Index:Life of William Shelburne (vol 2).djvu

Life of William Shelburne (vol 2).djvu

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CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

The Death of Lord Chatham

1776–1779

PAGE
Declaration of American Independence—Meeting of Parliament—Shelburne attacks the King's Speech—Debate on the Civil List—Question of Parliamentary control—Advanced views of the Opposition—Speech by Shelburne—Return of Chatham to political life—His motion for conciliation with America—Speech of Shelburne—High praise of it by the younger Pitt—Scene with Archbishop Markham—Battles of Brandywine and Germantown—The surrender at Saratoga—Letters of Chatham—Protest of the Opposition against private subscriptions to raise troops—France makes a Treaty with the American Colonies—Lord North's Bills for conciliation with America—Their chilling reception—Shelburne's "sunset" speech—General wish that Chatham should become Prime Minister—Differences of opinion between Shelburne and Rockingham as to the necessity of recognizing the entire independence of the revolted Colonies—The King unwillingly accepts the idea of Chatham being in office, but refuses him the Treasury—North employs Eden as negotiator—Shelburne and Charles Fox—The Opposition unable to agree as to terms—The complete independence of America the stumbling-block—Shelburne insists that Chatham must be Dictator—The King declines and calls Shelburne a perfidious man—Could Chatham have been successful?—The Duke of Richmond's motion in the House of Lords on conciliation with America—Last appearance of Chatham—Description of the scene by the Duke of Grafton—Death of Chatham—His character—Shelburne succeeds him as leader—Death of Lord Temple—His character as drawn by Shelburne—Jenkinson becomes Secretary at War and Thurlow Chancellor—Trial of Keppel—Communications between the leaders of the Opposition—Shelburne undertakes to accept the leadership of Rockingham in a united Ministry—Verses by Garrick—Anecdotes of Barré—War with Spain—National danger—Risk of invasion—A letter from Barré discussing the risks—Victory of Rodney off Cape St. Vincent
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1

CHAPTER II

Lord Shelburne and Lord North

1779–1780

Lord Shelburne marries Lady Louisa Fitzpatrick—Irish affairs—Commercial propositions of Lord North—The Land question—Land let by the "ounce"—The Clergy as landlords—Roman Catholic disabilities—Two motions on Irish affairs by Shelburne in the House of Lords—The Irish Parliament demands free trade—Commercial proposals carried—Demand for administrative reforms in England—Speeches of Shelburne and Fox—County associations and meetings—The Yorkshire and Buckinghamshire Petitions—Duels between Lord Shelburne and Mr. Fullarton, and between Charles Fox and Adam—Demand for Parliamentary Reform—Petition and debates in both Houses—Dunning's motion on the increase of the influence of the Crown—The Armed Neutrality—Attacks on Shelburne in connection with the Lord George Gordon Riots—Dunning on the question—Interference of the military—Negotiations between North and Rockingham—Dr. Price and the Sinking Fund—His pamphlet on America—Differences between the leaders of the Opposition—Conversation between Barré and Richmond on the necessity of cordial union
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37

CHAPTER III

Lord Shelburne and the King

1780–1782

Shelburne and Grafton retire into the country—Rupture with Holland—The rights of neutrals—The Constitution of the States of Holland—The Armed Neutrality—Speech of Shelburne on the 1st of June 1780—He recognizes the impossibility of restoring the former connection with the revolted Colonies by force of arms—Interviews in London between Grafton and Shelburne—Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown on the 25th of November 1781—Shelburne's speech on the ruinous condition of the country at home and abroad—Lord North tries to reconstitute his Ministry—Lord George Germaine—Debates in the House of Lords—Speech of Shelburne on the constitutional rights and position of the House of Lords—His hope that some tie may still be maintained between the American Colonies and the Mother Country—Lord North is hard pressed in Parliament, and resigns—Offers by the King to Lord Rockingham—The King on Lord Rockingham's terms—The King proposes to Lord Shelburne to take the Administration—He declines—The King refuses to negotiate personally with Lord Rockingham—He employs Shelburne as intermediary—Shelburne says Rockingham must be Prime Minister—Lord Rockingham forms a united Ministry—Shelburne becomes Secretary of State—He consents to the recognition of American Independence—Disastrous condition of affairs—Ireland demands absolute Parliamentary Independence—The Duke of Portland Viceroy—His hopes that Grattan may not prove irreconcilable—These hopes disappointed—Repeal of Poynings' Acts and of the 6th of George I.—Correspondence between Shelburne and Portland—The Irish policy of the Rockingham Administration—Correspondence of the King with Lord Shelburne in regard to the Civil List and the Royal Household—The Contractor's Bill—Pitt's motion on Parliamentary Reform
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
73

