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Index:Life of William Shelburne (vol 1).djvu

Life of William Shelburne (vol 1).djvu

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CONTENTS

 
 (not individually listed)
PREFACE
 

CHAPTER I

A Chapter of Autobiography

1737–1757

PAGE
William Fitzmaurice—Birth in Dublin and early education—Thomas Fitzmaurice, Earl of Kerry, and his wife, Anne, daughter of Sir William Petty—Their younger son, John Fitzmnurice, succeeds to the Shelburne estates and title—Mary Fitzmaurice of Gallane, Lady Shelburne—Description of the Court of Lixnaw—Lady Arabella Denny—Dr. Hort, Bishop of Kilmore—Christ Church, Oxford, and the Westminster set—Outbreak of the Seven Years' War—Condition of parties at the time—Method of government since the Revolution of 1688—Sketches of the principal political characters from the death of Queen Anne—Sir Robert Walpole and Pulteney—Rivalry of Lord Carteret and the Pelhams—Predominance of the Duke of Newcastle—The Duke of Cumberland, the Prince and Princess of Wales, and the Court—Mr. Pitt and Mr. Henry Fox—The Earl of Bute—The causes of the Seven Years' War—Formation of the Second Ministry of the Duke of Newcastle—Character of Mr. Pitt and of Lord Mansfield and the other members of the Ministry—Resolve to enter the army—General Wolfe—Expeditions to the coast of France—Lord George Sackville—Further reflections on the causes of the war
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
 

CHAPTER II

Shelburne, Bute, and Henry Fox

1757–1762

Military service in France and Germany—Battle of Minden—Shelburne elected member for High Wycombe and appointed aide-de-camp to the King—Death of his father—He becomes Earl of Shelburne and goes to the Upper House—Connection with Henry Fox—Joins the party opposed to the further continuance of the war—Lord Bute employs him as political intermediary with Henry Fox—History of these negotiations—Friendship with Colonel Isaac Barré—Barré's election for High Wycombe—Shelburne's first speech in the House of Lords—Controversy with Bubb-Dodington, Lord Melcombe—Barré attacks Pitt—Resignations of Pitt and Newcastle—Bute becomes Prime Minister—Negotiations for peace in Paris—Character of the Earl of Bute—Lady Caroline Fox made a peeress—Further negotiations with Henry Fox—Fox accepts the lead of the House of Commons—Conclusion of Peace—Fox thinks he shall resign the post of Paymaster-General—On further consideration he changes his mind—The King and Henry Fox
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
82
 

CHAPTER III

The Pious Fraud

1762–1763

Character of Henry Fox—The Proscription of 1762—The Peace is approved by Parliament—Further measures of Bute's Government—Their unpopularity—Bute desires to retire—Henry Fox also proposes to retire, and claims the performance of the promises made to him—Dispute as to the nature of the promises on which Fox undertook to lead the House of Commons—Difference of opinion between Shelburne and Fox—Fox declines to surrender the Paymastership—Correspondence on the subject—The "Pious Fraud"—Retirement of Bute and Fox—George Grenville succeeds Bute—Suggestion that Shelburne should be Secretary of State—Grenville's character of Shelburne—Fox becomes Lord Holland, and retains the Paymastership—Shelburne becomes President of the Board of Trade—Relations of the Board of Trade with the Secretary of State's office
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
130
 

CHAPTER IV

The Presidency of the Board of Trade

1763

Condition of North America after the Peace—Summary of the Colonial Charters—Question of Imperial taxation—History of the question—Different schools of opinion—Internal and external taxation—Revenue and trade—The case of Campbell v. Hall—Problems raised by the acquisition of Canada—The unoccupied lands of the West—Indian trade—Boundaries—New settlements—Differences on these subjects between Egremont and Shelburne—Relations of the Board with the Secretary of State—Fresh differences—Arrest of Wilkes—Shelburne threatens to resign—Correspondence with Bute—Shelburne adjourns his resignation at the request of Bute—Increasing difficulties of the Government
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
178
 

CHAPTER V

Lord Shelburne and Mr. Pitt

1763

Reasons of Shelburne's original hostility to Pitt—Weakness of the Grenville Government—Bute's desire to see it strengthened—He employs Shelburne as intermediary with the Duke of Bedford—Common ground between Bute and Pitt—Bute approaches Pitt—He again employs Shelburne as negotiator—Duke of Bedford insists on Bute's entire removal from Court—Bute refuses—Failure of both negotiations—Discussion of the terms exacted by Pitt—Position of Lord Temple—His relations with Pitt—Shelburne resigns the Board of Trade—Correspondence with Bute—The renewal of proceedings against Wilkes—Shelburne speaks against the Government—He is removed from the post of Aide-de-camp to the King—Barré loses the Adjutancy of the Forces and the Governorship of Stirling Castle—Shelburne breaks off relations with Bute—The King shows his dissatisfaction at Court
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
198
 

