1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 23/Table of contributors


A. B. Ch. A. B. Chatwood, Ass.M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.Elec.E.
Safes, Strong-rooms and Vaults.
A. C. G. E Albert Charles Lewis Gotthilf Guenther, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.
Keeper of Zoological Department, British Museum, 1875-1895. Gold Medallist, Royal Society, 1878. Author of Catalogue of Colubrine Snakes, Batrachia, Salientia, and Fishes in the British Museum; &c.
Reptiles: History (in part).
A. D. Henry Austin Dobson, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Dobson, Henry Austin.
Richardson, Samuel.
A. D. Mo. Anson Daniel Morse, M.A., LL.D.
Emeritus Professor of History at Amherst College, Mass. Professor at Amherst College, 1877-1908.
Republican Party.
A. G.* Arthur Gamgee, M.D., F.R.S., F.R.C.P., LL.D., D.Sc. (1841-1909).
Formerly Fullerian Professor of Physiology, Royal Institution of Great Britain, and Professor of Physiology in the University of Manchester. Author of Text-Book of the Physiological Chemistry of the Animal Body; &c.
Respiratory System: Movements of Respiration.
A. Go.* Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A.
Lecturer in Church History in the University of Manchester.
Ribadeneira, Pedro A.
A. H.* Albert Hauck, D.Th., D.Ph.
Professor of Church History in the University of Leipzig, and Director Of the Museum Of Ecclesiastical Archaeology. Geheimer Kirchenrat of Saxony. Member of the Royal Saxon Academy of Sciences and Corresponding Member of the Academies of Berlin and Munich. Author of Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands; &c. Editor of the new edition of Herzog’s Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche.
A. Ha. Adolf Harnack, D.Ph.
See the biographical article: Harnack, Adolf.
A. H.-S. Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, C.I.E.
General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.
A. H. Sm. Arthur Hamilton Smith, M.A., F.S.A.
Keeper of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Catalogue of Greek Sculpture in the British Museum; &c.
Ring (in part).
A. M. C. Agnes Mary Clerke.
See the biographical article: Clerke, A. M.
A. M. F. D. Agnes Mary Frances Duclaux.
See the biographical article: Duclaux, A. M. F.
A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred.
Rhea; Rifleman-bird; Roller (Bird); Ruff.
A. P. H. Alfred Peter Hillier, M.D., M.P.
Author of South African Studies; The Commonweal; &c. Served in Kaffir War, 1878-1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical practice in South Africa till 1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and Political Prisoner at Pretoria, 1895-1896. M.P. for Hitchin division of Herts, 1910.
Rhodesia: History (in part).
A. S. P.-P. Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.
Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Man’s Place in the Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; &c.
Reid, Thomas (in part).
A. S. Wo. Arthur Smith Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S.
Keeper of Geology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Secretary of the Geological Society, London.
Reptiles: History (in part) and General Characters.
A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland.
Formerly Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray’s Inn, 1900.
Regicide; Rienzi, Cola di.
A. W. R. Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B.
Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England.
C. Ba. Cyril Bailey, M.A.
Fellow, Tutor and Librarian of Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The Religion of Ancient Rome; &c.
Roman Religion.
C. B. P. Catherine Beatrice Phillips, B.A. (Mrs W. Alison Phillips).
Associate of Bedford College, London.
C. E.* Charles Everitt, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S.
Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford.
Refraction: Refraction of Light.
C. F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.
Rifle (in part); Rossbach.
C. H. Ha. Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member of the American Historical Association.
C. H. W. J. Rev. Claude Hermann Walter Johns, M.A., Litt.D.
Master of St Catharine’s College, Cambridge. Canon of Norwich. Author of Assyrian Deeds and Documents.
Sabbath: Babylonian and Assyrian.
C. L. K. Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor of Chronicles of London and Stow’s Survey of London.
Richard II.; Richard III.; Rivers, Richard Woodville, Earl; Russell, Bishop.
C. M. P. Charles Murray Pitman.
Sometime Scholar of New College, Oxford. Formerly Stroke of the Oxford University Eight.
C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
Rubruquis, William of (in part).
C. We. Cecil Weatherly.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple.
Saddlery and Harness.
D. B. Ma. Duncan Black Macdonald, M.A., D.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn. Author of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory; Selections from Ibn Khaldun; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; &c.
