The Development of Navies During the Last Half-Century
THE DEVELOPMENT OF NAVIES
DURING THE LAST HALF-CENTURY
CAPTAIN S. EARDLEY-WILMOT, R.N.
With many Illustrations
SEELEY AND CO., LIMITED
ESSEX STREET, STRAND
HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY
IN WHOSE REIGN
THE CHANGES HEREIN DESCRIBED
HAVE TAKEN PLACE
IS, BY PERMISSION,
THE NAVY IN 1840
Reduction in Naval Estimates after 1832—Change in Construction of Ships by Sir W. Symonds—The 'Vernon,' 'Pique,' and 'Vanguard'—Ordnance afloat at that Period—Defective System of manning Ships—Steamers then in the Navy—Bombardment of Acre—Advantages of Numerous Guns and Rapidity of Fire attacking Fortifications,
CREATION OF A STEAM FLEET
Changes in Ship Construction after 1840—Reluctance to recognise Advantages of Screw Propulsion—Gradual Conversion of Sailing Fleet to Steam—Armament practically remains unaltered—The Crimean War—Operations in Black Sea and Baltic—Assistance rendered by the Navy—Expedition to Sea of Azof,
Prejudice against Iron in Shipbuilding—First Ironclads built in France and England—Increase in size of Ships—Advance in Ordnance—Commencement of Struggle between Guns and Armour—Action between 'Alabama' and 'Kearsage,' showing advantages of Armour,
EARLY TURRET SHIPS
Introduction of the 'Monitor'—Claims of Ericsson and Captain Cowper Coles—'Merrimac' and 'Monitor' in America—'Royal Sovereign' converted in England—Further development of the Turret System— 'Devastation' to 'Inflexible,'
BARBETTE SYSTEM COMBINED WITH BROADSIDE
Battle of Lissa—Lessons to be derived from this Action—Introduction of the Barbette System of Mounting Guns—First applied in the 'Temeraire'—The 'Admiral' Class—Increase in dimensions of Battle Ships to 14,000 tons—New Vessels, 'Royal Sovereign,' 'Empress of India,' 'Ramillies,' 'Repulse,' 'Resolution,' and 'Royal Oak'—Disadvantages of Monster Ships,
COAST DEFENCE—THE RAM
Coast Defence Vessels—Such Constructions of Modern Growth—Erroneous Ideas of Defence—The 'Glatton' and other Coast Service Vessels—Russian Circular Ironclads—Development of the Ram as a Weapon—The 'Rupert' and 'Polyphemus'—Disadvantages of a Vessel for ramming only—Examples of difficulty in ramming,
ARMOUR—LATER TURRET SHIPS
Early Iron Plates—Increased Thickness—Competition of Guns and Armour—Steel and Compound Plates supersede Iron—Deck and Coal Protection—Progress of Turret Ships 'Nile,' 'Trafalgar' and 'Hood,' 'Victoria' and 'Sanspareil'—Second-Class Battle Ships—Early Types—Latest Development—'Centurion' and 'Barfleur,'
Frigates in Old Time—Speed an Essential—Early Steam Cruisers—'Inconstant' and others—Action between 'Shah' and 'Huascar'—Armoured Cruiser—'Imperieuse' and 'Warspite'—Development of Internally Protected Vessels—'Blake' and 'Blenheim'—'Royal Arthur' Class—Smaller Types Scouting Duties—Necessity for High Speed,
Old Smooth Bore Guns and their Manipulation—Mr Lancaster's System—Introduction of Rifled Guns—Early Inventors—Breech-Loaders introduced and discarded—Woolwich Muzzle-Loaders—Growth of Ordnance to 80-ton Guns—Breech-Loaders again introduced—Increase of Length and Power—Advance to 110-ton Guns—Ammunition—Quick-Firing Guns,
Early Application of the Torpedo in America—The Fish Torpedo—Development by Mr Whitehead—Introduction of Torpedo Boats, and their Progress—Submarine Boats—Protection against Torpedoes—Nets—Electric Search Lights—Torpedo Boat Destroyers—Sinking of 'Blanco Encalada,'
Steam Navy in 1840—Machinery at that Date—Paddle-Wheel Frigates and Sloops—Horse Power, Nominal and Indicated—Voyage of 'Inflexible'—'Banshee'—Introduction of the Screw Propeller—'Fairy'—'Duke of Wellington'—'Victoria'—Substitution of Iron for Wood—'Warrior' and 'Black Prince'—'Octavia,' 'Arethusa,' and 'Constance'—Progress made up to 1865— Compound Engines—'Pallas'—Increase of Boiler Pressure—Twin Screws—'Inconstant'—Loss of the 'Captain'—'Iris' and 'Mercury'—Steel Protective Decks—'Polyphemus'—Forced Draught—'Lightning'—Yarrow's Boats—'Rattlesnake'—Triple Expansion—'Barham' and 'Bellona'—Decrease in Weight of Machinery—Difference between Men-of-War and Merchant Ships—'Blake' and 'Blenheim'—Large Number of Auxiliary Engines—Supply of Fresh Water—Evaporators—The 'Varyan'—Growth of Steam in the Navy—Personnel—Probable Approach of Finality in Marine Engineering,
Condition of French Navy in 1840—Progress after Franco-German War—Broadside and Barbette Construction—Cruisers—The Russian Fleet—Influence of the 'Monitor'—New Departure—Black Sea and Baltic Squadrons—Belted Cruisers —Italy—Creation of a New Fleet after 1870—Monster Ironclads—Cruisers—Germany—Late development of Navy—New Battle Ships and Cruisers—Austria, Spain, Greece, and Turkey,
FOREIGN NAVIES—UNITED STATES AND SOUTH AMERICA
Condition of United States Navy before and after Civil War—Apathy in Naval Matters—Change of Feeling in 1880—New Cruisers constructed—Battle Ships decided on and commenced—Special Fast Cruiser—Torpedoes—The Howell Torpedo—Dynamite Gun—Development of Navies of South American States—Chili—Capture of 'Huascar' by 'Blanco Encalada' and 'Almirante Cochrane'—Peru—The Argentine Republic—Brazil,