CHAPTER VI

Lord Shelburne and the Marquis of Rockingham

1763–1765

Shelburne retires to the country—Wycombe Abbey and Bowood—Books, manuscripts, and wild beasts—House in Hill Street—Political and personal friends—Letters from Blackstone and Hume—Dunning and Franklin—Shelburne's marriage with Lady Sophia Carteret, daughter of John, Lord Granville—The Stamp Act becomes law—Barré opposes it His speech on the "Sons of Liberty"—Opinion of Jackson "the Omniscient" on Colonial rights—Communications with Pitt—He expresses a desire for Shelburne's support—Opposition to the Regency Bill—Weak position of the Grenville Ministry—He resigns—Pitt's failure to form an Administration—Lord Temple—Lord Rockingham forms a Ministry—He offers a place to Shelburne, who declines it—Lord George Sackville becomes Vice-Treasurer of Ireland—His character as depicted by Shelburne
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
216
 

CHAPTER VII

Repeal of the Stamp Act

1765–1766

Attack by Shelburne on the Stamp Act—Negotiations between Pitt and Shelburne—Speech of Pitt on the taxation of America—Account of these events subsequently given by George III. to Lord Ashburton—The Bill to repeal the Stamp Act—The Declaratory Bill—The King's offers to Pitt—He declines them—Shelburne's vote in the House of Lords against the Declaratory Bill—Correspondence with Pitt—Internal and external taxation—Conflicting theories—The Imperial power—Commencement of the great schism of the Whig party—Burke and Pitt—Discussion of responsibilities—Extracts from the Diary of Lady Shelburne—A letter from Pitt—New Ministry—Grafton First Lord of the Treasury—Pitt becomes Earl of Chatham and Privy Seal—He makes Shelburne Secretary of State for the Southern Department—Choiseul's views on the situation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
252
 

CHAPTER VIII

The Secretaryship of State

1766–1767

Division of the office of Secretary of State—The Northern and the Southern Departments—Proposal to create a third Secretary of State—Condition of Foreign Affairs in 1766—Choiseul and Grimaldi—Their peaceful professions and warlike instructions—Questions immediately at issue with the European Powers—The question of an embargo on corn at home—Apparent strength of the Ministry at the end of 1766—Indian policy—Territorial revenue and the renewal of the Charter of the East India Company—Opposite views of Charles Townshend and Shelburne—American questions—Shelburne desires to pursue a conciliatory policy to the Colonies—The Mutiny Bill—Compensation to the sufferers by the Boston riots of 1765—Policy in regard to the unoccupied western lands and the boundaries of Canada—Question of Colonial taxation—Charles Townshend's taxes—Shelburne appeals to Chatham against Townshend—Sudden illness of Chatham—Memorandum by Maurice Morgann on American questions in 1767—Chatham withdraws himself from political activity—Victory of Charles Townshend in the Cabinet—Shelburne for a time ceases to attend the Cabinet—The Bedford party try to obtain power—General attack on Shelburne—Choiseul and Grimaldi watch the situation—Sudden death of Charles Townshend—Resignation of Conway—Grafton proposes to reconstitute the Ministry—A third Secretaryship of State created—Lord Hillsborough appointed—The American business removed from the Southern Department—Interview between Grafton and Shelburne—Complete seclusion of Chatham—Victory of the Bedford party—Effect on the situation in America—Dunning becomes Solicitor-General
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
284
 

CHAPTER IX

Ireland in 1767–1768

Condition of Kerry—The Danish treasure ship—Murder of Puxley, the Excise officer—The Irish land system—Political relations of Ireland and Great Britain—Analogies with the relations of the American Colonies with Great Britain—Poynings' Acts—The 3 and 4 of Philip and Mary, c. 4—Shackles imposed on Irish industries—Judicial appeals—Sir William Petty's proposal for a union—Molyneux's Case of Ireland—Lord Clare's description of the government of Ireland in the early part of the eighteenth century—Lord George Sackville brings about a crisis—He shakes the power of the Irish oligarchy without being able to bring it down—The parties of Speaker Boyle and Lord Shannon—Their coalition—Dr. Lucas—Lord Townshend becomes Viceroy in 1767—The Septennial Bill and the Judicature Bill—The Grafton-Chatham administration attempt to curb the Irish oligarchy—History of the struggle which ensues—The Habeas Corpus Bill and the Augmentation of the Army Bill—Dispatches of Shelburne and Townshend—Demands of the Irish Junto—Refusal of Shelburne to accept them—Threats of the Junto—Protracted negotiations—Description by Barré of the debate on the Augmentation Bill—The Bill and the Judicature Bill are both thrown out—Shelburne and Townshend agree on the necessity of breaking the corrupt power of the Irish Junto—The Irish Parliament prorogued
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
337
 