Rum, or Roum.
D. C. T. David Croal Thomson.
Formerly Editor of the Art Journal. Author of The Brothers Maris; The Barbizon School of Painters; Life of “Phiz”; Life of Bewick; &c. Refraction: Refraction of Light.
Rousseau, Pierre E. T.
D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey.
Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.
Rhythm: in music; Rondo.
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal Navy; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.
D. H. M. David Heinrich Müller, D.Ph.
Professor of Semitic Languages in the University of Vienna. Hofrat of the Austrian Empire. Knight of the Order of Leopold. Author of Die Gesetze Hammurabi; &c.
D. Ll. T. Daniel Lleufer Thomas.
Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln’s Inn. Stipendiary Magistrate at Pontypridd and Rhondda.
D. M. W. Donald Mackenzie Wallace, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O.
Extra Groom of the Bedchamber to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign Department of The Times, 1891-1899. Member of Institut de Droit International and Officier de l’Instruction Publique of France. Joint-editor of New Volumes (10th ed.) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt and Egyptian Question; The Web of Empire; &c.
Russia: History (in part).
D. R.-M. Sir David Randall-Maciver, M.A., D.Sc.
Curator of Egyptian Degartment, University of Pennsylvania. Formerly Worcester Reader in Egyptology, university of Oxford. Author of Medieval Rhodesia; &c.
Rhodesia: Archaeology.
E. B. Edward Breck, M.A., Ph.D.
Formerly Foreign Correspondent of the New York Herald and the New York Times. Author of Fencing; Wilderness Pets; Sporting in Nova Scotia; &c.
E. Cu. Edmund Curtis, M.A.
Keble College, Oxford. Lecturer on History in the University of Sheffield.
Robert Guiscard; Roger I. of Sicily; Roger II. of Sicily.
E. C. B. Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, M.A., O.S.B., D.Litt.
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of “The Lausiac History of Palladius,” in Cambridge Texts and Studies.
Sabas, St.
E. F. S. Edward Fairbrother Strange.
Assistant Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member of Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects. Joint-editor of Bell’s “Cathedral” Series.
Repin, Ilja.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund.
Rhyme; Rhythm (in verse); Rimbaud, Jean; Rivers, Anthony Woodville, Earl; Rossetti, Christina; Runes, Runic Language and Inscriptions; Rydberg, Abraham; Saga.
E. Gr. Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A.
See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.
Rhodes (in part).
E. Ha. Rev. Edwin Hatch, M.A., D.D.
See the biographical article: Hatch, Edwin.
Sacrifice: In the Christian Church.
E. He. Edward Heawood, M.A.
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Librarian of the Royal Geographical Society, London.
Rudolf (Lake); Ruwenzori; Sahara.
E. H. B. Sir Edward Herbert Bunbury, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1895).
M.P. for Bury St Edmunds, 1847-1852. Author of A History of Ancient Geography; &c.
Rhodes (in part).
E. H. M. Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A.
University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College.
Russian Language.
E. L. B. Edward Livermore Burlingame, A.M., Ph.D.
Editor of Scribner’s Magazine. Formerly on the Staff of New York Tribune.
Ripley, George.
E. O.* Edmund Owen, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary’s Hospital, London, and to the Children’s Hospital, Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
Respiratory System: Surgery.
E. Pr. Edgar Prestage.
Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Commendador, Portuguese Order of S Thiago. Coéresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographica Society; &c. Editor of Letters of a Portuguese Nun; Azurara’s Chronicles of Guinea; &c.
Resende, André de; Resende, Garcia de; Ribeiro, Bernardim; Sá de Miranda, Francisco de.
F. C. C. Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th.
Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Editor of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle. Author of Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.
F. G. P. Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S.
Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas’s Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women, Respiratory System! Anatomy. London. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons.
Reproductive System: Surgery.
F. G. S. F. G. Stephens.
Formerly Art Critic of the Athenaeum. Author of Artists at Home; George Cruikshank; Memorials of W. Mulready; French and Flemish Pictures; Sir E. Landseer; T. C. Hook, R.A.; &c.
Rossetti, Dante Gabriel (in part).
F. Ha. Frederic Harrison.
See the biographical article: Harrison, Frederic.
Ruskin, John.
F. J. H. Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A.
Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Censor, Student, Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford’s Lecturer, 1906-1907. Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain; &c.
