Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute/Volume 7


TRANSACTIONS


AND


PROCEEDINGS


OF THE


NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE,


1874.


VOL. VII.


EDITED AND PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE INSTITUTE,


BY


JAMES HECTOR, M.D., F.R.S.


Issued July, 1875.


WELLINGTON:
JAMES HUGHES, PRINTER, LAMBTON QUAY

TRUBNER & CO., 60, PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON.


ERRATA ET ADDENDA.




PAGE
117, line 20, for fall read pall.
118, {{{1}}}10 from bottom, for all read able.
139, {{{1}}}13, after lizard insert "Dr. Thomson found the intervertebral plate of a small Cetacean in the cave, lying on the surface. It is 2.85 inches in diameter."
in the foot-note, after short bill add "Its nearest ally appears to be Biziura lobata."
200, at end of reference, add "31, tarsus; 32, metatarsi or toes; 33, hallux or hind toe."
344, in foot-note ||, line 2, before species add this.
401, line 17, for though read through.
405, in foot-note, for at end of Art. LXXV. read on page 461.
421, in foot-note, after "throughout" at end of first paragraph insert "Extract from Report."
in the next paragraph, for Urunui read massive,
line 5 from bottom, for nine read eight.
422, foot-note, line 8, for shingle read bluish.


CONTENTS.




TRANSACTIONS.


