1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 2/Table of contributors


A. A. B. Andrew Alexander Blair.
Chief Chemist, U.S. Geological Survey and Tenth U.S. Census, 1879–1881. Member American Philosophical Society. Author of Chemical Analysis of Iron; &c.
A. B. R. Alfred Barton Rendle, F.R.S., F.L.S., D.Sc.
Keeper of the Department of Botany, British Museum.
Angiosperms (in part); Apple.
A. C. R. C. Albert Charles Robinson Carter.
Editor of The Year’s Art.
Art Societies.
A. C. Sp. Arthur Coe Spencer, Ph.D.
Geologist to the Geological Survey of the United States.
Appalachian Mountains.
A. F. L. Arthur Francis Leach, M.A.
Charity Commissioner since 1906. Fellow of All Souls’ College, Oxford, 1874–1881. Formerly Assistant Secretary, Board of Education. Author of English Schools at the Reformation; History of Winchester College; Bradfield College; &c.
A. F. P. Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc.
Professor of English History in University of London. Fellow of All Souls’ College Oxford.
A. G. Major Arthur George Frederick Griffiths (d. 1908).
H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878–1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate; Secrets of the Prison House; &c.
A. H. S. Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, D.Litt., LL.D., D.D.
See the biographical article: Sayce, A. H.
Assur: City; Assur-Bani-Pal.
A. H.-S. Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, C.I.E.
General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.
A. J. L. Andrew Jackson Lamoureux.
Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of the Rio News (Rio de Janeiro), 1879–1901.
Argentina: Geography;
Atacama, Desert of
A. L. Andrew Lang.
See the biographical article: Lang, Andrew.
A. M. C. Agnes Mary Clerke.
See the biographical article: Clerke, A. M.
Astronomy: History.
A. S. M. Alexander Stuart Murray, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Murray, Alexander Stuart.
Aqueduct (in Part).
A. T. Antoine Thomas, D.-ès-L.
Professor in the University of Paris. Member of the Institute of France. Director of Studies at the École Pratique des Hautes Études. Author of Les États provinciaux de la France centrale sous Charles VII; &c.
Aubusson: Town.
A. W. R. Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B.
Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England.
B. Lord Balcarres, M.P., F.S.A.
Eldest son of the 26th Earl of Crawford. Trustee of National Portrait Gallery. Hon. Secretary, Society for Protection of Ancient Buildings. Author of Donatello; &c.
Art Galleries.
B. R. Sir Boverton Redwood, D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.), Assoc.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E.
Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, the Home Office and the Indian Office. President, Society Chemical Ind., 1907–1908.
C. Ar. Channing Arnold.
University College, Oxford. Barrister-at-law. Author of The American Egypt.
Australia: Aborigines.
C. B.* Charles Bémont, D.-ès-L., D.Litt. (Oxon.).
See the biographical article: Bémont, Charles.
Annals; Anselme;
Arbois de Jubainville
; Aulard.
C. Ch. Charles Chree, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S.
Superintendent, Observatory Department, National Physical Laboratory. Formerly Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. President, Physical Society of London.
Atmospheric Electricity;
Aurora Polaris
C. El. Sir Charles Norton Edgecumbe Eliot, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.
Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Scholar of Balliol, Oxford, 1881–1885. Hertford, Boden, Ireland, Craven and Derby Scholar. Fellow of Trinity. Third Secretary Embassy at St Petersburg, 1888–1892; Constantinople, 1893–1898. Commissioner for British East Africa, 1900–1904. Author of Turkey in Europe; Letters from the Far East.
Asia: History..
C.F.A. Charles Francis Atkinson.
Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.
Arms and Armour: Firearms; Army; Artillery.
C. H. Rd. Charles Hercules Read, LL.D. (St Andrews).
Keeper of British and Medieval Antiquities and Ethnography, British Museum. President of the Society of Antiquaries of London. Past President of the Anthropological Institute. Author of Antiquities from Benin; &c.