CHAPTER IV

The First Negotiation in Paris

1782

Condition of foreign affairs at the accession of the Rockingham Ministry Opposite views of Shelburne and Fox Russia and the Armed Neutrality Shelburne desires an understanding with France Vrrgennes and De Castries The war party in France Possibility of separating the American and French negotiations Divergent views of the European belligerents and the American Colonies—The Fisheries and the back lands of the West—The Treaty between France and the American Colonies—Negotiations at Paris—Franklin, John Adams, and Jay—Letter of Franklin to Shelburne—Richard Oswald of Auchencruive—He is sent on an informal mission to Paris—His interviews with Franklin and Vergennes—Notes handed by Franklin to Oswald, who returns to England—Suggestion of the surrender of Canada—Oswald's second visit to Paris—Mr. Walpole in Paris—Instructions to Oswald—Shelburne declines to discuss the question of Canada—Mr. Thomas Grenville appointed by Fox to negotiate with France—Oswald returns to England—Rodney's victory over De Grasse in the West Indies—Oswald's third visit to Paris—His instructions—The Loyalists—Grenville claims that the whole of the Negotiations are to be in his hands—His credentials—Misunderstandings—Franklin's desire that the Negotiations should be separate—Oswald communicates Franklin's paper of Notes to Grenville—Grenville and Fox complain of encroachment on their Department—Grenville's new credentials—He again claims the right to negotiate with America—Franklin raises the question of the Enabling Act—Vergennes states the French conditions in outline—The Enabling Act becomes law—The Cabinet decides against Fox, and appoints Oswald Commissioner to negotiate with Franklin and his colleagues—Illness and death of Lord Rockingham—New situation thereby created
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
111

CHAPTER V

The Administration of Lord Shelburne

1782

The King offers Shelburne the succession to Rockingham—Shelburne accepts—The Whigs put forward the Duke of Portland—Unfitness of the Duke of Portland for the post—Constitutional question involved—Resignations of Fox, Lord John Cavendish, and other ministers—Lord Shelburne's Administration—William Pitt, Chancellor of the Exchequer—Barré's pension—Debates in both Houses of Parliament—Lord Shelburne says "the King of England is not the King of the Mahrattas"—He defends his "sunset" speech—He sends Benjamin Vaughan to Paris—Franklin communicates to Oswald the outline of conditions of Peace—Resignation of Thomas Grenville—Alleyne Fitzherbert succeeds him—Commission to Oswald drawn up—Caleb Whitefoord appointed Secretary to the Commission—Jay objects to the terms of the Commission to Oswald as insufficient—The American Commissioners discover that France and Spain are hostile to their views as to the fisheries and western boundary—Jay points out how the difficulty as to the terms of Oswald's Commission can be surmounted—He persuades Vaughan to urge these views in England—Rayneval's mission to England—Interviews between him and Shelburne—Vaughan in London—Commission given to Oswald describes the Colonies as "the Thirteen United States of America"—These words accepted by the American Commissioners—Separation of the negotiations with the United States from the negotiations with the European Powers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
151