I.—Miscellaneous.
PAGES
Art. I. The Mythology and Traditions of the Maori in New Zealand. By the Rev. J. F. H. Wohlers, of Ruapuke, Southland 3–53
II. Researches and Excavations carried on in and near the Moa-bone Point Cave, Sumner Road, in the year 1872. By Julius Haast, Ph.D., F.RS., President 54–85
III. Notes on an ancient Native Burial Place near the Moa-bone Point, Sumner. By Julius Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S., Director of the Canterbury Museum 86–91
IV. Notes on the Moa-hunter Encampment at Shag Point, Otago. By Julius Haast, Ph. D., F.R.S., etc. 91–98
V. On the Identity of the Moa-hunters with the present Maori Race. By Alexander McKay, of the Geological Survey Department 98–105
VI. On the Hot Winds of Canterbury. By Alexander McKay 105–107
VII. Observations regarding the Hot Winds of Canterbury and Hawke Bay. By T. H. Cockburn-Hood, F.G.S. 107–112
VIII. Notes upon the probable Changes that have taken place in the Physical Geography of New Zealand since the arrival of the Maori. By T. H. Cockburn-Hood, F.G.S. 112–120
IX. Notes on Maori Traditions of the Moa. By J. W. Hamilton 121–122
X. Description of the Moa Swamp at Hamilton. By B. S. Booth. Communicated by Captain Hutton 123–138
XI. Notice of the Earnscleugh Cave. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. With Remarks on some of the more remarkable Moa Remains found in it. By Professor Millen Coughtrey, M.D. 138–144
XII. On the Discovery of a cut Stump of a Tree, giving Evidence of the Existence of Man in New Zealand at or before the Volcanic Era. By John Goodall 144–146
XIII. Description of a Wreck found at the Haast River. From a Report to his Honour J. A. Bonar, Superintendent. By Thomas Turnbull, Chief Harbour-master of Westland. Communicated by W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S. 146–148
XIV. Notes on the reported Collision of Biela's Comet with the Earth's Atmosphere. By Henry Skey 148–149
XV. On the Zodiacal Light, as seen in Southern Latitudes. By Henry Skey 150–152
XVI. On a new Thermometer for Lecture Purposes. By A. W. Bickerton, F.C.S., Professor of Chemistry in Canterbury College 152–154
XVII. A Scheme of University and General Education. By A. W. Bickerton, F.C.S., Associate Royal School of Mines and Professor of Chemistry in Canterbury College 154–164
XVIII. On University Education. By the Rev. C. Frazer, M.A. 164–167
XIX. The Claims of Science in National Education. By Josiah Martin 168–175
XX. On Early Instruction. By J. Adams, B.A. 175–180
XXI. On Forest Culture. By J. C. Firth 181–195
II.—Zoology.
XXII. On the Ornithology of New Zealand. By Walter L. Buller, D.Sc., F.L.S., F.G.S., F.R.G.S. 197–211
XXIII. Notes on certain disputed Species of New Zealand Birds. By Walter L. Buller, D.Sc, C.M.Z.S. 211–212
XXIV. On the Existence of two Species of Hieracidea in New Zealand. By Walter L. Buller 213–214
XXV. Notes on an alleged new Species of Tern (Sterna alba, Potts). By Walter L. Buller 214–215
XXVI. Description of a new Species of Petrel (Procellaria affinis). By Walter L. Buller 215–216
XXVII. On the Occurrence of Plotus novæ-hollandiæ in New Zealand. By Walter L. Buller 217–218
XXVIII. Notice of a new Species of Parrakeet in New Zealand. By Walter L. Buller 219–220
XXIX. On the Genus Himantopus in New Zealand. By Walter L. Buller 220–224
XXX. On some Additions to the Collection of Birds in the Colonial Museum. By Walter L. Buller 224–225
XXXI. Preliminary Remarks on some New Zealand Birds. By Otto Finsch, Ph.D., of Bremen, Hon. Mem. N.Z.I., C.M.Z.S., Hon. Mem. Brit. Orn. Union, etc. 226–236
XXXII. On the Occurrence of Lamna cornubica, Porbeagle Shark, Flem., the Mako of the Maoris, in New Zealand. By Julius Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S., Director of the Canterbury Museum 237–238
XXXIII. On the Occurrence of Leptocephalus longirostris, Kaup, on the Coast of New Zealand. By Julius Haast 238
XXXIV. Notes on New Zealand Ichthyology. By James Hector, M.D., F.R.S., Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand 239–250
XXXV. Notes on New Zealand Whales. By James Hector 251–265
XXXVI. Description of some Plates of Baleen in the Otago Museum. By Captain F. W. Hutton, C.M.Z.S. 266
XXXVII. Description of some Moa Remains from the Knobby Ranges. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S.; with anatomical Notes, by Millen Coughtrey, M.D. 266–273
XXXVIII. On the Dimensions of Dinornis Bones. By Captain F. W. Hutton 274–278
XXXIX. Description of two new Species of Aplysia. By Captain F. W. Hutton 279
XL. Description of two new Species of Crustacea from New Zealand. By Captain F. W. Hutton 279–280
XLI. Description of a new Species of Actinia. By Professor M. Coughtrey, M.D. 280
XLII. Notes on the New Zealand Hydroideæ. By Millen Coughtrey 281–293
XLIII. Description of a new Crustacean, Phronima novæ-zealandiæ. By Ll. Powell, M.D. 294–295
XLIV. On the Disappearance of the larger kinds of Lizard from North Canterbury. By the Rev. J. W Stack 295–297
XLV. On the Goodephagous Coleoptera of New Zealand. By H. W. Bates, F.L.S. 297–314
XLVI. On the Longicorn Coleoptera of New Zealand. By H. W. Bates 315–332
III.—Botany.
XLVII. On the flowering Plants and Ferns of the Chatham Islands. By John Buchanan, of the Geological Survey Department 333–341
XLVIII. Observations on the different Modifications in the Capsules of Mosses, with reference to the Dispersion of their Spores. By Captain F. W. Hutton, C.M.Z.S., etc. 342–347
XLIX. Description of a new Species of Senecio. By Thomas F. Cheeseman, F.L.S. 348
L. On the Fertilization of Acianthus and Cyrtostilis. By Thomas F. Cheeseman 349–352
LI. On Pterostylis squamata in New Zealand. By Thomas F. Cheeseman 352–353
LII. A Description of some new Species of Gymnostomum. By Charles Knight, F.R.C.S., F.L.S. 354–355
LIII. Description of some New Zealand Lichens. By Charles Knight 356–367
LIV. Description of a new Lichen (Stereocaulon buchanani). By James Stirton, M.D. Communicated by John Buchanan 367–368
Notes on Stereocaulon buchanani, Stirton. By Charles Knight, F.R.C.S., F.L.S. 368–369
LV. On the Occurrence of Hæmatococcus sanguineus on the Wool of a Dead Sheep. By Swen Berggren, Ph.D., Lund University. Communicated by Julius Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S. 369–370
LVI. On some of the Naturalized Plants of Otago. By G. M. Thomson 370–376
LVII. On Mottled Kauri. By James Stewart, C.E. 376–377
LVIII. Description of a new Species of Isoëtes. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. 377
LIX. On the Occurrence of Juncus lamprocarpus, Ehr., in New Zealand. By T. Kirk 378
IV.—Chemistry.
LX. On the Analogy of Cyanogen to Oxygen. By William Skey, Analyst to the Geological Survey of New Zealand 379–383