Roman Army.
F. J. S. Frederick John Snell, M.A.
Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The Age of Chaucer; &c.
Robin Hood (in part).
F. Ll. G. Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A.
Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial German Archaeological Institute.
F. L. L. Lady Lugard.
See the biographical article: Lugard, Sir F.
Rhodes, Cecil.
F. P. Frank Podmore, M.A. (1856-1910).
Sometime Scholar of Pembroke College, Oxford. Author of Modern Spiritualism; Mesmerism and Christian Science; &c.
F. R. C. Frank R. Cana.
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
Rhodesia: History (in part); Sahara (in part).
F. We. Frederick Wedmore.
See the biographical article: Wedmore, Frederick.
Ribot, Théodule.
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. President of the Geologists’ Association, 1887-1889.
Rock-Crystal; Rubellite; Ruby.
G. A.* Gertrude Franklin Atherton.
Author of Rezánov; Ancestors; The Tower of Ivory; &c.
G. Ch. George Chrystal, M.A., LL.D.
Professor of Mathematics and Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Edinburgh University. Hon. Fellow and formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. R
Riemann, Georg.
G. C. W. George Charles Williamson, Litt.D.
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of the New Edition of Bryan’s Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.
Russell, John (Painter).
G. Du. George Duthie, M.A., F.R.S. (Edin).
Director of Education, Southern Rhodesia.
Rhodesia: Geography and Statistics.
G. J. T. George James Turner.
Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln’s Inn. Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Selden Society.
G. R. P. George Robert Parkin, LL.D., C.M.G.
See the biographical article: Parkin, G. R.
Rhodes, Cecil: Rhodes Scholarships.
G. Sa. George Saintsbury, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Saintsbury, George E. B.
Retz, Cardinal de; Romance; Ronsard; Rousseau, Jean Jacques.
G.Sn. Grant Showerman, A.M., Ph.D.
Professor of Latin at the University of Wisconsin. Member of the Archaeological Institute of America. Member of the American Philological Association. Author of With the Professor; The Great Mother of the Gods; &c.
Rhea (Mythology).
H. B. Hilary Bauermann, F.G.S. (d. 1909).
Formerly Lecturer on Metallurgy at the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author of A Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron.
H. Br. Henry Bradley, M.A., Ph.D.
Joint-editor of the New English Dictionary (Oxford). Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making of English; &c.
H. B. M. The Very Rev. Canon H. B. Mackey, O.S.B.
Author of Four Essays on St Francis de Sales.
Sacred Heart.
H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Co-editor of the 10th edition.
Representation; Rosebery, Earl of.
H. De. Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J.
Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist publications: Analecta Bollandiana and Acta Sanctorum.
Roch, St; Rupert, St; Saint.
H. E. Karl Hermann Ethé, M.A., PH.D.
Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Aberystwyth (University of Wales). Author of Catalogue of Persian Manuscripts in the India Office Library, London (Clarendon Press); &c.
Rūmī; Sa'dī.
H. F. G. Hans Friedrich Gadow, F.R.S., Ph.D.
Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author of “Amphibia and Reptiles,” in the Cambridge Natural History.
Reptiles: Anatomy and Distribution.
H. F. P. Henry Francis Pelham, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Pelham, H. F.
Rome: Ancient History (in part).
H. Go. Henry Goudy, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D.
Regius Professor of Civil Law, Oxford, and Fellow of All Souls’ College. Author of The Law of Bankruptcy in Scotland; &c.
Roman Law.
H. S. H. Henri Simon Hymans, Ph.D.
Keeper of the Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique, Brussels. Author of Rubens: sa vie et son œuvre.
Rubens (in part).
H. L. H. Harriet L. Hennessy, M.D. (Brux.), L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I.
Respiratory System: Pathology (in part); Rheumatoid Arthritis.
H. M. V. Herbert M. Vaughan, F.S.A.
Keble College, Oxford. Author of The Last of the Royal Stuarts; The Medici Popes; The Last Stuart Queen.
St Davids.
H. R. T. Henry Richard Tedder, F.S.A.
Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London.
Rymer, Thomas.
H. St. Henry Sturt, M.A.
Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; Personal Idealism.
Relativity of Knowledge.
H. S. J. Henry Stuart Jones, M.A.
Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. Author of The Roman Empire; &c.
