — Similar to the adult male, and perhaps not always distinguishable, but usually with the blue jugular area smaller and more greenish blue, and bill longer; length (skins), 110-121 (115); wing, 57.5-62 (59.5); tail, 32-35 (33.5); culmen, 21.5-26.5 (24.1).[2]

Young. — Similar to adults, but color of under parts much duller, the chm, throat, and chest wholly dull metallic bronze-green, with underlying portion of feathers grayish dusky.

Lesser Antilles (islands of Barbados, Union, Carriacou, Canouan, Bequia, St. Vincent, Santa Lucia, Martinique, Dominica, Marie Galante, Desirade, Grand Terre, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Antigua, Barbuda, Nevis, St. Christopher, St. Eustatius, Saba, St. Bartholomew, and Sombrero), and Virgin group (islands of St. Croix, Anegada, Virgin Gorda, Tórtola, St. Johns, St. Thomas, and Culebra).

[Trochilus] holosericeus Linnæus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, i, 1758, 120 (based on Black-bellied Green Humming-bird Edwards, Gleanings, i, pl. 36, etc.); ed. 12, i, 1766, 191. — Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, pt. i, 1788, 491. — Latham, Index Orn., i, 1790. 305. — Temminck, Cat. Syst., 1807, 81.
Trochilus holosericeus Audebert and Vieillot, Ois. Dorés, i, 1801, 19, pl. 6 ("Porto Rico"). — Vieillot, Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat., vii, 1817, 357 ("Mexico;" "Guiana;" "Porto Rico;" "St. Domingo"). — Lesson, Hist. Nat. Colibr., 1830-31, 76, pl. 20 (St. Thomas; "Porto Rico;" Martinique); Index Gen. et Synop. Troch., 1832, p. xi.
T[rochilus] holosericeus Vieillot, Tabl. Enc. Méth., ii, 1822, 551.
P[olytmus] holosericeus Gray, Gen. Birds, i, Dec, 1848, 108.
[Polytmus] holosericeus Gray, Hand-list, i, 1869, 130, no. 1649.
[Eulampis] holosericeus Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 72; Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1854, 250.— Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 81, part. — Mulsant, Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, xxii, 1876, 211, part. — Cory, List Birds West Ind., 1885, 17, part.— Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1889, 395 (Santa Lucia).
Eulampis holosericeus Gould, Mon. Troch., pt. xiv, 1857 (vol. ii, 1861), pl. 83; Inti-od. Troch., oct. ed., 1861, 68. — Cassin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1860, 377 (St. Thomas). — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 291; Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1871, 272 (Santa Lucia); 1874, 175 (Barbados); 1883, 499 (Anguilla); 1892, 499 (Anguilla). — Taylor, Ibis, 1864, 170 (Martinique; Dominica; habits). — Mulsant and Verreaux, Classif. Troch., 1866, 42; Hist. Nat. Ois.-Mouch., ii, livr. 2, 1875, 134; Suppl., pl. 41. — Semper, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1872, 651 (Santa Lucia; descr. nest). — Elliot, Ibis, 1872, 35 (St. Thomas; St. Croix; Martinique; Dominica; Santa Lucia; synon.; crit.); Classif. and Synop. Troch., 1879, 42 (excl. syn. part). — Salvin, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus.,xvi, 1892, 105 (excl. syn. part). — Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 60 (Dominica; habits), 192 (St. Vincent), 234 (Antigua); i, 1879, 358 (Martinique), 458 (Guadeloupe), 487, part (Barbuda; Antigua; Guadeloupe; Dominica; Martinique; St. Vincent). — Allen, Bull. Nutt. Orn. Club, v, 