CHAPTER VI

The Second Negotiation in Paris

1782–1783

Jay hands Oswald the plan of a Treaty—The navigation of the Mississippi—Proposals for a Commercial Treaty—Vergennes communicates to Fitzherbert the demands of France and Spain—Gibraltar—Lord Keppel's plan for its relief—Its success determines the Government to resist the extreme demands of France and Spain, and to demand a modification of the American terms—Strachey despatched to Paris—The Loyalists and debts—The question of Gibraltar a stumbling-block in the European negotiation—Rayneval's second visit to England—Attacks on Shelburne—Gillray's caricatures—The American Commissioners agree to some modifications of their original demands—The Maine boundary—Difficulties continue nevertheless—The question of the Loyalists—An Agreement at length arrived at Treaty signed by Oswald with the United States—Negotiations with Holland—Third visit of Rayneval to England—Gibraltar, Dominica and Florida—Parliament meets—Debates in both Houses—Shelburne and Pitt's statements as to the Treaty with America—The negotiations with France and Spain—Gibraltar—The peace and war parties in the English and French Cabinets—Keppel and Richmond threaten resignation—Final proposals of the English Government—Vergennes prevails over De Castries—The Newfoundland Fisheries—Peace signed—The commercial negotiations—The Maine boundary
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
184

CHAPTER VII

The Coalition

1783

Fresh difficulties in Ireland as to the right of Imperial legislation—Civil Service Reforms—Their unpopularity—Memorandum by Shelburne on what was done and proposed—Anger of Horace Walpole—Violence of Burke—Resignations of Richmond, Keppel, and Carlisle—Proposals for a Coalition between Fox and North—Complicated political negotiations—Interview between Pitt and Fox—Opinion of the King—The Coalition determined upon—Parliament meets—Debates on the Preliminaries of Peace—The Government have a majority in the Lords, but are defeated in the Commons—Dr. Johnson on the situation—Question of a Dissolution—The Duke of Grafton resigns—Another hostile vote carried in the House of Commons—Panegyric of Shelburne by Pitt—Shelburne resigns—Pitt sent for, but declines to form a Government—Period of confusion—Mr. Thomas Pitt—The King consults Lord Ashburton—His account of the interview—The Coalition victorious—The Duke of Portland First Lord of the Treasury—Fox and North in office together—The vacancy in the Archbishopric of Canterbury—Morellet's pension—Debate on the Sinking Fund—Shelburne's speech—He goes abroad—Conflicting pictures by Morellet and Horace Walpole
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
223

CHAPTER VIII

Lord Shelburne and Mr. Pitt

1783–1785

Public approval of the peace—Unpopularity of the Coalition—The King watches his opportunity—The India Bill of Mr. Fox—Public outcry—The Bill thrown out in the Lords by royal influence—Shelburne absents himself from the division—No communications pass between him and Pitt on the subject—Correspondence with Orde—Position of Jenkinson—Shelburne's want of confidence in him—Conduct of Temple in the crisis—Pitt forms an Administration—He does not offer a place to Shelburne—Discussion of the reasons of his exclusion—Shelburne's views on the India Bill—Mr. Francis Baring—The King, Lord Temple, and Mr. Rose all hostile to Shelburne on different grounds—Correspondence with Orde—Death of Oswald—Barr becomes blind—Jekyll succeeds Barré as member for Calne—Death of Lord Ashburton—The Duke of Rutland dissatisfied with the exclusion of Shelburne—He conveys his opinion to Pitt—Correspondence between Shelburne and Pitt—Shelburne becomes Marquess of Lansdowne—Interview between him and Pitt—The Satirists of the Rolliad on the situation—Influence of Jenkinson
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
268

CHAPTER IX

Retirement

1785–1788

Shelburne the precursor of Pitt in regard to commercial and economic questions—Speech on the French Treaty—Controversy with the Duke of Richmond on the Fortifications of Portsmouth—Retirement at Bowood—Shelburne's large correspondence—Views on the condition of the rural labourer—Condorcet's Life of Turgot—Objections to a meddlesome foreign policy—The capture of private property at sea—Mirabeau and Romilly at Bowood—John Britton—The Gallery of Statues at Lansdowne House—Gavin Hamilton's Excavations—Dr. Ingenhousz—Jeremy Bentham—His depreciation of Dunning—Lord Lansdowne on the character of Dunning—Bentham on the character of his host—Bentham's picture of the society at Bowood—Miss Fox and the Miss Vernons—Dr. Priestley—Mr. William Petty—Reasons of the termination of the connection with Priestley—Lord Henry Petty—A prophecy as to George Canning
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
300