C. Pf. Christian Pfister, D.-ès-L.
Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Etudes sur le règne de Robert le Pieux.
C. Pl. Rev. Charles Plummer, M.A.
Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1901. Author of Life and Times of Alfred the Great; &c.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
C. W.* Charles Waldstein, M.A., D.Litt., Ph.D.
Slade Professor of Fine Art, Cambridge. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge, 1883–1889. Director of the American Archaeological School at Athens, 1889–1893.
Argos: The Heraeum..
C. W. W. Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836–1897).
Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary Commission, 1858–1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Commission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886–1894. Director-General of Military Education, 1895–1898. Author of From Korti to Khartum; Life of Lord Clive; &c.
Asia Minor
D. C. B. Demetrius Charles Boulger.
Author of England and Russia in Central Asia; History of China; Life of Gordon; India in the 19th Century; History of Belgium; &c.
D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey.
Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis, comprising The Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.
D. G. H. David George Hogarth, M.A.
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904–1905; Assiut, 1906–1907. Director, British School at Athens, 1897–1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
Antioch; Apamea; Arabgir; Asia Minor; Aspendus;
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal Navy, 1217–1688; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c.
Anson, Baron;
Antonio, Prior of Crato
; Aranda, Count of; Armada.
E. Br. Ernest Barker, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Merton College.
Aulic Council.
E. B. T. Edward Burnett Tylor, F.R.S., D.C.L. (Oxon.).
See the biographical article: Tylor, E. B.
E. C. B. Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., D.Litt. (Dubl.)
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath.
Anthony, Saint; Augustinian Canons; Augustinian Hermits; Augustinians.
Ed. M. Eduard Meyer, D.Litt. (Oxon.).
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums; Forschungen zur alten Geschichte; Geschichte des alten Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstamme; &c.
Arbaces; Ardashir; Arsaces; Arses; Artabanus; Artaphernes; Artaxerxes; Astyages.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Gosse, E. W.
Asbjornsen and Moe; Assonance.
E. O.* Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, Great Ormond Street. Late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, Durham and London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
E. P. H.* Ernest Prescot Hill, M.Inst.C.E.
Member of the firm of G. A. Hill & Sons, Civil Engineers, London.
Aqueduct: Modern.
E. R. L. Sir Edwin Ray Lankester, K.C.B., F.R.S., D.Sc. (Oxon.) LL.D.
Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. President of the British Association, 1906. Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in University College, London, 1874–1890. Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford, 1891–1898. Director of the Natural History Departments of the British Museum, 1898–1907. Vice-President of the Royal Society, 1896. Romanes Lecturer at Oxford, 1905. Author of Degeneration; The Advancement of Science; The Kingdom of Man; &c.
E. Tn. Rev. Ethelred Leonard Taunton (d. 1907).
Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in England; &c.
Aquaviva, Claudio.
E. V. L. Edward Verrall Lucas.
Editor of Letters of Charles and Mary Lamb. Author of Life of Charles Lamb.
Austen, Jane.
F. C. C. Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen).
Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.
Anointing; Armenian Church; Armenian Language and Literature; Asceticism.
F. G. P. Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst.
Vice-President Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. Formerly Examiner in the Universities of Cambridge, Aberdeen, London and Birmingham; and Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons.
F. H. Ne. Francis Henry Neville, M.A., F.R.S.
Fellow of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Lecturer on Physics and Chemistry.
F. Ll. G. Francis Llewelyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D. (Leipzig), F.S.A.
Reader in Egyptology, Oxford. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute.
Anubis; Apis;
; Assuan.
F. R. C. Frank R. Cana.
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
F. T. M. Sir Frank T. Marzials, C.B.
Formerly Accountant-General of the Army. Author of Lives of Victor Hugo; Molière; Dickens; &c.
Augier, G. V. E.
F. W. Mo. Frederick Walker Mott, F.R.S., M.D.
Physician to Charing Cross Hospital. Pathologist to the London County Asylums. Fullerian Professor of Physiology at the Royal Institution.
