Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute/Volume 13











Issued April, 1881.




The Editor desires to acknowledge the assistance received from Mr. Buchanan, of the Geological Survey Department, and from the officers of the Lithographic Department, in the production of the plates.

He also wishes to say that, in all but a few instances, a marked improvement has taken place in the character of the manuscript, which has greatly facilitated the printing of the work.


  8, line 21, for esculenta read esculentum
 10, line 11, for stove read store
 12, line 7, for tubes read tubers
last line, for Dow read Don
 20, line 11 from bottom, for Tate read Yate
 36, line 16 {{{1}}}{{{1}}} for Pongo read Pongi
 48, line 6, after Koherearuhe insert = the mass of pounded fernroot: its meaning signifying preparation for war.
 60, last line, for 46 read 44
 65, line 18 from bottom, for friend read fiend
112, line 9 from bottom, for exudes read extrudes
{{{1}}} line 8{{{1}}} for Animalcula read Animalcule
115, line 11, for seplicum read septicum
{{{1}}} line 8 from bottom, for exude read extrude
{{{1}}} line 7{{{1}}} for peplic read peptic
177, line 12, for Edchaig read Eachaig
182, line 3, for sinuous, margin and read sinuous margin, and
211, line 8 from bottom, for Copper read Cooper
324, line 10, for gravels read grasses
{{{1}}} line 8 from bottom, for others read other
365, line 2{{{1}}} for noma read nana
368, line 12{{{1}}}for Bæoniyces read Bæomyces
369, line 3{{{1}}} for constaceous read crustaceous
376, line 5{{{1}}} for com- read compound
380, line 7 and 10, for brisily read bristly
381, line 15 from bottom, for habitat read habit
{{{1}}} line 2{{{1}}} for hair, read thin
399, line 2, for Ruapepu read Ruapehu
{{{1}}} line 6, for latter read later
{{{1}}} line 9, for traditions read traditional
406, line 12, for surface and geologists' read surface geologist's
{{{1}}} line 7 from bottom, for pressure read presence
407, line 13{{{1}}}for Opotiki Cliffs, which read Opotiki. Cliffs which