LXI. On the Evolution of Heat during the Hydration of Clay-slate, Clay, and Coal. By William Skey 384–387
LXII. Notes on the Formation and Constitution of Torbanite and similar Minerals. By William Skey 387–389
LXIII. On the Evolution of absorbed Sulphur from Carbon by Voltaic Action; with Notes upon the Rev. H. Highton's Theory for explaining the Evolution of this Gas from certain Batteries in Work. By William Skey 389–395
LXIV. On Duplex Telegraphy. By Charles Lemon, General Manager, New Zealand Telegraphs 396–403
LXV. On a Modification of the Electric Lamp for projecting the Spectra of different Metals on the Screen. By A. W. Bickerton, F.C.S., Professor of Chemistry in Canterbury College 403
LXVI. Notes on the Colouring Matter of Hæmatococcus sanguineus. By Llewellyn Powell, M.D. 404–405
LXVII. Notes on the Chemical Properties of some of the Strata from Mr. Firth's Well at Mount Eden. By J. A. Pond 405–407
V.—Geology.
LXVIII. Notes on Dr. Haast's supposed Pleistocene Glaciation of New Zealand. By W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S. 409–440
LXIX. On the Date of the Glacial Period; a Comparison of Views represented in Papers published in the Transactions of the N.Z. Institute, Vols. V. and VI. By A. Dudley Dobson, C.E. 440–446
LXX. The Glacial Period of New Zealand. By Thomas Mackay, C.E. 447
LXXI. Did the great Cook Strait River flow to the North-West or to the South-East? By J. C. Crawford, F.G.S. 448–451
Some further Proofs as to the ancient Cook Strait River, and the Harbour of Wellington as a Freshwater Lake; also, a Consideration of the Date at which the Islands were united. By J. C. Crawford 451–453
LXXII. On the Wanganui Tertiaries. By C. W. Purnell 453–457
LXXIII. Description of three new Tertiary Shells in the Otago Museum. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S., C.M.Z.S. 458
LXXIV. Notes on the Microscopic Structure of certain Igneous Rocks submitted by the Director of the Geological Survey of New Zealand. By Richard Daintree, F.G.S., Agent-General for Queensland. Communicated by Dr. Hector 458–460
LXXV. Deep Sinking in the Lava Beds of Mount Eden. By J. C. Firth 460–464
PROCEEDINGS.
WELLINGTON PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY.
Anniversary Address of the President, Charles Knight, F.R.C.S. 467–487
On Ergot in Rye Grass. By Dr. Hector, F.R.S. 488–489
Notice of Ceratodus fosteri, Krefft, or Barramunda, of the Queensland Rivers. By Dr. Hector 490–491
Account of Soundings taken by the "Challenger" Expedition. By Dr. Hector 491–492
Notice of the New Zealand Avocet and Procellaria lessoni. By Dr. Hector 492
On the Position of Sulphocyanogen among the Elements, with Notes upon the Series of double Sulphocyanides discovered by the Author in 1868. By W. Skey 502
Memorandum on the Longitude of Wellington Observatory. By Captain Nares, of H.M.S. "Challenger," with enclosing letter by Dr. Hector. Communicated by the Hon. the Colonial Secretary 502–507
On the Occurrence of Lepilæna preissii, Muell., and Carex chlorantha, Br., in New Zealand. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. 508
Abstract Report of Council for 1874 508–509
Election of Officers for 1875 509
Notes on Hutton's Catalogue of the Marine Mollusca of New Zealand. By Dr. Ed. von Martens. Communicated by Dr. Hector 510
Note on Rallus modestus. By W. L. Buller, Sc.D., F.L.S. 511
AUCKLAND INSTITUTE.
Anniversary Address. By T. Heale 513–519
On Trees suitable for Streets and Avenues. By D. Hay 519–520
On Street Planting. By R. W. Dyson 521
Note on Danais berenice. By T. B. Gillies, M.H.R. 523–524
Note on the Habits of Gerygone flaviventris. By T. B. Gillies 524
Abstract of Annual Report 525
Election of Officers for 1875 525
PHILOSOPHICAL INSTITUTE OF CANTERBURY.
On Wolffia. By Ll. Powell, M.D. 527
Results of Excavations and Researches in and near the Moa-bone Point Cave, Sumner Road (Postscript). By Julius Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S. 528–530
Explanation of some personal Remarks made in Mr. Potts' Paper on the Birds of New Zealand, part IV., Trans. N.Z. Inst. Vol. VI. By Julius Haast 530–531
Resolutions regarding the Sumner Cave Exploration 531–533
Election of Officers for 1875 532
Abstract Report of the Council 533
Protest by Dr. Haast against Minutes of the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute 534–535
Further Resolutions regarding the Sumner Cave Exploration 535
Extract from the Minutes of a Meeting of the Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute, held 21st Dec, 1874 535–538
OTAGO INSTITUTE.
Remarks on a Paper by G. Thomson on the Naturalized Plants of Otago. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. 539
Notes on rare Ferns. By P. Thomson 540–541
Letter from Dr. Gray containing Notes on a Finner Whale 542
On some common Causes of Consumption in Otago. By Robert H. Bakewell, M.D. 543–544
Notes on the Moa. By W. H. S. Roberts 548–549
Comparison of the Marine Mollusca of South Australia with those of New Zealand. By W. Beddnal. Communicated by Captain Hutton 549
Communication from the Superintendent of Otago with regard to the Philadelphia Exhibition 549–550
Annual Report 550
Anniversary Address by the President, J. T. Thomson, F.R.G.S. 550–553
Election of Officers for 1875 555
NELSON ASSOCIATION.
Election of Officers for 1875 557
Notice of a Whale. By the Bishop of Nelson 558
NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE.
Sixth Annual Report by the Board of Governors 559–565
Accounts of the New Zealand Institute 565
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APPENDIX.
Meteorological Statistics of New Zealand for 1874 xxi–xxiii
Earthquakes reported in New Zealand during 1874 xxiii
Comparative Abstract for 1874 and previous years xxiv
Notes on the Weather during 1874 xxv–xxvii
Notes on the word "Moa" in the Poetry of the New Zealanders. By the Rev. James W. Stack xxviii–xxix
Abstract of Meteorological Observations, taken at Delanasau, Bay of Islands, Bua, Fiji, for the year ending 31st Dec, 1873. By R. L. Holmes, F.M.S. xxx
Observations on the Growth and Reproduction of the red Corpuscles of the Blood. By Robert H. Bakewell, M.D. Communicated by Dr. Hector xxxi–xxxvii
Induction and Necessary Truth. By the Rev. R. Kidd, LL.D. xxxviii–xlv
On Probability (Part I.). By the Rev. R. Kidd xlvi–lviii
What is Science? By the Rev. R. Kidd lviii–lxiv
Honorary Members of the New Zealand Institute lxv
Ordinary Members lxv–lxxiii
Errata et Addenda iii
Contents v–x
List of Plates x
Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute xi
Abstracts of Rules and Statutes of the New Zealand Institute xi–xiii
List of Incorporated Societies xiv
Officers of Incorporated Societies and Extracts from the Rules xiv–xvii




