Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute/Volume 12











Issued May, 1880.




The Editor has to acknowledge the assistance of the following gentlemen in revising their papers for the press:—Messrs. Frankland, Kirk, T. W. Kirk, Buchanan, Knight, Skey, Kemp, and Newman.

While doing so he would call the attention of writers to the necessity for great care in preparing their manuscript for the printer. It is impossible that a volume of such varied contents can be entirely free from error, but the difficulty of deciphering manuscript adds much both to the chance of error and the expense of publication. In some cases it has been possible to print papers with any approach to correctness only by a careful study of the author's mode of forming letters, aided by reference to dictionaries and catalogues. A scientific record such as our Transactions is only of value if exact; and the Editor makes these remarks purely with the intention of averting the irritation often caused to writers by the occurrence of mistakes (arising from imperfections in the manuscript), which they are perhaps inclined to attribute to the editing branch of the Institute.

An acknowledgement is due to Mr. Buchanan for drawing the illustrations on stone, and to Mr. Gore for the meteorological record. Also to the officers of the lithographic and photo-lithographic departments, who, by the kind permission of the Colonial Secretary, have assisted in the completion of the plates.


115, line 3 from below, for Ctenopodium read Chenopodium.
159, line 19, for native read Nature.
160, line 4, and 163, line 9, for Kaipara-te-hau read Ka-para-te-hau.
162, line 3, for Rongi read Rongo.
227, line 6, for Munipari read Munipuri.
228, in the second table, after sadikit insert kichi.
229, line 16, for the first ayo read aya.
230, line 5, for Khambi read Khamti.
{{{1}}} in the second table, under tagata insert ola (life).
{{{1}}} {{{1}}} {{{1}}} {{{1}}} {{{1}}} tangata insert oranga (life).
{{{1}}} {{{1}}} {{{1}}} {{{1}}} he kanaka insert ke-ola-aua (life).
{{{1}}} line 17, for There is no read By conversion there is close.
{{{1}}} line 18, after word insert man being life.
{{{1}}} line 22, after Malay insert and (by conversion) of Samoan, Maori, and Hawaiian.
231, line 19, for Takha read Yakha.
235, last line, for 235 read 262.
236, line 1, for 496 read 513.
240, in the fourth column, line 14, after idup, Malay insert bula, Fijian
245, line 24, for Ziphius read Epiodon.
272, line 2 from below, and 273, line 1, for Declava read Declana.
281 line 15, for Asteriseus read Asteriscus.
282, line 19, for Ophiarachna read Ophiorachna.
291, line 7, for Aphidæ read Cicadidæ.
294, line 3, for hairy read double.
360, line 26, for thyssoid read thyrsoid.



