Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute/Volume 4











Issued May, 1872.




In the present volume the arrangeraent of the Proceedings and Transactions which was adopted in the first two volumes has been again reverted to, as the separate publication of the former in anticipation of the whole work was not found to be so satisfactory and convenient to members as was anticipated.

The Board of Governors having decided that in publication preference should be given to those papers which add to the knowledge of observed facts relative to New Zealand, several papers of a general character have been held back, or are only given in an abridged form.

The editor has to acknowledge the assistance which he received from Mr. J. T. Thomson, F.R.G.S., in revising in the press the first proofs of his learned paper on the Whence of the Maori.

The facilities offered to the Board, through the courtesy of the Hon. the Colonial Secretary, for having the illustrations lithographed at the Government press, cannot pass unnoticed, while they have again to thank Mr. John Buchanan for the great care and skill which he has exercised as draughtsman. It will be observed that this year the illustrations have, in most cases, been drawn direct on the stone, which gives to them a more artistic effect.

The assistance received from Mr. B. B. Gore in preparing the Meteorological Report, which appears in the Appendix, must also be acknowledged.

In a volume consisting of articles of such varied characters mistakes will necessarily occur, and the chief of these are printed in an eiTata slip. It is, however, again necessary to call the attention of authors and the secretaries of societies to the desirability of forwarding papers and minutes of proceedings in such a shape that no re-copying may be required, nor questions arise as to the author's exact meaning.

It is satisfactory to note that the list of ordinary members of the Affiliated Societies is still maintained, and that the number of papers contributing original observations and researches shows a marked increase.

Wellington, 10th May, 1872.


Page  15, line 12 from bottom, for "force" read "pace."
{{{1}}}  33, {{{1}}}10, for "Map, Appendix I.," read "The map in corner of Plate I."
{{{1}}}  41, {{{1}}}20–22. The colours are shown on the Plates by dotted lines.
{{{1}}}  42, line 10, for "Map III." read "Plate I."
{{{1}}}  75, on the Plate, for "V." read "III."
{{{1}}}  96, {{{1}}} 2, for "tibia " read "tibiæ."
{{{1}}} 104, on the Plate, for "VII." read "IV."
{{{1}}} 114, {{{1}}}13 from bottom, for "spine" read "specimen."
{{{1}}} 115, {{{1}}} 4, for "guessed" read "grouped."
{{{1}}} 181, {{{1}}} 1, omit "sp. nov."
{{{1}}} 213, {{{1}}} 3 from bottom, for "brown" read "yellow."
{{{1}}} 213, {{{1}}} 2 {{{1}}} for "1.5in." read "2.5in."
{{{1}}} 233, {{{1}}}14 {{{1}}} for "Phogiochila" read "Plagiochila."
{{{1}}} 234, {{{1}}}10 {{{1}}} for "Dumortiera" read "Dumortiera?"
{{{1}}} 234, {{{1}}} 9 {{{1}}} for "?hirsuta" read "hirsuta."
{{{1}}} 245, {{{1}}}22, for "Hooker's" read "Richard's."
{{{1}}} 249, bottom line, for "Alseuosmia macrophylla" read "Cyathea sps."
{{{1}}} 251, line 12 from bottom, for "?" read "!"
{{{1}}} 253, {{{1}}}13 {{{1}}} for "Spongeworts" read "Spurgeworts."
{{{1}}} 255, 21, for "pastoral" read "prostrate."
{{{1}}} 257, Rosaceæ. Insert next to "Potentilla" "Geum urbanum, L., var. strictum. Distribution—from Wairoa and Paparata (Auckland) southwards; general. Differs from the typical form in the larger size of all its parts, and in the stout rigid habit. In Britain the typical form is abundant from Cornwall to Aberdeen."
{{{1}}} 232, In the arrangement of species, insert below "5. obcordatum" the words "B. Flowers terminal."
{{{1}}} 275, line  8, for "Corsysanthes" read "Corysanthes."
{{{1}}} 280, {{{1}}}14, for "xanthocarpa" read "ebenocarpa."
{{{1}}} 282, {{{1}}}17 from bottom, for "quercifolium, Linn." read "quercifolium, Ait."
{{{1}}} 283, {{{1}}} 4, for "pessica" read "persica."
{{{1}}} 283, {{{1}}}20 from bottom, for "Scholl" read "Schott."


Anniversary Address of the President, H.E. Sir George F. Bowen, G.C.M.G. 1–15
Third Annual Report by the Governors 17–18
Accounts of the New Zealand Institute, 1870–1 19
Art. I. Ethnographical Considerations on the Whence of the Maori. By J. T. Thomson, F.R.G.S. 23–51
II. Notes upon the Historical Value of the "Traditions of the New Zealanders," as collected by Sir George Grey, K.C.B., late Governor-in-Chief of New Zealand. By W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S. 51–62
III. Notes on the Chatham Islands, extracted from Letters from Mr. H. H. Travers. By W. T. L. Travers 63–66
IV. Moas and Moa Hunters. Address to the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury. By Julius Haast, Ph.D., F. R.S. 66–90
Additional Notes 90–94
Third Paper on Moas and Moa Hunters 94–107
V. Some Observations on the Annual Address of the President of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury. By Rev. J. W. Stack 107–110
VI. On Recent Moa Remains in New Zealand. By James Hector, M.D., F.R.S. 110–120
VII. Notes on Moa Remains. By W. D. Murison 120–124
VIII. On the Occurrence of Footprints of a Large Bird, found at Turanga-nui, Poverty Bay. By Archdeacon W. L. Williams 124–127
IX. On the Occurrence of Footprints of the Moa at Poverty Bay. By His Honour T. B. Gillies 127–128
X. On the Geographical and other Features of some Little-known Portions of the Province of Wellington. By H. C. Field 128–135
XI. A Description of the Foundation of the Lighthouse in the Ponui Passage. By J. Stewart, Assoc. Inst. C.E. 135–138
XII. Work for Field Naturalists. By P. Thomson 138–141
XIII. Description of a Simple Contrivance for Economising the Current of Large Rivers. By J. T. Thomson, F.R.G.S. 141–145
XIV. On Some Experiments showing the Relative Value of N.S. Wales and New Zealand Coals as Gas-producing Materials. By J. Rees George 146–150
XV. On Experiments made to determine the Value of Different Coals for Steam Purposes. By J. Rees George 151–152
XVI. On the Destruction of Land by Shingle-bearing Rivers, and Suggestions for Protection and Prevention. By A. D. Dobson, Provincial Engineer, Nelson 153–157
XVII. Notes on the Remains of a Stone Epoch at the Cape of Good Hope. By B. H. Darnell 157–159
XVIII. Notes on the Practice of Out-door Photography. By W. T. L. Travers 160–164
XIX. On Megapodius pritchardi, Gray. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 165
XX. On the Microscopical Structure of the Egg-shell of the Moa. By Captain F. W. Hutton 166–167
XXI. Notes on the Lizards of New Zealand, with Descriptions of Two New Species. By Captain F. W. Hutton 167–172
XXII. On some Moa Feathers. By Captain F. W. Hutton 172–173
XXIII. On the New Zealand Chitonidæ. By Captain F. W. Hutton 173–183
XXIV. Description of a Specimen of Mus rattus, L., in the Colonial Museum. By Captain F. W. Hutton 183–184
XXV. On the Bats of New Zealand. By Captain F. W. Hutton 184–186
XXVI. Observations on the New Zealand Bats. By F. J. Knox, L.R.C.S.E. 186–188
XXVII. Notes on the Anatomy of the Kanae (Mugil sp.). By F. J. Knox 189–191
XXVIII. Notes on Harpargornis moorei, an Extinct Gigantic Bird of Prey; containing description of Femur, Ungual Phalanges, and Rib. By Julius Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S. 192–193
XXIX. Notes on the Fur Seal of New Zealand (Arctocephalus cinereus, Gray?). By James Hector, M.D., F.R.S. 196–199
XXX. On the Fur Seal of New Zealand. By J. S. Webb 199–202
XXXI. Notes on a New Species of Rail (Rallus pictus), Painted Rail. By T. H. Potts, F.L.S. 202–203
XXXII. Notes on a New Species of Gull, Larus (Bruchigavia) bulleri, Potts. By T.H. Potts 203–204
XXXIII. Notes on a New Species of Apteryx (A. haastii, Potts). By T. H. Potts 204–205
XXXIV. Notes on the Habits of some of the Birds of New Zealand. By W. T. L. Travers 206–213
XXXV. On a Supposed New Species of Duck. By A. C. Purdie 213
XXXVI. Observations on a Paper read by Mr. A. Bathgate before the Otago Institute, 11th January, 1870, "On the Lepidoptera of Otago." By R. W. Fereday, Corresponding Member of the Entomological Society of London 214–218
XXXVII. Description of a New Shell found at Nelson. By E. Stowe 218–219
XXXVIII. A Rock Pool and its Contents. By P. Thomson 219–223
XXXIX. On some New Species of New Zealand Plants. By J. Buchanan, of the Geological Survey Department 224–227
XL. On the Flora of the Isthmus of Auckland and the Takapuna District. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. 228–238
XLI. On the Nativity in New Zealand of Polygonum aciculare, L. By T. Kirk 238–241
XLII. Notes on the New Zealand Asteliads, with Descriptions of New Species. By T. Kirk 241–247
XLIII. A Comparison of the Indigenous Floras of the British Islands and New Zealand. By T. Kirk 247–256
XLIV. Notes on the Local Distribution of Certain Plants common to the British Islands and New Zealand. By T. Kirk 256–260
XLV. On the New Zealand Species of Pittosporum, with Descriptions of New Species. By T. Kirk 260–267
XLVI. On the Habit of the Rata (Metrosideros robusta). By T. Kirk 267–270
XLVII. On the Botany of the Titirangi District of the Province of Auckland. By T. F. Cheeseman 270–284
XLVIII. On the Naturalized Plants of the Province of Canterbury. By John F. Armstrong 284–290
XLIX. On some New Species of New Zealand Plants. By John F. Armstrong 290–291
L. Report of a Committee of the Canterbury Philosophical Institute on Native and Introduced Grasses, with Appendices 292–310
LI. On the Conducting Power of various Metallic Sulphides and Oxides for Electricity, as compared with that of Acids and Saline Solutions. By W. Skey, Analyst to the Geological Survey of New Zealand 311–313
LII. On the Electro-motive and Electrolytic Phenomena developed by Gold and Platina in Solutions of the Alkaline Sulphides. By W. Skey 313–316
LIII. Preliminary Notes on the Isolation of the Bitter Substance of the Nut of the Karaka Tree (Corynocarpus lævigata). By W. Skey 316–321
LIV. On a New and Rapid Process for the Generation of Sulphuretted Hydrogen Gas for use as a Re-agent in Laboratory Operations. By W. Skey 321–323
LV. Notes in support of the alleged Alkalinity of Carbonate of Lime. By W. Skey 323–325
LVI. On the Alkalinity or Acidity of certain Salts and Minerals, as indicated by their Reaction with Test Paper. By W. Skey 325–329
LVII. On a Form of Electro-magnetic Seismograph adapted for Indicating or Registering Minute Shocks. By W. Skey 330
LVIII. New Process for the Manufacture of Sulpho-cyanide of Potassium. By W. Skey 330–331
LIX. Absorption of Copper from its Ammoniacal Solution by Cellulose in presence of Caustic Potash. By W. Skey 332
LXI. On the Alluvial Deposits of the Lower Waikato, and the Formation of Islands by the River. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 333–336
LXII. On the Traces of Ancient Glaciers in Nelson Province. By A. D. Dobson, C.E. 336–341
LXIII. On the Remains of a Gigantic Penguin (Palæudyptes antarcticus, Huxley), from the Tertiary Rocks on the West Coast of Nelson. By James Hector, M.D., F.R.S., Director of the New Zealand Geological Survey 341–346
Miscellaneous.—(Continued from p. 164.)
LXIV. On the Sailing Flight of the Albatros; a Reply to Mr. J. S. Webb. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 347–350
Abstract Report of Council 353
Election of Office-bearers for 1871 353
Extraordinary Flight of Beetles 353
Description of Moriori Canoes. By A. Shand 354
Notice of a Meteor observed all over New Zealand. By J. Hector, M.D., F.R.S. 354–355
Anniversary Address of the President, W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S. 356—362
Observations on the Kiore, or Indigenous Rat of New Zealand. By F. J. Knox, L.R.C.S.E. 362
On the Ocean Currents from New Zealand. Letter from Mr. Robert Hart 362
Description of Additions to the Collections in Colonial Museum. By J. Hector, M.D., F.R.S. 363
Description of New Birds and Minerals. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 364
Australian Geography and Topography, with some New Zealand Comparisons and Contrasts. By J. C. Crawford, F.G.S. 364–367
Great Disturbance of the Electric Telegraph System of the Colony on 13th February. By J. Duigan 367
Notes on St. John's Nursery Garden, Wanganui. By Robert Pharazyn, F.R.G.S. 367–369
Note on the Southern Mutton Bird (Puffinus amaurosma). By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 369
Notes on the Presence in Certain Fibres of a substance susceptible of some striking Colorific Changes when chemically treated. By W. Skey 370
On the Microscopic Characters of the Fibres of New Zealand, as distinguished from those of Manilla or Sisal. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 370–371
On the Wreck of a Vessel found inland on the West Coast. By J. Hector, M.D., F.R.S. 373
The Results of the Destruction of Forests upon the River Wolga at Astracan. By Dr. A. Wojeikof, of St. Petersburgh 374–376
Critical Notes on some of the Birds of New Zealand. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 376
Letter from Professor Agassiz, accompanying a presentation of books 377
Observations on an Albino Eel. By F. J. Knox, L.R.C.S.E. 378
Account of a Cave in which Recent Moa Remains were found. By Dr. Thomson 378–379
Introduction of English Trout into Wellington, and mention of New Fishes. By Dr. Hector 379–380
On the Cause of the Suspension of Clay in Water, and its Precipitation therefrom by certain Substances. By W. Skey 380—382
Further Notes on the New Zealand Bats. By F. J. Knox, L.R.C.S.E. 382
Anniversary Address of the President, T. Heale, C.E. 383–388
Note on a Tuatara. By Major Mair 338
On the Use of Vulgar Fractions instead of Decimals in the Compilation of Mathematical Tables. By R. J. Pearce 389 & 392
On Eclipses. By T. Heale 389–391
Description of a simple form of Rain-gauge. By Archdeacon Williams 392
On a Mode of Communication between a Station on a Line of Railway and a Train in Motion on the same Line. By G. Rayner 394
Note on a Tomahawk formerly belonging to Taraia. By Dr. J. L. Campbell 396
Notes on a Thermal Spring near Helensville, Kaipara. By Robert Mair 396
On the Defence of Aucldand Harbour. By S. J. Stratford, M.R.C.S.E. 397
An Inquiry into the Influence of Railway Gauge upon the Constructive Cost and Working Expenses of Railways. By E. Dobson, Assoc. Inst. C.E. 400
Remarks on the New Zealand Rat. By Llewellyn Powell, M.D. 401
Notes respecting the Discovery of the Egg of the Moa at the Kaikoura Peninsula. By J. D. Enys 403
Continued Creation versus Darwinian Evolution. By Dr. A. C. Barker 404
Annual Report 405–406
Election of Office-bearers for 1872 406
On a simple method of supplying Water to the Christchurch Fire Engines. By R. W. Fereday 407
Notes on the Botany of Otago. By J. Buchanan 408
Abstract of Annual Report 409
Address by J. S. Webb, Vice-President 409–412
Remarks on the Collection of Birds in the Otago Museum. By Captain F. W. Hutton, F.G.S. 412
Election of Office-bearers for year ending 30th June, 1872 413
Notes on Sir William Thomson's Hypothesis that the Germ of Life is derived from Meteors. By Martin Chapman 417–419
Account of some Presents recently received from the Smithsonian Institution, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard College. By J. S. Webb 419–420
On Proportion applied to Geometry. By D. Brent, M.A. 420
Notes on the Experiments on the so-called Psychic Force recently made by Mr. Crookes. By J. S. Webb 421–422
On a Means of Detecting Incipient Combustion in Flax or Wool in Ships at Sea. By F. W. Irvine 423
Measurements of Brown Trout (Salmo fario) taken out of the Maitai. By T. Mackay 423
Sketch of the History of Astronomical Science; third paper—'Newton and his Times.' By Robert Lee 424
Presentations to the Museum by the Bishop of Nelson 424
On the Varieties of the Mulberry Tree as Food for the Silkworm (Part I). By T. C. Batchelor 424–426
On the Varieties of Food for and Management of the Silkworm (Part II.) By T. C. Batchelor 426–427
Abstract of Annual Report 427
Election of Office-bearers for 1872 428
On the American Blight on Apple Trees. By T. Mackay, C.E. 429–432
Meteorological Statistics of New Zealand for 1871 435–437
Earthquakes reported in New Zealand during 1871 437
Notes on the Weather during 1871 438–440
Lists of Members 441–446
Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute xi
Abstracts of Rules and Statutes of the New Zealand Institute xi–xiii
List of Incorporated Societies xiv
List of Office-bearers and Extracts from the Laws of Incorporated Societies xiv–xvi


Plate I. J. T. Thomson.—Map illustrating "Whence of the Maori"  32
II. {{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}}  32
IIa. {{{1}}}Antique Tamil Bell and Inscription  40
III. Haast.—Map showing Moa-hunter Encampment  74
IV. {{{1}}} Maori Implements 104
V. Hector.—Neck of Moa 114
VI. {{{1}}}Eggs and Chicks of Moa and Emu 110
VII. {{{1}}}Maori implements 116
VIII. Williams.—Footprints of Birds observed at Poverty Bay 124
IX. Hutton.—Moa Egg and Feather—Chitons 166
X. Haast.—Fossil Bird (Harpagornis moorei) 194
XI. {{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}} 194
XII. Hector.—Fur Seal of New Zealand (Arctocephalus cinereus) 197
XIII. Buchanan.—Haloragis aggregata 224
XIV. {{{1}}}Acæna glabra 226
XV. {{{1}}}Celmisia lateralis 226
XVI. {{{1}}}Rostkovia novæ zelandiæ 226
XVII. Hector.—Fossil Penguin (Palæeudyptes antarcticus) 346
XVIII. {{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}}{{{1}}} 346