Roman Art; Rome: Ancient City (in part).
H. S.-K. Sir Henry Seton-Karr, C.M.G., M.A.
M.P. for St Helen’s. 1885-1906. Author of My Sporting Holidays; &c.
H. Tr. Sir Henry Trotter, K.C.M.G., C.B.
Lieutenant-Colonel, Royal Engineers. H.B.M. Consul-General for Roumania, 1904-1906, and British Delegate on the European Commission of the Danube. Victoria Medallist, Royal Geographical Society, 1878.
Rumania: History (in part).
H. W. C. D. Henry William Carless Davis, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls’ College, Oxford, 1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne.
Richard, Earl of Cornwall; Richard I.; Richard of Devizes; Robert of Gloucester; Roger of Hoveden; Roger of Wendover.
H. W. S. H. Wickham Steed.
Correspondent of The Times at Vienna. Correspondent of The Times at Rome, 1897-1902.
Ricasoli, Baron.
H. Y. Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I., C.B.
See the biographical article: Yule, Sir Henry.
Ricci, Matteo; Rubruquis, William of (in part).
I. A. Israel Abrahams, M.A.
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c.
Ritual Murder; Sabbatai Sebi; Sabbation; Sachs, Michael.
J. A. H. John Allen Howe, B.Sc.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of The Geology of Building Stones.
J. A. S. John Addington Symonds, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Symonds, J. A.
J. Bra. Joseph Braun, S.J.
Author of Die Liturgische Gewandung; &c.
J. Bt. James Bartlett.
Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., at King’s College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior Engineers.
J. B. B. John Bagnell Bury, D.Litt., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Bury, J. B.
Roman Empire, Later.
J. B. M. James Bass Mullinger, M.A.
Lecturer in History, St John’s College, Cambridge. Formerly University Lecturer in History and President of the Cambridge Antiguarian Society. Birkbeck Lecturer in Ecclesiastical History at Trinity College, ambridge, 1890-1894. Author of History of the University of Cambridge; The Schools of Charles the Great; &c.
Richard of Cirencester.
J. D. B. James David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S.
King’s College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria.
Ristitch, Jovan.
J. E. C. Rev. Joseph Estlin Carpenter, M.A., D.Litt., D.D., D.Th.
Principal of Manchester College, Oxford. Author of The First Three Gospels, their Origin and Relations; The Bible in the Nineteenth Century; &c.
J. F. H. B. Sir John Francis Harpin Broadbent, Bart., M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., M.R.C.S.
Physician to Out-Patients, St Mary’s Hospital, London; Physician to the Hampstead General Hospital; Assistant Physician to the London Fever Hospital. Author of Heart Disease and Aneurysm; &c.
J. F.-K. James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S.
Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c.
Ruiz, Juan.
J. F. M. James Fullarton Muirhead, LL.D.
Editor of many of Baedeker’s Guide Books. Author of America, the Land of Contrasts.
Rhine (in part).
J. F. W. John Forbes White, M.A., LL.D. (d. 1904).
Joint-author of the Life and Art of G. P. Chalmers, R.S.A.; &c.
Rembrandt (in part).
J. G. His Eminence Cardinal James Gibbons.
See the biographical article: Gibbons, James.
Roman Catholic Church: United States.
J. G. H. Joseph G. Horner, A.M.I.Mech.E.
Author of Plating and Boiler Making; Practical Metal Turning; &c.
J. H. A. H. John Henry Arthur Hart, M.A.
Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John’s College, Cambridge.
J. H. M. John Henry Middleton, M.A., Litt.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896).
Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1886-1895. Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889-1892. Art Director of the South Kensington Museum, 1892—1896. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Times; Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times.
Rietschel, Ernst; Ring (in part); Rome: The Ancient City (in part); and Christian Rome (in part); Round Towers.
J. H. R. John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D.
Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and Pedigree.
J. H. R.* James Harvey Robinson, A.M., Ph.D.
Professor of History, Columbia University, New York. Author of Petrarch, the First Modern Scholar; History of Western Europe; &c.
Reformation, The.
J. Hl. R. John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D.
Christ’s College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge. University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c.
Reichstadt, Duke of.
J. H. V. C. John Henry Verrinder Crowe.
Lieut.-Colonel, Royal Artillery. Commandant of the Royal Military College of Canada. Formerly Chief Instructor in Military Topography and Military History and Tactics at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Author of Epitome of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78; &c.