Art. I. On the Vegetable Food of the ancient New Zealauders before Cook's Visit. By W. Colenso, F.L.S. 3–38
II. Historical Incidents and Traditions of the Olden Times, pertaining to the Maoris of the North Island (East Coast), New Zealand; highly illustrative of their national character, and containing many peculiar, curious, and little known customs and circumstances, and matters firmly believed by them. Now, for the first time, faithfully translated from old Maori Writings and Recitals. By W. Colenso 38–57
III. Contributions towards a better Knowledge of the Maori Race. By W. Colenso 57–84
IV. Notes on the best Method of meeting the Sanitary Requirements of Colonial Towns. By Edward Dobson, C.E., President of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury 84–91
V. On Periodic Vertical Oscillations in the Sun's Atmosphere, and their Connection with the Appearance and Disappearance of the Solar Spots. By H. Skey 91–97
VI. On the Permanency of Solar and Stellar Heat. By Martin Chapman 97–100
VII. Notes upon Mr. Frankland's Paper "On the Simplest Continuous Manifoldness of two Dimensions, and of Finite Extent." By William Skey, Analyst to the Geological Survey of New Zealand 100–109
VIII. On Life. By Dr. W. I. Spencer 109–119
IX. Watershed Districts. County or other Division of the Country to be determined by the Area of the Watershed. By J. Rees George 119–121
X. The Cause of Gravitation. By T. Wakelin, B.A. 122–180
XI. On the Neglected Forest Products of New Zealand. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. 130–142
XII. On the Growth of Sugar Beet in New Zealand. By S. M. Curl, M.D., F.L.S. 142–148
XIII. On the Causes tending to alter the Eccentricity of Planetary Orbits. By Professor A. W. Bickerton 149–154
XIV. The Origin of the Solar System. By Professor A. W. Bickerton 154–159
XV. On the Origin of Double Stars. By Professor A. W. Bickerton 160–164
XVI. On a simple Method of illustrating the Motions of the Earth. By Professor A. W. Bickerton 164–166
XVII. Probabllity of Impact. By Professor A. W. Bickerton 166–169
XVIII. Notes on Balænoptera rostrata, Fabricius (B. huttoni, Gray). By Professor Julius von Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S., Director of the Canterbury Museum 169–175
XIX. Notes on some Specimens of Migratory Salmonidæ. By W. Arthur, C.E. 175–193
XX. Notice of a new Fish. By Dr. Hector 194–195
XXI. Description of a new Species of Trachypterus. By F. E. Clark 195–199
XXII. Contributions to New Zealand Malacology. By Professor F. W. Hutton 200–204
XXIII. Recent Additions to, and Notes on, New Zealand Crustacea. By G. M. Thomson, F.L.S. 204–221
XXIV. On some new Species of Nudibranchiate Mollusca. By T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S. 222–224
XXV. On a new Genus of Opisthobranchiate Mollusca. By T. F. Cheeseman 224
XXVI. An Analysis of Moa Eggshell. By Professor Liversidge, F.C.S. University of Sydney. Communicated by Professor von Haast, F.R.S. 225–227
XXVII. Description of the Larva and Pupa of Lasiorhynchus barbicornis. By Captain T. Broun 228–230
XXVIII. On the Larva and Pupa of Ceratognathus irroratus. By Captain T. Broun 230–231
XXIX. On Harpagornis (third paper). By Professor Julius von Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S. 232–234
XXX. Notes on some Additions to the Collection of Birds in the Colonial Museum. By T. W. Kirk, Assistant in the Colonial Museum 235–236
XXXI. Notice of new Crustaceans. By T. W. Kirk 236–237
XXXII. Notes on some Species of Diurnal Moths. By Percy Buller. Communicated by W. L. Buller, C.M.G., Sc.D., F.R.S. 237–239
XXXIII. On the Fertilization of New Zealand Flowering Plants. By George M. Thomson, F.L.S. 241–288
XXXIV. Note on Donatia novæ-zealandiæ, Hk.f. By G. M. Thomson 289–290
XXXV. New New-Zealand Plants. By Dr. S. Berggren, Hon. Mem. N.Z. Inst. 290–291
XXXVI. On the Fertilization of Thelymitra. By T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S. 291–296
XXXVII. Description of a new Species of Loranthus. By T. F. Cheeseman 296–297
XXXVIII. Contributions towards a List of the New Zealand Desmidieæ. By W. M. Maskell, Fell. Roy. Micros. Soc. 297–317
XXXIX. On the Structure of Hormosira billardieri. By T. A. Mollet 318–323
XL. A Visit to Stewart Island, with Notes on its Flora. By D. Petrie, M.A. 323–332
XLI. Description of new Species of Carex. By D. Petrie 332–333
XLII. On the Genus Corallospartium. By J. B. Armstrong, 333–334
XLIII. Description of new and rare New Zealand Plants. By J. B. Armstrong 335–343
XLIV. On the Occurrence of the Morel (Morchella esculenta) in New Zealand. By J. B. Armstrong 343–344
XLV. A Synopsis of the New Zealand Species of Veronica, Linn., with Notes on new Species. By J. B. Armstrong 344–359
XLVI. A natural Arrangement of the New Zealand Ferns, founded on the System of Smith's "Historia Filicum," with critical Notes on certain Species. By J. B. Armstrong 359–368
XLVII. Description of a new Species of Metzgeria; also, a brief notice of Bæomyces heteromorphus, Nyl., in New Zealand. By W. Colenso, F.L.S. 368–370
XLVIII. The Ferns of Scinde Island (Napier). By W. Colenso, F.L.S. 370–376
XLIX. On some new and undescribed New Zealand Ferns. By W. Colenso, F.L.S. 376–384
L. Description of New Plants. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. 384–385
LI. Description of a new Species of Thysanothecium. Collected by John Buchanan, F.L.S., during his recent Expedition to the Southern Alps. By Charles Knight, F.R.C.S., F.L.S. 385–386
LII. On an Allotropic Form of Zinc and Cobalt Salts. By W. Skey 387–388
LIII. On a Periodide and an Iodo-carbonate of Lead. By W. Skey 388–389
LIV. On the Dimorphisim of Magnesia. By W. Skey 389–390
LV. Description of a remarkable Dyke on the hills near Heathcote. By A. D. Dobson 391–393
LVI. On the Foraminifera of the Tertiary Beds at Petane, near Napier. By A. Hamilton 393–396
LVII. On the Genus Rhynchonella. By A. McKay 396–398
LVIII. On some Indications of Changes in the Level of the Coast-line in the Northern part of the North Island. By S. Percy Smith 398–410
LIX. Description of an Artesian-well sunk at Avonside. By T. A. Mollet 410–412
LX. On the Venous System of the Skate (Raja nasuta). By T. Jeffery Parker, B.Sc. Lond. 413–418
LXI. On a new Holothurian (Chirodota dunedinensis, n.sp.). By T. Jeffery Parker, B.Sc. Lond. 418
LXII. Description of a new Species of Lizard of the Genus Naultinus. By W. L. Buller, C.M.G., Sc.D., F.R.S. 419–420