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879–1902. President of the Geologists' Association, 1887–1889.
G. C. B. Gilbert Charles Bourne, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., D.Sc. (Oxon.)
Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford. Fellow of Merton College, Oxford.
G. E. Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909.
Argentina: History.
G. H. C. George Herbert Carpenter, B.Sc.
Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. President of the Association of Economic Biologists. Author of Insects: their Structure and Life.
Ant; Aptera.
G. H. Fo. George Herbert Fowler, F.Z.S., F.L.S., Ph.D.
Formerly Berkeley Fellow of Owens College, Manchester, and Assistant Professor of Zoology at University College, London.
G. K. Gustav Krüger, Ph.D.
Professor of Church History, University of Giessen. Author of Das Papsitum; &c.
Arius; Athanasius;
Augustine, Saint (of Hippo)
G. Sh. Grant Showerman, Ph.D.
Professor of Latin in the University of Wisconsin. Author of The Great Mother of the Gods.
G. W. B. George Willis Botsford, A.M.
Professor in Columbia University, New York. Author of The Roman Assemblies (1909); &c.
G. W. T. Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D.
Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.
̔Antara ibn Shaddād;
: Antiquities, History, Literature; Arabian Philosophy (in part); AʽShā;
; Asmaʽī; Assassin.
H. B. Hilary Bauermann, F.G.S. (d. 1909).
Formerly Lecturer on Metallurgy at the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author of A Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron.
H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; co-editor of the 10th edition.
Argyll, Earls and Dukes of (in part); Asquith, H. H.
H. F. G. Hans Friedrich Gadow, F.R.S., Ph.D.
Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author of Amphibia and Reptiles.
H. F. P. Henry Francis Pelham, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Pelham, H. F.
H. F. T. Rev. Henry Fanshawe Tozer, M.A., F.R.G.S.
Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Corresponding Member of Historical Society of Greece. Author of Lectures on the Geography of Greece; History of Ancient Geography. Editor of Finlay's History of Greece.
H. Ha. Heber Hart.
Auctions and Auctioneers.
H. H. S. Henry Heathcote Statham, F.R.I.B.A.
Editor of The Builder. Author of Architecture (Modern) for General Readers; Modern Architecture; &c.
Architecture: Modern.
H. M. C. Hector Munro Chadwick, M.A.
Fellow and Librarian of Clare College, Cambridge. Author of Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions.
Angli; Anglo-Saxons.
H. N. D. Henry Newton Dickson, M.A., D.Sc. (Oxon.), F.R.G.S., F.R.S. (Edin.).
Professor of Geography, University College, Reading. Author of Elementary Meteorology; Papers on Oceanography; &c.
Atlantic Ocean.
H. Se. Henri Sée.
Professor in the University of Rennes.
Anne of Brittany.
H. Sm. Hugh Sheringham.
Angling Editor of The Field (London).
I. A. Israel Abrahams, M.A.
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages.
̔Asher Ben Jehiel.
I. B. B. Isaac Bayley Balfour, F.R.S., M.D.
King’s Botanist in Scotland. Regius Keeper of Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. Professor of Botany in the University of Edinburgh. Regius Professor of Botany in the University of Glasgow, 1879–1884. Sherardian Professor of Botany in the University of Oxford, 1884–1888.
Angiosperms (in part).
J. A. H. John Allen Howe, B.Sc.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London.
Archean System;
Arenig Group
J. A. R. Very Rev. Joseph Armitage Robinson, M.A., D.D.
Dean of Westminster. Fellow of the British Academy. Hon. Fellow of Christ’s College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Christ’s College, Cambridge, and Norrisian Professor of Divinity. Author of Some Thoughts on the Incarnation; &c.
Aristides, Apology of.
J. B. T. Sir John Batty Tuke, M.D., LL.D. (Edin.), D.Sc. (Dubl.)
President of the Neurological Society of the United Kingdom. Medical Director of New Saughton Hall Asylum, Edinburgh. M.P. for the Universities of Edinburgh and St Andrews, 1900–1910.