Russo-Turkish War: (1877-78).
J. J. L.* Rev. John James Lias, M.A.
Chancellor of Llandaff Cathedral. Formerly Hulsean Lecturer in Divinity and Lady Margaret Preacher, University of Cambridge. Author of Miracles, Science and Prayer; &c.
Reusch, Franz H.
J. J. T. Sir Joseph John Thomson, D.Sc., LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.
Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. President of the British Association, 1909-1910. Author of A Treatise on the Motion of Vortex Rings; Application of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry'; Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism; &c.
Röntgen Rays.
J. L. W. Jessie Laidlay Weston.
Author of Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory.
Round Table, The.
J. Mt. James Moffatt, M.A., D.D.
Minister of the United Free Church of Scotland. Jowett Lecturer, London, 1907. Author of Historical New Testament; &c.
Romans, Epistle to the.
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.
J. S. H. John Scott Haldane, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S.
Fellow of New College, Oxford, and University Reader in Physiology. Metropolitan Gas Referee to the Board of Trade. Joint-editor and founder of the Journal of Hygiene. Author of Blue-books on “The Causes of Death in Colliery Explosions”; c.
Respiratory System: Physiology.
J. S. R. James Smith Reid, M.A., LL.M., Litt.D., LL.D.
Professor of Ancient History and Fellow and Tutor of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Lecturer, of Christ’s College. Editor of Cicero’s Academica; De Amicitia; &c.
Ritschl, Friedrich W.; Ruhnken, David; Rutilius Claudius Namatianus.
J. T. Be. John Thomas Bealby.
Joint-author of Stanford’s Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin’s Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.
Riga (in part); Russia: Geography and Statistics (in part).
J. T. S.* James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D.
Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City.
Richelieu, Cardinal; Sacrilege.
J. W. James Williams, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D.
All Souls’ Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln College. Barrister-at-Law of Lincoln’s Inn. Author of Law of the Universities; &c.
Roman Catholic Church: English Law.
J. Wal.* James Walker, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Demonstrator in the Clarendon Laboratory. Formerly Vice-President of the Physical Society. Author of The Analytical Theory of Light; &c.
Refraction: Double Refraction.
J. We. Julius Wellhausen, D.D.
See the biographical article: Wellhausen, Julius.
Reiske, Johann Jacob.
J. W. H. John Wesley Hales, M.A.
Emeritus Professor of English Literature at King’s College, London. Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Tutor, of Christ’s College, Cambridge. Clark Lecturer in English Literature at Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Shakespeare Essays and Notes; Folia Litteraria; &c.
Robin Hood (in part).
K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger.
Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra.
Regal; Rotta; Sackbut.
L. F. A. Lawrence F. Abbott.
President of The Outlook Company, New York.
Roosevelt, Theodore.
L. F. V.-H. Leveson Francis Vernon-Harcourt, M.A., M.Inst.C.E. (1839-1907).
Professor of Civil Engineering at University College, London, 1882-1905. Author of Rivers and Canals; Harbours and Docks; Civil Engineering as applied in Construction; &c.
River Engineering.
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A.
Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
L. L. S. Lionel Lancelot Shadwell, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln’s Inn. One of H.M. Commissioners in Lunacy.
M. A. Matthew Arnold.
See the biographical article: Arnold, Matthew.
M. Cr. Francis Marion Crawford.
See the biographical article: Crawford, F. Marion.
Rome: The Modern City.
M. G. Moses Gaster, Ph.D.
Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine Literature, 1886 and 1891. President, Folk-lore Society of England. Vice-President, Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian Popular Literature; &c.
Rumania: Literature.
M. Ha. Marcus Hartog, M.A., D.Sc., F.L.S.
Professor of Zoology, University College, Cork. Author of “Protozoa,” in Cambridge Natural History; and papers for Various scientific journals.
Rhizopoda; Rotifera.
M. H. S. Marion H. Spielmann, F.S.A.
Formerly Editor of the Magazine of Art. Member of Fine Art Committee of International Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome and the Franco-British Exhibition, London. Author of History of “Punch”; British Portrait Painting to the Opening of the Nineteenth Century; Works of G. F. Watts, R.A.; British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day; Henrietta Ronner; &c.