1880, 167 (Santa Lucia). — Lister, Ibis, 1880, 42 (St. Vincent). — Grisdale, Ibis, 1882, 486 (Montserrat; habits). — Cory, Auk, iii, 1886, 351, part; iv, 1887, 96 (Martinique); vii, 1890, 374 (Anegada), 375 (Tortola; Virgin Gorda); viii, 1891, 47 (Antigua; St. Eustatius), 48 (St. Croix; St. Christopher; Guadeloupe); Birds West Ind., 1889, 146, part; Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 13, 106, 155, part; Ibis, 1886, 472 (Barbados), 474 (Marie Galante; Desirade), 475 (Grand Terre). — Feilden, Ibis, 1889, 486 (Barbados; habits). — Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xii, 1890, 130 (Santa Lucia). — Verrill (G. and A. H.), Trans. Conn. Ac. Arts and Sci., viii, 1892, 331 (Dominica; habits; descr. nest and eggs). — Lodge, Ibis, 1896, 510 (Dominica; habits). — Nicoll, Ibis, 1904, 558 (Barbados; crit.), 562 (Santa Lucia), 570 (Dominica), 573 (St. Christopher; crit.), 574 (St. Croix; St. Thomas).— Wells, Auk, xix, 1902, 345 (Carriacou; descr. nest).
E[ulampis] holosericeus Salvin, Ibis, 1873, 334 (Barbados). — Hartert, Novit. ZooL, V, 1898, 520 (crit.).
Eulampis holocericeus Mulsant and Verreaux, Hist. Nat. Ois.-Mouch., iv, livr. 3, 1878, 200.
[Anthracothorax] γ. Sericotes holosericeus Reichenbach, Aufz. der Colibr., 1854, 11.
[Anthracothorax] holosericeus Reichenbach, Troch. Enum., 1855, 9, pl. 794, fig. 4847.
Sericotes holosericeus Eudes-Deslongchamps, Ann. Mus. Caen, i, 1880, 185. — Boucard, Gen. Hum. Birds, 1895, 337 (St. Thomas; Martinique; Dominica; Santa Lucia; St. Croix). — Riley, Smithson. Misc. Coll., xlvii, 1904, 287 (Barbuda; Antigua). — Clark (A. H.), Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xxxii, 1905, 274, part (Barbados; St. Vincent; Bequia; Canouan; Union I.; Carriacou; crit.; descr. nest and eggs).
[Sericotes] holosericeus Hartert, Novit. ZooL, v, 1898, 520 (crit.). — Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 120.
S[ericotes] holosericeus Hartert, Das Tierreich, Troch., 1900, 103.
L[ampornis] holosericeus Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iii, 1860, 17 ("Porto Rico").
[Lampornis] holosericeus Gundlach, Journ. für Orn., 1874, 312 (Porto Rico); 1878, 160 (Porto Rico).
Lampornis holosericeus Gundlach, Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat.; vii, 1878,224 (Porto Rico); Journ. für Orn., 1878, 181 (Porto Rico; crit.).
Trochilus {Lampornis) holosericeus Sundevall, (Efv. k. Vet. -Ak. Förh., 1869, 600 (Porto Rico).
Eulampis chlorolæmus (not of Gould) Newton (A. and E.), Ibis, 1859, 138 (St. Croix; habits). — Sclater, Cat. Am. Birds, 1862, 291, excl. syn. (St. Thomas). — Lawrence, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., viii, 1864, 99 (Sombrero).
L[ampornis] chlorolaema Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., iii, 1860, 17, footnote ("Insel Nevis, St. Croix, St. Thomas, St. Johns, etc.").

SERICOTES HOLOSERICEUS CHLOROLÆMUS (Gould).

DARKER GREEN CARIB.

Similar to S. h. holosericeus, but green of throat, etc., much darker (metallic grass green) and blue jugular area larger and more violaceous.

Adult male. — Length (skins), 106-112 (109); wing, 59.5-62.5 (61.1); tail, 33.5-35 (34); culmen, 22-22.5 (22.2).[3]

Adult female. — Length (skins), 110-128 (117); wing, 62-62.5 (62.2); tail, 34-36 (35.2); culmen, 26.5-27 (26.7).[4]

Islands of Grenada and Tobago.