J. Bn. John Bilson.
External Examiner in Architecture, University of Manchester.
Architecture: Romanesque and     Gothic, in England.
J. D. B. James David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S.
Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria.
J. D. Pr. John Dyneley Prince, Ph.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York. Took part in the Expedition to Southern Babylonia, 1888-89. Author of A Critical Commentary on the Book of Daniel; Assyrian Primer.
Assur (Biblical).
J. G. C. A. John George Clark Anderson, M.A.
Student, Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1896. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Joint-author of Studica Pontica.
J. G. F. Sir Joshua Girling Fitch.
See the biographical article: Fitch, Sir Joshua G.
Arnold, Matthew (in part).
J. G. H. Joseph G. Horner, A.M.I.Mech.E.
Author of Plating and Boiler Making; &c.
J. G. Sc. Sir James George Scott, K.C.I.E.
Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma, a Handbook; The Upper Burma Gazetteer; &c.
J. H. A. H. John Henry Arthur Hart, M.A.
Fellow, Lecturer and Librarian of St John’s College, Cambridge.
Archelaus, King of Judaea; Asmoneus; Assideans.
J. H. F. John Henry Freese, M.A.
Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge.
Annalists; Aphrodite; Apollo; Artemis; Athena.
J. H. R. John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.).
Author of Feudal England; Peerage and Pedigree; &c.
Arundel, Earldom of.
J. Hl. R. John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D.
Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pill; Chapters in the Cambridge Modern History.
J. I. Jules Isaac.
Professor of History at the Lycée of Lyons.
Anne of France.
J. L. W. Miss Jessie L. Weston.
Author of Arthurian Romances.
Arthurian Legend
J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote’s History of Greece.
Aqueduct: Ancient and         Medieval;
Aquinas, Thomas
 (in part); Archon;
Arms and Armour
: Ancient.
J. Mac. James Macqueen.
Member and Fellow of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Professor of Surgery at the Royal Veterinary College, London. Examiner for the Fellowship Diploma of the R.C.V.S. Editor, of Fleming’s Operative Veterinary Surgery (2nd edition); Dun’s Veterinary Medicines (both edition); and Neumann’s Parasites and Parasitic Diseases of the Domesticated Animals (2nd edition).
J. P. E. Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adhémar Esmein.
Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours élémentaire d’histoire du droit français; &c.
J. S. B. Jacob Samuel Ballin.
Founder and Hon. Sec. of the National Institution of Apprenticeship, London.
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.
J. Si.* Rev. James Sibree.
Author of Madagascar and its People; &c.
J. V. B. James Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D. (St Andrews).
Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The Apostolic Age; &c.
Apostolic Fathers
J. W. G. John Walter Gregory, F.R.S., D.Sc.
Professor of Geology, University of Glasgow. Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, University of Melbourne, 1900–1904. Author of The Dead Heart of Australia; Australasia.
Australia: Physical Geography.
J. W. He. James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A.
Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at Queen’s College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German Empire; &c.
Arnim, Count.
K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger.
Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra.
Arghoul; Asor; Aulos.
L. H.* Louis Halphen, D.-ès-L.
Lecturer on Medieval History at the University of Bordeaux. Formerly Secretary of the École des Chartes, Paris.
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A., F.G.S.
Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
Anhydrite; Ankerite; Annabergite; Anorthite; Apatite; Apophyllite; Aragonite; Argentite; Argyrodite; Augite.
L. M. Br. Louis Maurice Brandin, M.A.
Fielden Professor of French and of Romance Philology in the University of London.
Anglo-Norman Literature.
L. W. Lucien Wolf.
Vice-President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Formerly President of the Society. Joint editor of the Bibliotheca Anglo-Judaica.
M. G. Moses Gaster.
Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine Literature, 1886 and 1891. President, Folklore Society of England. Vice-President, Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian Popular Literature; A New Hebrew Fragment of Ben-Sira; The Hebrew Version of Secrètum Secretorum of Aristotle.