Art. I. The Forest Question in New Zealand. By A. Lecoy, M.A., LL.B. Univ. Paris 3–23
II. Influence of Forests on Climate and Rainfall. By Frederick S. Peppercorne, C.E. 24–32
III. Notes on Port Nicholson and the Natives in 1839. By Major Charles Heaphy, V.C. 32–39
IV. On the Principle of New Zealand Weather Forecast. By Commander R. A. Edwin, R.N. 40–49
V. On the Ignorance of the Ancient New Zealander of the Use of Projectile Weapons. By Coleman Phillips 50–63
VI. On the Moa. By W. Colenso, F.L.S. 63–108
VII. Contributions towards a better Knowledge of the Maori Race. By W. Colenso 108–147
VIII. A few Remarks on a Cavern near Cook's Well, at Tolaga Bay, and on a Tree (Sapota costata) found there. By W. Colenso 147–150
IX. Notes on an Ancient Manufactory of Stone Implements at the Mouth of the Otokai Creek, Brighton, Otago. By Prof. Julius von Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S., Director of the Canterbury Museum 150–153
X. Notes on the Colour-Sense of the Maori. By James W. Stack 153–158
XI. Remarks on Mr. Mackenzie Cameron's Theory respecting the Kahui Tipua. By James W. Stack 159–164
XII. Notes on the Southern Stars and other Celestial Objects. By J. H. Pope 165–175
XIII. Partial Impact (Paper No. 3): On the Origin of the Visible Universe. By Prof. A. W. Bickerton, F.C.S., President of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury 175–181
XIV. Partial Impact (Paper No. 4): On the General Problem of Stellar Collision. By Prof. A. W. Bickerton 181–186
XV. On the Genesis of Worlds and Systems. By Prof. A. W. Bickerton 187–197
XVI. On the Birth of Nebulæ. By Prof. A. W. Bickerton 197–205
XVII. On the Doctrine of Mind-Stuff. By Frederick W. Frankland 205–215
XVIII. A Reply to Mr. Frankland's Paper on "The Doctrine of MindStuff." By C. W. Richmond, a Judge of the Supreme Court of New Zealand 215–223
XIX. Pronouns and other Barat Fossil Words compared with Primeval and Non-Aryan Languages of Hindostan and Borders. By J. Turnbull Thomson, F.R.G.S., F.R.S..A., etc. 223–237
XX. Moriori Connection. By J. Turnbull Thomson 237–240
XXI. Notes on Ziphius (Epiodon) novæ-zealandiæ, von Haast—Goosebeaked Whale. By Prof. Julius von Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S., Director of the Canterbury Museum 241–246
XXII. On the Occurrence of the Red-capped Dotterel (Hiaticula ruficapilla) in New Zealand. By T. W. Kirk, Assistant in the Colonial Museum 246–247
XXIII. Remarks on some curious Specimens of New Zealand Birds. By T. W. Kirk 248–249
XXIV. Notes on the Nesting Habits of the Orange-wattled Crow. By W. D. Campbell, Assoc. M. Inst. C.E., F.G.S. 249–250
XXV. On the New Zealand Frog. By Dr. Fitzinger. Translated from the Zoology of the Voyage of the "Novara," by Prof. Hutton 250–251
XXVI. Notes and Observations on the Animal Economy and Habits of one of our New Zealand Lizards, supposed to be a new Species of Naultinus. By W. Colenso, F.L.S. 251–264
XXVII. Description of a new (?) Genus and Species of Butterfly of the Sub-family Satyrinæ. By R. W. Fereday, C.M.E.S.L. 264–266
XXVIII. Description of a (?) new Species of the Family Leucanidæ, and a (?) new Species of the Genus (?) Chlenias. By R. W. Fereday 267–270
XXIX. Note and Description of a possibly-new Species of Aplysia. By F. H. Meinertzhagen 270–271
XXX. On Anas gracilis, Buller. By Prof. Hutton, of the Otago University 271–272
XXXI. Contributions to the Entomology of New Zealand. By Prof . Hutton 272–274
XXXII. Contributions to the Cœlenterate Fauna of New Zealand. By Prof. Hutton 274–276
XXXIII. Additions to the List of New Zealand Worms. By Prof. Hutton 277–278
XXXIV. Descriptions of new Star-fishes from New Zealand. By Prof. A. E. Verrill. From the Trans. Connecticut Acad., 1867. Communicated by Prof. Hutton 278–283
XXXV. On the Habits of Prionoplus reticularis, with Diagnoses of the Larva and Pupa. By Capt. T. Broun 284–288
XXXVI. Description of the Larva of Pericoptus truncatus, with Observations as to Habitat. By Capt. T. Broun 288–290
XXXVII. Further Notes on New Zealand Coccidæ. By W. M. Maskell 291–301
XXXVIII. On Melicerta ringens and Plumatella repens. By A. Hamilton 301–303
XXXIX. List of Marine Mollusca found in the neighbourhood of Wellington. By T. W. Kirk, Assistant in the Colonial Museum 303–306
XL. Descriptions of new Marine Shells. By T. W. Kirk 306–307
XLI. Notice of the Occurrence of Vitrina milligani in New Zealand. By T. W. Kirk 307
XLII. Additions to the List of New Zealand Fishes. By T. W. Kirk 308–310
XLIII. On the Occurrence of Giant Cuttlefish on the New Zealand Coast. By T. W. Kirk 310–313
XLIV. Description of a new Species of Palinurus. By T. W. Kirk 313–314
XLV. Description of a new Species of Lizard of the Genus Naultinus. By W. L. Buller, C.M.G., Sc.D., F.R.S. 314–315
XLVI. Notes on Fishes in Upper Whanganui River. By Captain Mair, F.L.S. 315–316
XLVII. On the Botany of the Pirongia Mountain. By T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S. 317–323
XLVIII. On the Occurrence of the Genus Sporadanthus in New Zealand. By T. F. Cheeseman 324–325
XLIX. A short Sketch of the Flora of the Province of Canterbury, with Catalogue of Species. By J. B. Armstrong 325–353
L. Notice of the Occurrence of Liparophyllum gunnii, Lob., in New Zealand. By D. Petrie, M.A. 354
LI. Notice of the Occurrence of a Species of Hemiphues in New Zealand. By D. Petrie 355–356
LII. Description of a new Species of Ehrharta. By D. Petrie 356–357
LIII. Notes on the Growth of certain Trees on Scoria Soil near Mount Eden, Auckland. By T. B. Gillies, a Judge of the Supreme Court of New Zealand 357–358
LIV. A Description of a few new Plants from our New Zealand Forests, with dried Specimens of the same. By W. Colenso, F.L.S. 359–367
LV. Contribution to the Lichenographia of New Zealand. By Charles Knight, F.L.S. 367–379
LVI. Notes on New Zealand Plants. By J. Buchanan, F.L.S. 380–382
LVII. On Grasses and Fodder Plants. By S. M. Curl, M.D. 382–393
LVIII. Descriptions of new Flowering Plants. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. 393–397
LIX. Description of a new Species of Cladophora. By T. Kirk 397
LX. Notice of the Occurrence of Lagenophora emphysopus and other unrecorded Plants in New Zealand. By T. Kirk 397–399
LXI. On certain Results obtained upon some of the Argentiferous Salts which are affected by Light. By William Skey, Analyst to the Geological Survey Department 401–403
LXII. Further Notes upon the Movements of Camphor on Water. By William Skey 403–406
LXIII. On the Mode in which Oil acts as a Nucleus in Super-saturated Saline Solutions; with Notes on the Mode of Action of Solid Nuclei. By William Skey 407–411
LXIV. On the Cause of the Deposition of Camphor towards Light. By William Skey 411
LXV. On the Nature of the Precipitate formed by certain Mercuric Salts in presence of Essential Oils. By William Skey 412–414
LXVI. On the Decomposition of Argentic-oxide by Mercury. By William Skey 414
LXVII. On Wind-formed Lakes. By J. C. Crawford, F.G.S. 415–416
LXVIII. On Bidwill's Front Hills. By J. C. Crawford 416–418
LXIX. Remarks on Volcanoes and Geysers of New Zealand. By W. Collie 418–420