Eulampis ———— Gould nov. sp. Bonaparte, Consp. Av., i, 1850, 72 (nomen nudum).
[Eulampis] chlorolæmus (ex Gould, manuscript) Bonaparte, Rev. et Mag. de Zool., 1854, 250 (nomen nudum!).
Eulampis chlorolaemus Gould, Mon. Troch., pt. xiv, 1857 (vol. ii, 1861), pl. 84 (locality unknown;[5] coll. J. Gould); Introd. Troch., oct. ed., 1861, 68 ("St. Thomas;" "St. Croix"). — Boucard, The Hum. Bird, i, 1891, 25 ("Trinidad," i. e., Tobago?; descr.; crit.).
[Anthracothorax. γ. Sericotes] chlorolaimus Reichenbach, Aufz. der Colibr., 1854, II (nomen nudum).
[Anthracothorax] chlorolaimus {[sc|Reichenbach}}, Troch. Enum., ,1855, 9 (nomen nudum).
[Polytmus] chlorolæmus Gray, Hand-list, i, 1869, 130, no. 1650.
Sericotes chlorolæmus Boucard, Gen. Hum. Birds, 1895, 337 (Grenada).
S[ericotes] chlorolaemus Hartert, Das Tierreich, Troch., 1900, 103.
[Sericotes] chlorolæmus Sharpe, Hand-list, ii, 1900, 120.
C[?] chlorolaemus Hartert, Novit. Zool., v, 1898, 520 (crit.; Grenada).
Eulampis longirostris Gould, Introd. Troch., oct. ed., 1861, 69 (locality unknown; coll. J. Gould).
[Polytmus] longirostris Gray, Hand-list, i, 1869, 130, no. 1651.
Sericotes longirostris {[sc|Eudes-Deslongchamps}}, Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat. Caen, i, 1880, 186.
[Eulampis] longirostris Hartert, Novit. Zool., v, 1898, 520 (crit.).
[Eulampis] holosericeus Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 81, part.
Eulampis holosericeus (not Trochilus holosericeus Linnæus) Lawrence, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1879, 272 (Grenada), 487, part (Grenada). — Wells, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ix, 1887, 619 (Grenada; descr. nest and eggs). — Cory, Cat. West Ind. Birds, 1892, 13, 106, 155, part (Grenada). — Lodge, Ibis, 1896, 519 (Grenada).
Sericotes holosericeus Clark (A. H.), Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., xxxii, 1905, 274, part (Grenada; crit.).


  1. Thirty-three specimens.
    Locality. Wing. Tail. Exposed
    culmen.
    males.
    One adult male from St. Thomas 60.5 34 21.5
    Two adult males from St. Johns 60.7 32.5 22.2
    One adult male from St. Eustatius 59.5 33.5
    One adult male from St. Cliristopher 59 34.5 20.5
    One adult male from Nevis 61.5 35 21
    Six adult males from Barbuda 58.3 33.3 22.1
    Four adult males from Antigua 60.1 32.6 21
    Four adult males from Guadeloupe 61.2 33.9 22.2
    One adult male from Grande Terre 61 33 22.5
    Two adult males from Dominica 59.2 34.7 21.7
    Seven adult males from Martinique 60.8 34.3 21.9
    Two adult males from Santa Lucia 60.2 34 23.7
    One adult male from St. Vincent 63 35.5 21.5
    Four adult males from Barbados 62.7 34.1 21.5
    females.
    Two adult females from Culebra 58.7 32.5 23.5
    One adult female from St. Johns 59.5 34 26
    One adult female from St. Christopher 58.5 32.5 24
    Four adult females from Barbuda 59.4 33 22.7
    Two adult females from Antigua 59.2 33.7 23.7
    One adult female from Guadeloupe 58.5 33.5 26
    Three adult females from Dominica 61 34.5 23.8
    One adult female from Martinique 59.5 34.5 25.5
    One adult female from St. Vincent 59.5 33.5 24.1
    Ten adult females from Barbados 61.3 33.9 24.4
  2. Sixteen specimens.
  3. Four specimens, from Grenada.
  4. Four specimens, from Grenada.
  5. A specimen said to be from the Island of Nevis is mentioned in the text, but the locality is certainly erroneous.