Anthim the Iberian.
M. H. C. Montague Hughes Crackanthorpe, K.C., D.C.L.
President of the Eugenics Education Society. Formerly Member of the General Council of the Bar and Council of Legal Education. Late Chairman, Incorporated Council of Law Reporting. Honorary Fellow St John’s College, Oxford.
Arbitration, International.
M. J. De G. Michael Jan de Goeje.
See the biographical article: Goeje, Michael Jan de.
Arabia: Literature (in part).
M. Ja. Morris Jastrow, Ph.D. (Leipzig).
Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania. Author of Religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c.
Anu; Assur (God);
M. L. H. Lady Huggins.
See the biographical article: Huggins, Sir William.
Armilla; Astrolabe.
M. N. T. Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. Joint author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum.
Apella; Archidamus; Aristodemus; Aristomenes.
M. O. B. C. Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A.
Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham University, 1905–1908. Author of chapters on Greek History in The Year’s Work in Classical Studies.
Aratus of Sicyon; Arcadia; Argos: History;
Aristides the Just
 (in part).
M. P.* Léon Jacques Maxime Prinet.
Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary to the Institute of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences).
Aumale, Duc d’.
N. M. Norman McLean, M.A.
Fellow, Lecturer and Librarian of Christ’s College, Cambridge. University Lecturer in Aramaic. Examiner for the Oriental Languages Tripos and the Theological Tripos at Cambridge.
N. W. T. Northcote Whitbridge Thomas, M.A.
Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the Societe d’Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and Marriage in Australia; &c.
O. Ba. Oswald Barron, F.S.A.
Editor of The Ancestor, 1902–1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of Honourable Society of Baronetage.
Arms and Armour: English.
O. Br. Oscar Briliant.
Austria: Statistics.
P. A. Paul Daniel Alphandéry.
Professor of the History of Dogma, École Pratique des Hautes Études, Sorbonne, Paris. Author of Les Idées morales chez les hétérodoxes latines au début du XIIIe siècle.
Arnold of Brescia
P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince Peter Alexeivich
Aral; Astrakhan.
P. C. M. Peter Chalmers Mitchell, F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc., LL.D.
Secretary to the Zoological Society of London from 1903. University Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888–1891. Lecturer on Biology at Charing Cross Hospital, 1892–1894; at London Hospital, 1894. Examiner in Biology to the Royal College of Physicians, 1892–1896, 1901–1903. Examiner in Zoology to the University of London, 1903.
Animal; Annelida.
P. C. Y. Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A.
Magdalen College, Oxford.
Anglesey, 1st Earl of;
Anne, Queen
Anne of Cleves
; Anne of Denmark;
Antrim, 1st Marquess of
; Argyll, Earls and Dukes of;
Arlington, Earl of
P. G. Percy Gardner, Litt.D., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.
P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D.
Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative Philology. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology.
P. La. Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S.
Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian Trilobites. Translator and editor of Kayser’s Comparative Geology.
: Geology;
: Geology.
P. Vi. Paul Vinogradoff, D.C.L. (Oxford), LL.D. (Cambridge and Harvard).
Corpus Professor of Jurisprudence in the University of Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Honorary Professor of History in the University of Moscow. Author of Villainage in England; English Society in the 11th Century; &c.
Anglo-Saxon Law.
R. The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh.
See the biographical article: Rayleigh, 3rd Baron.
R. A. S. M. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A.
Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund.
R. A. W. Colonel Robert Alexander Wahab, C.M.G., C. I. E.
Served in the Afghan War, 1878–1880; with the Hazara Expeditions, 1888 and 1891; with the Tirah Expeditionary Force, 1897–1898, &c. Commissioner for the Aden Boundary Delimitation.
Arabia: Modern History;
R. C. J. Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Jebb, Sir Richard C.
R. G. Richard Garnett, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Garnett, Richard.
Anthology; Apotheosis.