ILLUSTRATIONS.

TO FACE PAGE
I. Haast.—Plan and Sections of Moa-bone Point Cave, Sumner  56
II. {{{1}}} Map and Sections of Moa-bone Point Cave, Sumner  64
III. {{{1}}} Sections of Moa-hunter Encampment, Shag Point
{{{1}}} Sections of ancient Burial Place at Sumner
 86
IV. {{{1}}} Stone Implements from Burial Place at Sumner  88
V. Booth.—Plan of Moa Swamp at Hamilton 128
VI. Goodall.—Cut Stump of a Tree 144
VII. Buller.—Diagram of a Bird 200
VIII. {{{1}}} Prion vittatus, Pr. turtur, Pr. banksii,
Platycercus novæ-zealandiæ, Pl. auriceps, Pl. alpinus,
Orthonyx ochrocephala, O. albicilla, Certhiparus novæ-zealandiæ
208
IX. {{{1}}} Hieracidea novæ-zealandiæ, H. ferox 214
X. Hector.Plectropoma huntii, Haplodactylus meandratus, Girella percoides,
Chilodactylus douglasii, Scorpæna barathri
240
XI. {{{1}}} Trachichthys intermedius, Caranx koheru, Platystethus abbreviatus,
Macrurus armatus, Pseudorhombus boops, Maurolicus australis
248
XII. Buchanan.Myosotidium nobile 334
XIII. {{{1}}} Veronica chathamica, Geranium traversii 336
XIV. {{{1}}} Olearia semidentata 336
XV. {{{1}}} Olearia angustifolia 340
XVI. Hector.Neobalæna marginata, Orca pacifica
Globiocephalus macrorhynchus
260
XVI.A. {{{1}}} Globiocephalus macrorhynchus 264
XVII. {{{1}}} Neobalæna marginata 252
XVIII. {{{1}}} Physalus antarcticus 256
XIX. Hutton and Coughtrey.—Moa Remains 272
XX. Coughtrey.Hydroideæ 288
XXI. Powell.Phronima novæ-zealandiæ
Hutton.Aplysia brunnea, Aplysia venosa
Cominella striata, Zizyphinus hodgei, Venus (?) sulcata
294
XXII. {{{1}}} Capsules of Mosses 344
XXIII. Knight.—Lichens 360
XXIV. Berggren.Hæmatococcus sanguineus 370
XXV. Kirk.Isoëtes alpinus
Knight.Stereocaulon buchanani
368
XXVI. Lemon.—Diagrams illustrating Duplex Telegraphy 398
XXVII. {{{1}}} Diagrams illustrating Duplex Telegraphy 400
XXVIII. Knight.—Different Species of Gymnostomum 354
XXIX. Bakewell.—Blood Corpuscles xxxvi
Hutton.—Measurements of Dinornis bones 278