CHAPTER X

Lord Shelburne on Men and Things

Rules for guidance in life—To be bound for no man—To see with your own eyes—Land agents and lawyers—Importance of supervision of property by the principal—Economy consists in half-yearly receipts and weekly expenditure—Hospitality—Education—Repairs—Representation—Private expenses—The Clergy—Religion—The occupation of land—Relations of landlord and tenant—The rural labourer—Agreements should be in writing—Two valuations should be made as to rent—The ownership of land—Why did the feudal system develop differently in England and in Continental countries?—Reason to be sought in the weakness of the English Sovereigns after Queen Elizabeth and the ability and strength of the French Kings after Henry IV.—Primogeniture and rights of Nobility—Boroughs and political patronage—The Crown and the House of Commons—The value of borough patronage likely to fall—Public opinion supreme—Ireland—Books that should be read—Condition of the country—Cromwell's view that Ireland was a clean paper on which experiments could be tried—Reforms necessary in the management of Irish property and in Ecclesiastical affairs—Repetition of views as to land agents and lawyers
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
336

CHAPTER XI

The French Revolution

1788–1793

Gradual estrangement between Lord Lansdowne and Pitt—Pitt's India Bill—Invasion of Holland—Treaties of Loo and Berlin—Conference of Reichenbach—Pitt's policy in the East of Europe—The French Revolution—A letter of Mirabeau—Vaughan in Paris—Lord Lansdowne's views—Correspondence with Morellet—Hostility of Burke to Price and Priestley—Report of Lord Lansdowne being consulted by the King: "Measures not men"—The Birmingham Riots—Violent reaction—Priestley and Vaughan take refuge in the United States—Death of Price Madame de Flahault in Half Moon Street—Talleyrand in England—His introduction to Washington by Lord Lansdowne—Increasing dread of French principles in England—Lord Lansdowne's speech on the Proclamation against seditious writings—Reaction in England—Lord Lansdowne resists it—Death by violence of many friends in France—Correspondence with Morellet—Break-up of English parties—Quarrel of Fox and Burke, and of Lord Lansdowne and Barré—Commencement of reconciliation with Fox—Lady Ossory—Lord Wycombe—Mr. Grey—Vaughan becomes Member for Calne—Correspondence with Bentham as to the seat for the Borough
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
368

CHAPTER XII

The New Whig Opposition

1793–1805

War with France—Question whether War could have been avoided—Lord Lansdowne's views—Foreign subsidies—Defeat of the Allies—Arbitrary measures at home—Lord Lansdowne and Fox join in opposing the policy of the Government at home and abroad—Seditious Meetings Bill—Attempt on the King's life—The social condition of the people of England—Lord Lansdowne's opposition to the increase of the debt and paper money—Rupture of the Negotiations at Lille—The reaction thereby intensified—Discouragement of the Opposition—A Libel on the House of Lords—"Scarcity of Ideas"—Relations of Fox and Lord Lansdowne—Rebellion in Ireland—Proposal for a Union—Lord Lansdowne's views—The King's illness—Negotiations carried on for the formation of a Whig Ministry—The Prince of Wales, Mr. Grey, and Lord Lansdowne—Negotiations terminated by the recovery of the King—The Addington Ministry—Peace of Amiens—Renewal of relations with friends in France—Failing health—Last speech in Parliament—The family circle at Bowood—Lord Henry Petty—The authorship of Junius—Last illness and death—Tribute by Jeremy Bentham, "A Minister that did not fear the people"
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402
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439
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
444
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
448
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
453
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
457
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
462
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465
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480
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483