Account of Two Journeys to the Summit of Mount Ruapehu. By G. Beetham, M.H.R. (abstract) 423
Remarks on Hæmatite and Spathic Iron Ores. By Dr. Hector 424
What should be the Highest Aim of the Wellington Philosophical Society? By Dominick Brown 425
Suggestion towards a Theory accounting for the Movements of the Magnetic Needle. By the Hon. R. Hart, M.L.C. 425
Remarks on Forest Planting and Conservation, with reference to particular Localities in the Wellington District. By G. W. Williams (abstract) 428–429
Election of Governor of New Zealand Institute 431
On the Cultivation of Beet for the Manufacture of Sugar, etc. By S. M. Curl, M.D. (abstract) 431
Account of the Sydney Exhibition. By Dr. Hector 432
A few Remarks on Art Perspective. By R. T. Holmes 432
Abstract Report of Council 432
Election of Officers for 1880 432–433
Anniversary Address by the President, Dr. Newman 433–438
On Neobalæna marginata and Kogia breviceps. By Dr. Hector 438–439
On a Deposit of Chalk recently discovered near Oxford in Canterbury. By Dr. Hector 439
On Moa Feathers. By Dr. Hector 439
Further Contributions to the Ornithology of New Zealand. By W. L. Buller, C.M.G., Sc.D., F.R.S. 439
Address by the President, the Rev. Dr. Purchas 441–446
Notes on a Disease among Sheep in the Waikato District. By Major W. G. Mair 446
On the Mound-builders of North America. By J. Adams, B.A. 447
Notes on the Growth of Trees on Clay Soils. By W. Atkins 447
The possible Pacification of the World by means of a rational International Policy. By the Rev. S. Edgar 447
The Distress in England: its Causes and Remedies. By J. C. Firth 447
Note on Spiral Markings on Trenails. By the Rev. Dr. Purchas 447
Concerning Alcohol. By E. A. Mackechnie 448
Notes on the Rise and Progress of Architecture and the Fine Arts generally. By Albin Martin 448
The Distress in England: its Causes and Remedies; being a Reply to Mr. Firth's paper on the same subject. By the Rev. S. Edgar 448
Note on the American Horned Frog (Phrynosoma blainvillii). By B. S. Booth 448
On Landscape Art in the Province of Auckland. By K. Watkins 448
Remarks on Lepidosiren and other Fishes. By T. F. Cheeseman 448
Abstract of Annual Report 448–449
Election of Officers for 1880 449
On a Universal Code of Signals. By C. W. Adams 451
On Musical Tones in the Notes of Australian Birds. By C. W. Adams 451
Notes upon the Height of Mount Cook. By C. W. Adams 452
Abstract of Annual Report 452
Election of Officers for 1880 453
Notes on Ceramic and Industrial Art Specimens. By Prof. von Haast 453
A Criticism of Herbert Spencer's "First Principles." By the Rev. Prof. Salmond 454
The Unseen Universe. By J. S. Webb 454
Socialism, an Appeal to First Principles. By the Rev. Dr. Roseby 454
The Diptera of New Zealand. By Professor Hutton 454
On George Elliot's Poems. By the Rev. J. Upton Davis 455
Description of a new Fish. By Professor Hutton 455–456
Election of Officers for 1880 456
Abstract of Annual Report 456
Abstract of Annual Report 457
Election of Officers for 1880 457
Election of Officers for 1879 458
Abstract of Annual Report 458
Memoir of Allan and Richard Cunningham. By W. Colenso 459
The Myth of Kae and the Pet Whale of Tinirau. By W. Colenso 459
Election of Governor of New Zealand Institute 460
Eleventh Annual Report of the Board of Governors 463–464
Museum 464–469
Publications 469–470
Meteorology 470
Time-ball Observatory 470–471
Laboratory 471
Library 471
Accounts of the New Zealand Institute, 1878–9 472