CHAPTER X

Lord Shelburne and the Bedford Whigs

1768

Choiseul observes the divisions of political parties in England with satisfaction—Relations of Corsica with Genoa—Secret treaty between Genoa and France—The Corsicans appeal to England—Shelburne demands an explanation as to French policy—Mr. John Stewart's mission to Corsica—Divisions in the Ministry about Corsica and America—The Farmer's Letters—Differences between Shelburne and Hillsborough—Reports of Shelburne's resignation—The Corsican Treaty communicated by Choiseul to
Shelburne—Communication of Shelburne with Du Châtelet—Choiseul says, "Nous voilà à la guerre"—Opinion of Frederick the Great—Divisions between the war party and the peace party in the Cabinet—A weak compromise adopted—Mission of Captain Dunant—Mr. Stewart's report arrives—His account of Corsica—Hillsborough's circular letter to the Colonies causes a crisis—Shelburne resigns—Chatham also resigns—The policy hostile to conciliation with the Colonies is victorious—Attack on Shelburne in the Public Advertiser by "Correggio"—Malagrida—Discussion of his political position—Charges of insincerity—Growth of party feeling—A letter of Lady Rockingham—Adverse and favourable views of the character of Shelburne
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
361
 

CHAPTER XI

The United Opposition

1768–1770

Lady Shelburne's diary—Middlesex election—Wilkes Riots and election scenes—Determination of the King to be rid of the Duke of Grafton—The King, the aristocracy, and the middle classes—Jenkinson and the party of the King's friends in the House of Commons—Repeal of Charles Townshend's taxes except the duty on tea—Return of Chatham to public life—The Opposition in both Houses tries to close up the ranks—Speeches of Barré—Resignation of Lord Camden and Dunning—Sudden death of Charles Yorke at the moment of receiving the Great Seal—Resignation of Grafton—Lord North becomes First Lord of the Treasury—The King victorious
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
393
 

CHAPTER XII

The Divided Opposition

1770–1771

Reaction in favour of the King—"Losses, dissensions, profligacy, and folly"—Wilkes one of the causes of reaction—Burke publishes Thoughts on the Causes of the Present Discontents—Shelburne's encomium upon it in the House of Lords—Chatham less laudatory—Attacks on the American policy of the Government—Shelburne threatens that the Opposition may cease to attend in their places—Chatham's threat that he may become "a scarecrow of violence"—The Rockingham Whigs alarmed—Chatham describes them as the "gentle warblers of the grove"—Threatening aspect of foreign affairs—Correspondence of Shelburne and Chatham—Dissensions between the leaders of the Opposition—Death of George Grenville—Alderman Beckford and Lord Granby—Temple retires into the country—Wedderburn deserts the Opposition and accepts office—Mistaken tactics of the Opposition in both Houses—Continued gain of authority by Lord North—Death of Lady Shelburne—Lord Shelburne leaves England for a journey on the Continent
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
408
 

CHAPTER XIII

Religious Toleration

1771–1772

Lord Shelburne and French society—Mademoiselle de l'Espinasse—Malesherbes—The Abbé Morellet—Reciprocal influence of France and England—The Economists Influence of Morellet and Hume on Shelburne in regard to Free Trade—Dr. Price and Dr. Priestley—Priestley becomes Librarian at Bowood—Correspondence between him and Shelburne—Political situation on the return of Shelburne to England—Questions of religious toleration—The Feathers Tavern petition—The Latitudinarian party in the Church—The Presbyterian clergy and the question of subscription—The Bill for their relief—Shelburne supports it—Rejection in the House of Lords
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
425
 

CHAPTER XIV

Before the Storm

1772–1774

The Royal Marriage Bill—The affairs of the East India Company—The proposals of Lord North—Fresh disagreement between the two sections of the Whig party—Speech of Barré in the House of Commons—Speeches of Shelburne in the House of Lords—His qualified support of Lord North's proposals—Controversy with the Duke of Richmond—Unfortunate influence of Burke on the counsels of the Opposition—The Irish Absentee Tax—Advice of Chatham—Shelburne declines to join the opposition to the Bill—Joseph and James Townshend—Struggle between James Townshend and Wilkes in the City of London—Townshend elected Lord Mayor in 1772—A letter of Morellet on the struggle—Wilkes succeeds in being elected Lord Mayor in 1774
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CHAPTER XV

The Boston Tea Ships

1774–1776

Parties in America and in England—Extreme men—Samuel Adams and George III.—Resistance to the Tea Duty—Governor Hutchinson—Influence of the Colonial Governors generally—The letters of Hutchinson to Whateley—Dr. Franklin and the Privy Council—The tea thrown into the harbour of Boston—Correspondence of Shelburne with Chatham—The Government decide to take determined measures—The Boston Port Act—The Quebec Act—Criticism of the conduct of the Opposition in regard to the Quebec Act—The General Congress at Philadelphia—Their first Petition—Influence of John Dickenson—Attempts at conciliation—The battle of Lexington—The second Petition of Congress—Rejection of it by the King—Speech of Shelburne—Attempts of Grafton to secure more cordial action between the leaders of the Opposition—The Colonists seek the aid of Foreign Powers—Ambiguous attitude of France and Spain—Critical situation—Shelburne insists on the necessity of Chatham being Prime Minister—Renewal of Chatham's illness—Shelburne looked upon as his successor in the leadership—Shelburne as an orator—The opinions of Lord Camden and Lord Holland—Opinion of Bentham—The satirists of the Rolliad—Shelburne's antagonism to Lord Mansfield—Violence of the debates in both Houses of Parliament at this time
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465