R. H. C. Rev. Robert Henry Charles, M.A., D.D., Litt.D. (Oxon.).
Grinfield Lecturer and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Professor of Biblical Greek at Trinity College, Dublin, 1898–1906. Author of Critical History of a Future Life; &c.
Apocalyptic Literature; Apocryphal Literature.
R. I. P. Reginald Innes Pocock, F.Z.S., F.L.S.
Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London.
Ant-lion; Aphides.
R. J. M. Ronald John McNeill, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Editor of the St James’s Gazette (London).
Australia: Recent Legislation.
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.
Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; &c.
Antelope; Arsinoitherium; Artiodactyla; Aurochs.
R. Ma. Rev. Robert Mackintosh, M.A., D.D.
Professor at Lancashire Independent College, Manchester.
Anthropomorphism; Apolo-
; Apotheosis (in part).
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883–1909. Author of Scandinavia: the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513–1900; The First Romanovs, 1613 to 1725; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796; &c.
Anne, Empress of Russia; Apraksin, T. M.;
Arakcheev, A. A., Count
Arany, Janos
Armfelt, G. M., Count
R. N. W. Ralph Nicholson Wornum (1812–1877).
Keeper of the National Gallery, 1854–1877. Author of The Epochs of Painting; &c.
R. P. S. R. Phené Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.
Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King’s College, London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson’s History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c.
R. Po. Rene Poupardin, D.-ès-L.
Secretary of the Ecole des Chartes. Honorary Librarian at the Bibliothêque Nationale, Paris.
Arles, Kingdom of.
R. S. Lieut.-Gen. Sir Richard Strachey, R.E., G.C.S.I., LL.D., F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Strachey, Sir R.
Asia: Climate, Flora and Fauna.
R. S. C. Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt. (Cantab.).
Professor of Latin in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff. Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects.
Apulia: Archaeology; Aricini; Aurunci.
R. Tr. Roland Truslove, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Worcester College, Oxford. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford.
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A.
Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Formerly Fellow and Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904–1908; Council of Royal Asiatic Society, 1904–1905. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.
S. C. Sidney Colvin, M.A., D.Litt.
See the biographical article: Colvin, Sidney.
S. N. Simon Newcomb, LL.D., D.Sc., D.C.L. (Oxon.).
See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon.
Astronomy: Descriptive; Astrophysics.
St C. Viscount St Cyres.
See the biographical article: Iddesleigh, 1st Earl of.
Arnauld: Family.
Sw. The Right Hon. Lord Swaythling (Sir Samuel Montagu).
M.P. for Whitechapel, 1885–1900. Founder of the firm of Samuel Montagu & Co., Bankers, London.
T. A. C. Timothy Augustine Coghlan, I.S.O.
Agent-General for New South Wales. President of Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science (Economics and Statistics), 1902. Author of The Seven Colonies of Australia; Statistical Account of Australia and New Zealand.
T. A. I. Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D.
Trinity College, Dublin.
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon.).
Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Author of numerous articles in the Papers of the British School at Rome; The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna; &c.
Antium; Appia Via;
: History;
: Roman;
; Aquino;
; Arezzo;
Ariano di Puglia
; Aricia; Ariminum; Arpi; Arpino; Arretium; Ascoli Piceno; Asisium; Assisi; Astura;
; Aufidena;
Augusta (Sicily)
Augusta Bagiennorum
Augusta Praetoria Salassorum
Aurelia, Via
T. Ba. Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P.
Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.
Asylum, Right of
T. Ca. Thomas Case, M.A.
President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Formerly Waynflete Professor of Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy at Oxford. Author of Physical Realism; &c.
T. H. Thomas Hodgkin, LL.D., D.Litt.
See the biographical article: Hodgkin, T.
T. H. H.* Col. Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc., F.R.G.S.
Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892–1898. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King’s Award; &c.
Asia: Geography and         Ethnology.
T. L. H. Sir Thomas Little Heath, K.C.B., D.Sc. (Cantab.).
Assistant Secretary to the Treasury. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
Apollonius of Perga
T. M. L. Rev. Thomas Martin Lindsay, LL.D., D.D.
Principal of the United Free Church College, Glasgow. Formerly Assistant to the Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Author of History of the Reformation; Life of Luther; &c.
Aquinas, Thomas.
T. W.-D. Walter Theodore Watts-Dunton.
See the biographical article: Watts-Dunton, W. T.
Arnold, Matthew.
T. W. R. D. T. W. Rhys Davids, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D.
Professor of Comparative Religion in the University of Manchester. President of the Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of Royal Asiatic Society, 1885–1902. Author of Buddhism; &c.
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Hon. Ph.D. (Bern),
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David’s College, Lampeter, 1880–1881. Author of Guide du haut dauphiné; The Range of the Tödi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880–1889; &c.
Arnaud, Henri
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Principal Assistant Editor of the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College, Oxford, and Senior Scholar of St John’s College. Author of Modern Europe; &c.
W. Bo. Wilhelm Bousset, D.Theol.
Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the University of Göttingen. Author of Das Wesen der Religion; The Antichrist Legend; &c.
W. Cr. Walter Crane.
See the biographical article: Crane, Walter.
Arts and Crafts;
Art Teaching
W. E. Co. Right Rev. William Edward Collins, D.D., Bishop of Gibraltar.
Formerly Professor of Ecclesiastical History, King’s College, London. Lecturer, St John’s and Selwyn Colleges, Cambridge. Author of The Beginnings of English Christianity.
Apostolical Constitutions.
W. E. E. Major William Egerton Edwards.
Captain and Brevet Major, Royal Field Artillery. Inspector, Inspection Staff, Woolwich Arsenal. Lecturer on Armour and Explosives at the Royal Naval War College, Greenwich, 1904–1909.
Armour Plates.
W. F. C. William Feilden Craies, M.A.
Barrister-at-law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King’s College, London. Editor of Archbold’s Criminal Pleading (23rd edition). Author of Craies on Statute Law.
W. F. Sh. William Fleetwood Sheppard, M.A., D.Sc.
Senior Examiner under the Board of Education. Senior Wrangler, 1884. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
W. H. Be. William Henry Bennett, M.A., D.D., D.Litt. (Cantab.).
Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in New and Hackney Colleges, London. Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth College, Sheffield. Author of Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets; &c.
Angel; Atonement.
W. H. Di. William Henry Dines, F.R.S.
W. J. F. William Justice Ford, M.A. (d. 1904).
Formerly Scholar of St John’s College, Cambridge. Head Master of Leamington College.
W. Ma. Sir William Markby, K.C.I.E., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Markby, Sir William.
Austin, John.
W. M. R. William Michael Rossetti.
See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel.
Angelico, Fra.
W. P. R. Hon. William Pember Reeves.
Director, London School of Economics. Agent-General and High Commissioner for New Zealand, 1896–1909. Author of A History of New Zealand.
Atkinson, Sir Henry Albert.
W. R. L. W. R. Lethaby, F.S.A.
Principal of the Central School of Arts and Crafts under the London County Council. Author of Architecture, Mysticism and Myth; &c.
Architecture: Romanesque and Gothic in France.
W. W. William Wallace, M.A.
See the biographical article: Wallace, William (d. 1897).
Arabian Philosophy (in part).
W. W. F.* William Warde Fowler, M.A.
Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1881–1904. Gifford Lecturer, Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans; The Roman Festivals of the Republican Period; &c.
Anna Perenna;
W. W. R.* William Walker Rockwell, Lic. Theol.
Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York.
Antioch, Synods of;
Arles, Synod of
Augsburg, Confession of


Anglican Communion.
Arbitration and Conciliation
in Labour Disputes

Argenson: Family.
Arthur, Chester Alan.
Art Sales.
Arundel, Earls of.

Arya Samaj.
Association of Ideas.

Athletic Sports.
Atholl, Earls and Dukes of.
Atlas Mountains.
Atterbury, Francis.
Audit and Auditor.

Augustan History.
Aungervyle, R.