On the Medical Aspects of Education. By W. G. Kemp, L.R.C.P. Lond., M.R.C.S, Engl. xxi–xliv
Meteorological Statistics of New Zealand for 1879 xlv–xlvii
Earthquakes reported in New Zealand during 1879 xlvii
Comparative Abstract for 1879, and previous years xlviii
Notes on the Weather during 1879 xlix
Record of Papers on New Zealand Natural History, 1879–80 l
Honorary Members of the New Zealand Institute li
Ordinary Members li–lxiii
List of Public Institutions and Individuals to whom this Volume is presented lxiv–lxvi
Addenda et Corrigenda iv
Contents v–ix
List of Plates x
Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute xi
Abstract of Rules and Statutes of the New Zealand Institute xi–xiii
List of Incorporated Societies xiv
Officers of Incorporated Societies, and Extracts from their Rules xiv–xvii


I. Edwin.—Diagrams illustrating System of New Zealand Weather Forecast  40
II. {{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}}  48
III. {{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}}  48
IV. Colenso.—Moa Bones  80
V. {{{1}}}{{{1}}}  80
VI. Bickerton.—Diagrams illustrative of Partial Impact 184
VII. Maskell.Coccidæ 300
VIII. Haast.Ziphius (Epiodon) novæ-zealandiæ 244
IX. Fereday.—Butterflies 268
X. Petrie.Ehrharta thomsoni 356
XI. T. W. Kirk.Palinurus tumidus 314
XII. Knight.—Lichens 368
XIII. {{{1}}}{{{1}}} 376
XIV. T. Kirk.Euphrasia disperma 396