Relief; Repoussé; Roubiliac, Louis F.
M. O. B. C. Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A.
Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham University, 1905-1908.
Rhodes (in part); Romanus I.-IV. (Eastern Emperors).
M. P.* Leon Jacques Maxime Prinet.
Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary of the Institute of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). Author of L’Industrie du sel en Franche-Comté; François I et le comté de Bourgogne; &c.
Retz, Seigneurs and Dukes of; Rouault, Joachim.
N. W. T. Northcote Whitridge Thomas, M.A.
Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the Société d’Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and Marriage in Australia; &c.
O. A. Osmund Airy, M.A., LL.D.
H.M. Divisional Inspector of Schools and Inspector of Training Colleges, Board of Education. Author of Louis XIV. and the English Restoration; Charles II.; &c. Editor of the Lauderdale Papers; &c.
Russell, Lord William.
O. Ba. Oswald Barron, F.S.A.,
Editor of The Ancestor, 1902-1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the Honourable Society of the Baronetage.
Russell (Family).
O. M.* Octave Maus, LL.D.
Advocate of the Court of Appeal at Brussels. Director of L’Art Moderne and of the Libre Esthétigue. President of the Association of Belgian writers. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Le Théâtre de Bayreuth; Aux Ambassadeurs; Malta, Constantinople et la Crimée; &c.
Rops, Félicien.
P. A. A. Philip A. Ashworth, M.A., Doc.Juris.
New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Translator of H. R. von Gneist’s History of the English Constitution.
Rhine (in part).
P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince P. A.
Riga (in part); Russia: Geography and Statistics (in part).
P. C. M. Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc., LL.D.
Secretary of the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. Author of Outlines of Biology; &c.
Regeneration of Lost Parts; Reproduction: of Animals.
P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D.
Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological Society.
P. G. K. Paul George Konody.
Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of The Artist. Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasguez: Life and Work; &c.
Rembrandt (in part); Rubens (in part).
P. V. Pasquale Villari.
See the biographical article: Villari, Pasquale.
Rimini; Rome: Roman Republic in the Middle Ages.
R. A. N. Reynold Alleyne Nicholson, M.A., Litt.D.,
Lecturer in Persian in the University of Cambridge. Sometime Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and Professor of Persian at University College, London. Author of Selected Poems from the Dīvāni Shamsi Tabriz; A Literary History of the Arabs; &c.
R. C. J. Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Jebb, Sir Richard Claverhouse.
R. H. C. Rev. Robert Henry Charles, M.A., D.D., D.Litt.
Grinfield Lecturer, and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford. Fellow of Merton College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Professor of Biblical Greek, Trinity College, Dublin. Author of Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; Book of Jubilees; &c.
Revelation, Book of.
R. J. M. Ronald John McNeill, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James’s Gazette, London.
Richmond, Earls and Dukes of; Richmond and Lennox, Duchess of; Sacheverell, William.
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S.
Member of the Stafi of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; &c.
Reindeer; Rhinoceros (in part); Rhytina; River-hog; Rocky Mountain Goat; Rodentia; Roe-buck; Rorqual.
R. N. B Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1900; The First Romanovs, 1613-1725: Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796; &c.
Repnin; Reuterholm, Baron; Sadolin, Jörgen.
R. R. M Robert Ranulph Marett, M.A.
Reader in Social Anthropology, Oxford University, and Fellow and Tutor of Exeter College. Formerly Dean and Sub-Rector of Exeter College. Author of The Threshold of Religion.
Religion: Primitive Religion; Ritual.
R. S. C. Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt.
Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff, and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects.
Rome: Ancient History (in part); Rutuli; Sabellic; Sabini.
R. W. F. H. Robert William Frederick Harrison.
Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Assistant Secretary of the Royal Society, London.
Royal Society, The.
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A
Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Law of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.
Ruth, Book of (in part); Sabbath (in part).
St C. Viscount St Cyres.
See the biographical article: Iddesleigh, 1st Earl of.
Roman Catholic Church (in part).
S. H. V. Sydney Howard Vines, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Sherardian Professor of Botany, Oxford University, and Fellow of Magdalen College. Fellow of the University of London. Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Lecturer, of Christ’s College, Cambridge. President of the Linnean Society, 1900-1904. Author of A Student’s Text-Book of Botany; &c.
Reproduction: of Plants; Sachs, Julius von.