Twelfth Annual Report of the Board of Governors 421–425

Opening Address by the President, Martin Chapman 426
Notice of a large Stingaree (Trygon thalassia). By Seymour George, M.H.R. 426
On Introduced Trees and Plants of Economic Value to New Zealand. By. Dr. Curl, F.L.S. 427
On New Zealand Plants cultivated in Scotland. By W. Gorrie 428
On Auriferous Cements of Mount Arthur District. By J. Park 428
On the Distribution of the Auriferous Cements in New Zealand. By Dr. Hector 429
On the Tertiary Corals and Bryozoa of New Zealand. By Rev. J. E. Tenison Woods, F.L.S. 429
On certain Minerals collected by the Geological Survey Staff. By S. H. Cox, F.G.S. 430
Explanation of Geological Map of New Zealand, prepared for Melbourne Exhibition. By Dr. Hector 430
On the Colour Sense. By Dr. G. Gillon 430
On the Industries most suitable to New Zealand. By Dr. Newman 431
Election of Governor of New Zealand Institute 431
On the Relation between the Pitch-stones and Quartz Porphyries of Mount Sumner District, Canterbury. By S. H. Cox, F.G.S. 432
Abstract Report of Council 482
Election of Officers for 1881 483
Address by the retiring President, M. Chapman 433
Alpine Plants of Otago. By T. Buchanan, F.L.S. 434
Notes on New Zealand Cetacea, Recent and Fossil. Neobalæna marginata, Kogia breviceps, Orca gladiator, Balænoptera and Kekenodon onamata. By Dr. Hector 434–436
Notes on New Zealand Fishes. By Dr. Hector 436
Description of Maori Comb and Arrow Heads. By T. W. Kirk 436
Notes on Dr. Dudgeon's Experiments regarding the Temperature of the Breath. By W. Skey 437
Remarks on New Zealand Olives. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. 437
On the Occurrence of Friodia in New Zealand. By T. Kirk 437
A Revision of the New Zealand Lepidia, with Description of new Species. By T. Kirk 437
Notes on Plants recently added to the New Zealand Flora. By T. Kirk 487
Notes on Plants from Campbell Island. By T. Kirk 437
Exhibition of Gold Quartz from Te Aroha and Terawhiti; Coal from Wairarapa; Galena and Zinc Blende from Tararua Mountains, and Description of Locality in which the Terawhiti Specimen was found. By Dr. Hector 487

Lecture on Afghanistan and Central Asia. By the Right Rev. W. G. Cowie, D.D. 438
Lecture on Chromatics. By J. Martin, F.G.S. 438
Lecture on Edgar Allen Poe, a Study in Morbid Psychology. By E. A. Mackechnie 438
Opening Address. By Dr. Purchas 438
On Art and Literature. By Albin Martin 439
Exhibition of Group of Birds of Paradise 439
Lecture on Russia and the Turkomans. By Hon. Col. Haultain 439
On Runes. By Neil Heath, F.G.S. 439
Lecture on Explosives. By J. A. Pond 439
Additions to Museum and Library 440
Names of Places, and their Origin and Meaning. By the Rev. J. Bates 440
On the Spontaneity or Self-action of the Will, as opposed to all doctrines of necessity. By the Rev. S. Edgar 440
Lecture on the Exodus of Israel. By R. S. Barstow 441
Lecture—A day on the Ice around Mount Blanc. By Neil Heath, F.G.S. 441
Remarks on Dr. Curl's paper on the Growth of Sugar-beet in New Zealand. By R. R. Hunt 441
On Heredity. By E. A. Mackechnie 443
Abstract of Annual Report 444
Election of Office-bearers for 1881 444

Opening Address. By President, E. Dobson 445
Election of Honorary Secretary 447
Notes on Suitable Subjects for Papers. By C. W. Adams 447
Election of N. K. Cherill to Council 447
On Hymenoptera of New Zealand. By Professor Hutton 447
On the Orthoptera of New Zealand. By Professor Hutton 448
Notes re Meteorological Stations. By W. M. Maskell 448
On Partial Impact. By Professor Bickerton 448
On a New Species of Diatom. By J. Inglis 448
On the Study of the French and German Languages. By J. von Tunzelmann 449
On some recent Criticisms on Partial Impact. By N. K. Cherill 449
On Sericiculture. By F. Adams 450
On the Study of the French and German Languages (second paper). By J. von Tunzelmann 450
Abstract of Annual Report 450
Election of Office-bearers for 1881 450

Election of Professor Parker on Council 451
John Stuart Mill on Mind and Matter. By A. Montgomery 451
Exhibition of Adult and Young specimens of the Rock-hopper (Pyzoscelis tæniata). By Professor Parker 452
Exhibition of Skeleton of Pea-hen. By Professor Parker 452
Report of Dunedin Naturalists' Field Club 452
Lecture on Early History of New Zealand. By Dr. Hocken 452
Lecture on Early History of New Zealand. By Dr. Hocken. (Second lecture.) 452
Lecture on Modern Histological Methods. By Professor Parker 452
Address to Charles Darwin, F.R.S. 453
On the History of Fish Culture in New Zealand. By W. Arthur 453
Election of Office-bearers for 1881 453
Abstract of Annual Report 453

On a Bird new to Science, found at mouth of the Mikonui River. by T. E. Clarke 454
Adstract of Annual Report 454
Election of Office-bearers for 1881 454

Election of Office-bearers for 1880 455
Abstract of Annual Report 455
Exhibition of Diatoms with Microscope. By Dr. Spencer 455
Exhibition by Secretary of specimens of Gold Ores and Auriferous Quartz, etc., from New Zealand and Australia 455
Exhibition of Indigenous Specimens of Arachnida and Insecta. By W. Colenso, F.L.S. 456
Exhibition of Fossil Teeth of Fishes of the family Squalidæ and Spines of Raiidæ 456
On Rare and Peculiar New Zealand Insects. By W. Colenso 457
Election of Governor of New Zealand Institute 457
Election of new Members during the Year 457

Address by President, J. T. Thomson, F.R.G.S. 458
Abstract of Annual Report 462
Election of Office-bearers for 1880 462
On Orepuki Black-sand. By W. S. Hamilton 462
On Mind Stuff. By J. T. Thomson 462
On Improvements in the New River. By J. T. Thomson 462
Election of Office-bearers for 1881 462


I. Bickerton.—Diagrams showing Eccentricity of Planetary Orbits 152
IIa. {{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}} Formation of Double Stars. 164
IIb. {{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}} Motion of the Earth 164
III. Haast.Balænoptera rostrata
Hector.—Hypolycodes haastii
IV. Arthur.Salmonidæ 184
V. {{{1}}}{{{1}}} 192
VI. Hutton.—Malacological specimens 200
VII. G. M. Thomson.—Crustaceans 208
VIII. {{{1}}}{{{1}}} 216
IX. Haast.Harpagornis assimilis 232
X. G. M. Thomson.—Flowering Plants 288
XI. Maskell.Desmidieæ 304
XII. {{{1}}}{{{1}}} 312
XIII. Mollet.Hormosira billardieri 320
XIV. {{{1}}}{{{1}}} 320
XV. Parker.—Venous system of Skate 416
XVI. Hamilton.—Foraminifera 394
XVII. Knight.—Thysanothecium 386
XVIII. Hector.—New Zeuglodont (Kekenodon) 435