S. N. Simon Newcomb, D.Sc., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon.
Refraction: Astronomical Refraction.
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon).
Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conin ton Prizeman, 1906. Member Of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna.
Regillus; Regium; Rovigo; Rusellae; Ruvo; St Bernard Passes (in part).
T. A. I. Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D.
Trinity College, Dublin.
Sacrilege: English Law.
T. Ba. Sir Thomas Barclay.
Member of the Institute of International Law. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.
T. B. L. Thomas Bell Lightfoot, M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.Mech.E.
Author of Preservation of Foods by Cold; &c.
T. H.* Thomas Harris, M.D., F.R.C.P.
Formerly Hon. Physician to Manchester Royal Infirmary, and Lecturer on Diseases of the Respiratory Organs at Owens College, Manchester. Author of numerous articles on diseases of the respiratory organs.
Respiratory System: Pathology (in part).
T. Wo. Thomas Woodhouse.
Head of the Weaving and Textile Designing Department, Technical College, Dundee.
Rope and Rope-making; Sacking and Sack Manufacture; Sailcloth.
T. W.-D Walter Theodore Watts-Dunton.
See the biographical article: Watts-Dunton, Walter Theodore.
Rossetti, Dante Gabriel.
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., PH.D.
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David’s College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphiné; The Range of the Tödi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1881; &c.
Referendum and Initiative; Reschen Scheideck; Rhine: Swiss Portion; Rhone; Rorschach; Rosa, Monte; Rovereto; St Bernard Passes (in part).
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.
Rochet: Church of England; Roman Catholic Church (in part); Russia: Government and Administration.
W. E. A. A. William Edward Armytage Axon, LL.D.
Formerly Deputy Chief Librarian of the Manchester Free Libraries. On Literary Staff of Manchester Guardian, 1874-1905. Member of the Gorsedd, with the bardic name of Manceinion. Author of Annals of Manchester; &c.
Roscoe, William.
W. H. F. Sir William H. Flower, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W. H.
Rhinoceros (in part).
W. J. H.* William James Hughan.
Past S.G.D. of the Grand Lodge of England. Author of Origin of the English Rite of Freemasonry.
W. M.-L. Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke, Ph.D.
Hofrat of the Austrian Empire. Professor of Romance Philology in the University of Vienna. Author of Grammatik der Romanischen Sprachen; &c.
Romance Languages.
W. M. R. William Michael Rossetti.
See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante G.
Ribera, Giuseppe; Rosa, Salvator.
W. P. C. William Prideaux Courtney.
See the biographical article: Courtney, Baron.
Rosslyn, Earl of; Russell, 1st Earl.
W. P. P. L. William Pitt Preble Longfellow.
Fellow of the American Institute of Architects. Editor of the American Architect. Author of Cyclopaedia of Architecture in Italy, Greece and the Levant; &c.
Richardson, Henry Hobson.
W. R. D. Wyndham Rowland Dunstan, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S.
Director of the Imperial Institute. President of the International Association of Tropical Agriculture. Member of the Advisory Committee for Tropical Agriculture, Colonial Office.
W. R. K. Rt. Hon. Sir William Rann Kennedy, LL.D.
Lord of Appeal. Hon. Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Judge of King’s Bench Division of High Court of justice, 1892-1907.
Russell of Killowen, Lord.
W. R. M. William Richard Morfill, M.A. (d. 1910).
Formerly Professor of Russian and the other Slavonic Languages in the University of Oxford. Curator of the Taylorian Institution, Oxford. Author of Russia; Slavonic Literature; &c.
Russian Literature.
W. R. S. William Robertson Smith, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Smith, William Robertson.
Reuchlin; Ruth, Book of (in part); Sabbath (in part).


Reflection of Light.
Reynard the Fox.
Rhine Province.
Rhode Island.

Richmond (Surrey).
Richmond (Va.).
Rio de Janeiro.
Rio Grande do Sul (State).
Roads and Streets.
Rochester (Kent).
Rochester (N.Y.).

Roland, Legend of.
Rome (N.Y.).
Roscommon, Co.
Roses, Wars of the.
Ross and Cromarty.

Russo-Japanese War.
Sacramento (Cal.).
Saint Albans.
Saint Andrews.
St Augustine (Fla.).
St Denis.

  1. A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume