The Zoologist/4th series, vol 2 (1898)

THE ZOOLOGIST:

A MONTHLY JOURNAL

OF

NATURAL HISTORY.


FOURTH SERIES.—VOL. II.


EDITED BY

W.L. DISTANT

LONDON:

WEST, NEWMAN, & CO., 54, HATTON GARDEN.
SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, & CO., Ltd.


1898.

Zoologist2376 0006.jpg

PREFACE.

A Preface to the yearly volume of 'The Zoologist ' pertains to an annual stock-taking, for it must be judged largely by our contributors' additions to zoological knowledge.

The Mammalia have received special attention. The paper by Prof. J.C. Ewart on "Zebra-Horse Hybrids" may prove to be of an epoch-making nature both in Africa and India. The Indian fauna has again asserted its interest, while Mr. Oldfield Thomas has proposed a canon of nomenclature for British mammals. On the species of our own fauna many valuable notes have appeared.

The class Aves still remains the favourite study of very many of our contributors, and our pages have again contained new facts in British Ornithology. Mr. Ernst Hartert has called attention to an "hitherto overlooked British bird" in a Marsh Tit, Parus salicarius, Brehm. The presence of the White Wagtail (Motacilla alba) in Ireland, the Pectoral Sandpiper (Tringa maculata) in Norfolk and Kent, the Barred Warbler (Sylvia nisoria) in Lincolnshire, the continued visitation of the Melodious Warbler (Hypolais polyglotta) in South Devon, and the nesting of the Nightingale so far west as Wells in Somerset, are among some of the many avian records we have received and published.

Reptilia and Pisces have not been neglected, and we are glad to see the Crustacea more prominent on our literary menu. The Stalk-eyed Crustacea of Great Yarmouth, and the Malacostracous Crustacea of a section of Australia have been detailed; while a note on "The Struggle for Existence among Hermit Crabs" shows the vast interest attaching to observations on the lives of these creatures. The same remark applies to the Arachnida, on which, as found in South Africa, more than one contribution has appeared.

When we turn to the many classes of animals still practically ignored in our pages, we are reminded of the yet unexplored areas in animal bionomics which it is the self-constituted province of 'The Zoologist' to explore. This Journal has always, and will always, seek to understand the economy of animal life, and endeavour to reveal the polity and life-secrets of our fellow-creatures—using that term in its wider and zoological sense. We may on this point quote the words of Emerson:—"I hold an actual knowledge very cheap. Hear the rats in the wall, see the lizard on the fence, the fungus under foot, the lichen on the log. What do I know sympathetically, morally, of either of these worlds of life?"

The Editor, in his annual acknowledgment to his contributors, trusts to their renewed acquaintance during the succeeding year—the fin de siècle—with all best wishes to them, belief in the future of the science we study, and hope in a renewed value and usefulness of our next volume.

Contents of Issues

Template:The Zoologist ToC/4th series, vol 2 (1898)

CONTENTS.

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS.

Alexander, Boyd
Little Gull in Kent, 216
Aplin, O.V., F.L.S., M.B.O.U.
"Horse-match" a name for the Red-backed Shrike, 188; Stoats turning white in winter, 193
Archibald, Charles F.
Spotted Crake in Furness, 479
Armistead, J.J.
Wagtails eating Trout, 82; Hobby nesting in Hants, 83; Scoters in summer, 414; Ivory Gull on the Solway, 414
Backhouse, J., F.L.S.
Occurrence of Natterer's Bat in North Wales, 493
Balston, B.J.
Breeding of the Gannet, 319
Bankes, A.
Crossbills in Hants, 505
Baring, A.H.
Albinic example of Long-tailed Bat, 261
Barrett-Hamilton, G.E.H.
Stoats turning white in winter, 122
Benson, Rev. Charles W., LL.D.
The song of the Chaffinch, 269; The Whinchat in Co. Dublin, 356; The birds of the Biffelalp, 506
Blathwayt, F.L.
Ornithological notes from Sark, 274; Bird notes from the Northern Cairngorms, 362
Bolam, George
Popular fallacies concerning the Cuckoo, 85
Borrer, William, M.A., F.L.S.
Conduct of a Rabbit when pursued by a Dog, 413
Boulsover, William
Pale-coloured Dipper, 23
Bradshaw, George W.
Common Roller in Sussex, 24; Canada Goose near Dungeness, 216; Woodchat Shrike in Sussex, 267
Bucknill, John A.
"Horse-match" a name for the Red-backed Shrike, 266
Butler, A.G., Ph.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S.
On Sexual differences in the feathering of the wing of the Sky Lark, 104; On the first primary in certain Passerine birds, 241
Butler, Arthur Geo., M.B. Lond.
On the first primary in certain Passerine birds, 241
Butler, Lieut.-Col. E.A.
Little Bustard in Norfolk, 125; Stoats turning white in winter, 187
Butterfield, W. C. J. Ruskin
Note on the Petrel, Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt), 320
Cambridge, Rev. O. Pickard
Immigration of the Song Thrush, 264
Campbell, Bruce
List of birds observed in the District of Moffat, Dumfriesshire, from October, 1896, to February, 1897, 507
Carter, Thomas
The Sanderling in Australia, 83
Clarke, W. G.
The Wretham Meres, 145
Clarke, W.J.
Notes from Scarborough, 28; Stoats turning white in winter, 187; Yarrell's Blenny and the TwoSpotted Goby at Scarborough, 191; Badgers near Scarborough, 213; Ornithological notes from Scarborough, 219; Notes on the habits of Python molurus in confinement, 436; Short Sunfish near Scarborough, 439
Coburn, F.
Brood of young Starlings in mid-November, 24; Brent Goose in Warwickshire, 24; Ferruginous Duck in Ireland, 25; Corncrake in December, 25; Stoats turning white in winter, 213; Meadow Pipits perching on trees, 214
Cockerell, T.D.A.
The insect visitors of flowers in New Mexico, 78, 311
Collett, R., Prof.
On the reported summer appearance of two species of birds in Lapland, 25
Comber, Alfred T.
Hawfinch near Reigate Railway Station, 188
Corbin, G.B.
Brambling in Hants, 123; Roughlegged Buzzard near Ringwood, 124; Nesting of the Hobby in Hants, 125; Stoats turning white in winter, 261; Otters in South-western Hampshire, 262; Crossbills in South-western Hampshire in 1898, 482
Cordeaux, John, F.R.G.S., M.B.O.U.
Food of the Barn Owl, 215; Disappearance of the Lapwing in North Lincolnshire, 272; Migration at the Spurn Lighthouse in 1897–98, 345; Occurrence of the Fork-tailed Petrel on the Yorkshire coast, 362
Corrie, Adam J.
Adder swallowing its young, 485
Crawshay, William T.
Rooks feeding on Elvers, 270
Crossman, Alan Fairfax
Scaup in Bedfordshire, 319; Alleged Kentish Plover in Bedfordshire, 320; Birds of Hertfordshire, 506
Davenport, H.S.
Popular ornithological fallacies, 27; Cuckoos sucking eggs, 87; Breeding sites of Chaffinch and Willow Warbler, 214; The protection of wild birds and their eggs, 322; Spotless eggs of the Spotted Flycatcher, 359; The so-called St. Kilda Wren, 413; A Cuckoo's economy in question, 430; Dr. Saxby and the breeding of the Turnstone, 435; Irregular nesting sites, 480
Davies, Basil
Varying fecundity in birds, 495
Distant, W.L.
Notes on the Nestor notabilis, or Kea Parrot, of New Zealand, 217; Zoological rambles in the Transvaal, 249; Cicada attacked by Mantis, 275; Southerly extension of the East African butterfly fauna, 276; Toad attacked by a Frog, 323; Biological suggestions—assimilative colouration, 377, 451; "The Leathery Turtle" (Dermochelys coriacea), 500; Involuntary migration, 508
Dresser, H.E., F.L.S., F.Z.S.
Rare Partridges in Leadenhall Market, 215
Duncan, A.
Mode of progression among Millipedes, 365
D'Urban, W.S.M.
Date of arrival of House Martin, 433
Elliott, J. Steele
On the nesting of the Spotted Flycatcher, 358
Ewart, J.C, Prof., F.R.S.
On Zebra-Horse hybrids, 49
Farman, Last C.
Winter notes from Haddiscoe, 26
Fowler, W. Warde
Tree Pipit in January, 122; Rooks and buttercup bulbs, 124; On the date of arrival of the House Martin, 267; The Marsh Warbler in Oxfordshire, 356
Freston, Henry W.
Asagena phalerata at Grasmere, 440; Epeira diadema courtship, 440
Friend, Rev. Hilderic
Notes on British Annelids, 119
Godfrey, F.R.
Some notes on the Nestor notabilis, or Kea Parrot, of New Zealand, 216
Goldsmith, H.S.B.
Early nesting of the House Sparrow, 123
Grabham, Oxley, M.A., M.B.O.U.
Rough nesting notes from Yorkshire, 349; Large Bank Vole in Kent, 477; Economy of the Cuckoo, 478; Late nesting of the Corn Bunting, 485; Food of the Redwing, 504; Phasianus colchicus in Yorkshire, 505

Gurney, J. H., F.L.S., F.Z.S. Ornithological notes froni Norfolk for 1897, 106

Haigh, G. H. Caton Water Pipit in Carnarvonshire, 187 ; Meadow Pipit perching on tree?, 266 ; Barred Warbler in Lincoln- shire, 504

Hammond, W. Oxenden Jumping beans, 441

Hartert, Ernst, Dir. Z. Mus. Tring A hitherto overlooked British bird, 116

Hewett, William Nesting habits of the Moorhen, 505

Horsbrugh, Charles Bethune Nesting of the Hobby in Hants, 24 ; Nesting of the Greater Spotted Woodpecker near Bath, 318 ; Birds singing during thun- derstorm, 322 ; Preservation of zoological specimens, 366 ; Late stay of Swift, 436

Kelsall, Rev. J.E. The Mammalia of Hampshire, 429

Kidner, H. Ratcliff Birds which nest in London, 273

King, C. Meade Birds which nest in London, 189

Langdale, Rev. H. Marmaduke Late stay of Swift, 485

Lewis, Stanley Nightingale nesting at Wells, Som- erset, 317 ; Nesting of the Greater Spotted Woodpecker at Wells, Somerset, 319 ; Swallow versus Flycatcher's peculiar nesting site, 429; Notes on the nesting of the Nuthatch, 480

Macpherson, A. Holte Hybrid Finches at the Crystal Palace Show, 188 ; Birds which nest in London, 272

Macpherson, Rev. H.A., M.A. Varieties of the Bed Grouse, 125 ; William Turner, the father of British Zoology, 337 ; Mallard and Pintail interbreeding in cap- tivity, 361 ; Sea Lamprey in Cumberland, 365

Marshall, Guy A.K., F.E.S. Spider versus Wasp, 29 ; Notes on the South African Social Spiders, 417

Mathew, Rev. Murray A., M.A. Melodious Warblers in South-east Devon, 265

Meyrick, E., B.A., F.Z.S., F.E.S. Moths and their classification, 289

Morley, John Variety of the Common Guillemot, 25

Newman, J.L. Pectoral Sandpiper in Norfolk, 25 ; Parasites in birds, 415

Oldham, Charles Daubenton's Bat in the Conway Valley, 317, 368

Page, W.T. Notes on the Chaffinch, 270 ; Birds in London, 273

Patterson, Arthur Malformed Codfish, 130 ; Some notes on the Stalk-eyed Crustacea of Great Yarmouth, 178 ; Notes from Great Yarmouth, 219, 364, 508 ; Meristic variation in the Edible Crab, 220 ; The Mammalia of Great Yarmouth and its im- mediate neighbourhood, 299 ; Porpoises at Great Yarmouth, 504

Payne, J.W. At what hour of the day do birds mostly lay their eggs ? 84 ; Breed- ing range of the Scaup-Duck, 361

Percival-Westell, W. Scoters in Hants and Isle of Wight, 505

Playne, Herbert C. On the reported summer appear- ance of two species of birds in Lapland, 84 ; Ornithological notes from Corsica — correction, 275

Pocock, R.I. Stridulation in some African Spi- ders, 14

Pollok, Colonel F.T. Indian Wild Cattle — the Tsine and the Gaur (miscalled Bison), 1 ; The Indian Hispid Hare (Lepus hispidus), 22 ; A Chat about In- dian wild beasts, 154

Potter, E.G. Eggs of the Roseate Tern, 83

Power, F.D. When does the House Martin ar- rive ? 317

Ralfe, P. Notes from the Isle of Man (1897), 321

Ramsbotham, R.H. Abundance of Crossbills in the Severn Valley, 124

Read, Robert H. Birdsnesting in August, 415

Renshaw, Graham Experiments on the colours of the Nonpareil Finch, 23 ; Existing specimens of Equus quagga, 213 ; Notes on Batrachians — Frog at- tacking Toad, 365 ; Abnormal eyes of Hyla arborea and Boin- binator igneus, 486

Riviere, Bernard B. Ornithological notes at Alum Bay, Isle of Wight, 218

Roberts, T. Vaughan Kites in Wales, 271

Rope, G.T. Chickens reared by Partridges, 189 ; Notes on the Bank Vole, 503

Roue, W. Barrett Coition of birds in the air, 415

Rufford, P. The struggle for existence among Hermit Crabs, 131 ; Abnormal scalariformity in shells, 191

Russell, Harold The Kingfisher in Surrey, 82 ; The so-called St. Kilda Wren, 482

Salter, J.H. Ornithological notes from Mid- Wales, 198

Saunders, Howard, F.L.S., F.Z.S. The Cirl Bunting in Wales, 505

Sclater, P. L., M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S. The Birds of the Riffelalp, Canton Valais, Switzerland, 474

Sim, George Fishes of Great Yarmouth, 88

Smith, G. W. Ornithological notes from Mid- Hants (1897), 126

Soueff, D. Le, Ass. Di. Z. Gard. Melb. Sagacity among birds, 217

Southwell, Thomas, F.Z.S. Notes on the Seal and Whale Fishery (1897), 69; Centrolophus pomphilus on Norfolk coast, 364

Stead, David G. Notes on the habits of some of the Australian Malacostracous Crus- tacea, 202

Stebbing, Rev. Thomas R.R., M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S. Zoological Nomenclature, remarks on the proposed international code, 423

Swainson, Capt. E.A. Cirl Bunting in Breconshire, 478

Teesdale, John H. Montagu's Harrier breeding in Ire- land — correction, 24 ; The In- sectivora and Rodentia of Nor- thumberland, 264

Thomas, Oldfield, F.Z.S. The technical names of British Mammals, 97 ; The scientific names of the Badger and the Common Vole, 263

Ticehurst, N. F. Pectoral Sandpiper in Kent, 480

Tuck, Rev. Julian G., M.A. Polecat in Suffolk, 22, 122, 503 ; Bank Vole in Suffolk, 122 ; Eco- nomy of the Cuckoo, 477 ; Owls and Kestrels, 505

Warren, Robert White Wagtail in Ireland, 245 ; Iceland Gull in Co. Sligo in summer, 320

Whitaker, J. Varieties of Green Plover, &c, 482 ; Scoters in Notts, 482 ; Heron nest of wire, 484 ; Great Skua in Notts, 485

Wilson, William Cuckoo questions, 270; Appearance of migrants in Aberdeenshire in 1898, 275 ; Cuckoos recently ob- served in Aberdeenshire, 359 ; Cuckoos in 1898, 431

Winton, William E. de Birds which nest in London, 216

Witchell, Charles A. The Voice-registers of birds, 11 ; Notes on the breeding of the Chaffinch, 195 ; The autumn song of birds, 410

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF SUBJECTS.

Abraxas grossulariata, 380

Acacia giraffæ, 461

Accentor alpirms, 475 ; modularis, 190, 507

Accipiter nisus, 508

Acidalidæ, 290

Acipenser sturio, 144

Acræa violæ, 283

Acredula rosea, 507

Acridium cœrulescens, 458 ; german- icum, 457, 458 ; purpuriferum, 419

Acrocephalus palustris, 356 ; phrag- mitis, 190, 272 ; streperus, 190

Adder swallowing its young, 485

Aegeriadæ, 293

Ægialitis cantiana, 320 ; hiaticula, 364

Agonus cataphractus, 28

Agrotis lucernea, 456

Alauda arborea, 275 ; arvensis, 104, 273, 508

Alcedo ispida, 82, 508

Alcelaphus cokei, 460

Alligator in Florida, 286

Alope palpalis, 211

Alopecias vulpes, 508

Alpheus edwardsii, 210

Amauris dominicanus, 254

Ampelis garrulus, 219

Amphidasys betularia, 456

Anas boscas, 190, 361, 364, 508

Animals, noxious, of New South Wales, 140 ; Wild, price of, 234

'Annals and Magazine of Natural History,' new Editor, 39

Annelids, British, notes on, 119

Annomanes regulus, 458

Anser erythropus, 26, 91 ; ruficollis, 91 ; segetum, 91

Antarctic Expedition, British, 492

Anthodiæta collaris, nest, 418

Anthus pratensis, 214, 266, 430 ; spi- noletta, 475 ; spipoletta, 187 ; tri- vialis, 122

Aquaria and Vivaria, 40

Aquaria at Odessa, 41

Ardea cinerea, 508

Argiope, 30

Asagena phalerata at Grasmere, 440

Asia, Central, scientific expedition to, 235

Assimilative colouration, 377, 453

Astacopsis serratus, 209

Astacidæ, 236

Asturinula monogrammica, 257

Auk, Great, census of remains, to Aug. 1898, 518

Australia, Sanderling in, 83 ; Western, journey across the great deserts, 94 ; Malacostracous Crustacea, 202

Avicola agrestis, 264 ; amphibius, 264 ; glareolus, 264

Aviculariidae, 14

Badger, scientific name, 263

Badgers near Scarborough, 213

Balæna biscayensis, 308

Balænoptera musculus, 308 ; rostrata, 309

Barbastella barbastellus, 100

Bat, Daubenton's, in Conway Valley, 317, 368 ; Long-eared, albinic, 261 ; Natterer's, in North Wales (Plate IV.), 493

Batrachians, notes on, 365

Beans, jumping, 441

Beasts, Indian Wild, 154

Belone vulgaris, 28

Bernicla brenta, 24, 25, 84 ; canaden- sis, 216

Bidens cernua, 406

Biological suggestions — assimilative colouration, 377, 453

Bird, British, hitherto overlooked, 116 ; notes from Cairngorms, 362

Birds, voice-registers of, 11; of De- vonshire, 39 ; sale of, belonging to the late Mr. R. Ashby, 45 ; usual time of egg-laying ? 84 ; of Lon- don, 91, 189, 216, 272, 273 ; British, Catalogue of Connop collection, 96 ; osteology of, 138 ; sagacity among, 217 ; Passerine, first primary in certain, 241 ; destruction of, and destructive insects, in France, 285 ; singing during thunderstorm, 322 ; Wild, and their eggs, protection of, 322, 449; of Bowdoin Bay, 374 ; au- tumn song, 410 ; coition in the air, 415 ; parasites in, 415 ; of Riffelalp, Valais, Switzerland, 474, 506 ; of Hertfordshire, 506 ; of Moffat, Dumfriesshire, 507

Birds' feathers, trade in, 233

Birdsnesting in August, 415

Blenny, Yarrell's, at Scarborough, 191

Boa Constrictors of British Guiana, 232

Books Noticed:

With Nature and a Camera, by

Richard Kearton and Cherry Kearton, 32

Observations on the Colouration of

Insects, by Brunner von Watten- wyl, 34

The life of Sir Stamford Baffles, by

Demetrius Charles Boulger, 35

All about Animals, 37
Wild Traits in Tame Animals, being

some Familiar Studies in Evolu- tion, by Louis Bobinson, 89

A Text-Book of Zoology, by T.

Jeffery Parker and William A. Haswell, 132

A History of Fowling, being an Ac-

count of the many curious devices by which Wild Birds are or have been captured in different parts of the World, by Rev. H.A. Mac- pherson, 134

Elephant-Hunting in East Equa-

torial Africa, by Arthur H. Neu- mann, 137

Audubon and his Journals, by

Maria B. Audubon, with zoolo- gical and other Notes by Elliott Coues, 221

Life and Letters of Alexander Good-

man More, with selections from his Zoological and Botanical Writings, edited by B. Moffat, with a Preface by Francis M. More, 223

A Sketch of the Natural History

(Vertebrates) of the British Is- lands, by F.G. Aflalo, 225

The Mammals, Reptiles, and Fishes

of Essex, by Henry Laver, 227

Hints on the Management of

Hawks, to which is added Prac- tical Falconry, by James Edmund Harting, 228

Essays on Museums and other sub-

jects connected with Natural His- tory, by Sir William H. Flower, 277

A Student's Text-Book of Zoology,

by Adam Sedgwick, 279

Birds in London, by W.H. Hudson,

281 The Angora Goat, and a Paper on the Ostrich, by S.C. Cronwright Schreiner, 324

Elementary Practical Zoology, by

Frank E. Beddard, 326

Ackworth Birds, being a List of

Birds of the District of Ackworth, Yorkshire, by Major Walter B. Arundel, 327

A Pictorial and Descriptive Guide

to the Lake District, 328

The Fauna of British India, in-

cluding Ceylon and Burma — Birds, by W.T. Blanford, 369

Bird Neighbours, by Neltje Blan-

chan, 370

The Birds of Montreal, 372
A Classification of Vertebrata, Re-

cent and Extinct, by Hans Ga- dow, 443

The Trout, by the Marquess of

Granby, Col. F. H. distance, and Alexander Innes Shand, 444

The Structure and Classification of

Birds, by Frank E. Beddard, 510 Text-Book of Zoology, by H.G. Wells and A. M. Davies, 511

The Wonderful Trout, by J. A. Har-

vie-Brown, 513

Faune de France, contenant la de-

scription des especes indigenes disposees en tableaux analy- tiques et illustree de figures re- presentant les types caracteris- tiques de:s genres, par A. Acloque, 514

Bombinator igneus, abnormal eyes of, 486

Bos gaurus, 1, 2; sondaicus, 1

Brambling in Hants, 123

Branchiura sowerbii, 120

Breeding of Garganey in Hants, 126 ; sites of Chiffchaff, 214, 270,— Wil- low Warbler, 214 ; of Dragonet, 231 ; of Gannet, 319 ; range of Scaup-Duck, 361 ; of Turnstone, Dr. Saxby on, 435

Brood of young Starlings in mid-No- vember, 24

"Brusher Mills," snake-charmer, 492

Bubalis caama,461 ; lichtensteini, 461

Buceros bicornis, 379

Buchanga assimilis, 256

Buckland, Frank, collection, 520

Buffalo, the last, in Manitoba, 373

Bufo vulgaris, 323, 365

Bunting, Cirl, in Breconshire, 748, — in Wales, 505 ; Corn, late nesting, 485

Bustard, Little, in Norfolk, 125

Buteo lagopus, 124

Buzzard as foster-parent, 491 ; Rough- legged, near Ringwood, 124

Caccabis magna, 215

Cælopa frigida, 457

Cairngorms, Northern, bird notes from, 362

Calidris arenaria, 83

Callianassa sp. ?, 208

Callionymus lyra, 231

Caltha minor, 406 ; palustris, 406

Cambarus diogenes, 237

Cancer pagurus, 181, 220

Canis ægypticus, 470; latrans, 470; mesomelas, 470

Capreolus capreolus, 101

Caradrinina, 297

Carassius auratus, 140

Carcharias glaucus, 508

Carcinus mænas, 182

Carduelis elegans, 507

Carelophus ascanii, 191

Cariacus, 407

Catalogue of Birds, British Museum, completion of, 516

Cattle, Indian Wild, 1

Centipede, South European, at Col- chester, 489

Centrolophus pomphilus on Norfolk coast, 364

Centropus senegalensis, 258

Ceratothoa trigonocephola, 211

Certhia familiaris, 507

Cervulus, 407

Cervus, 407 ; dama, 101 ; elaphus, 101, — gigantic antlers, 229

Ceryle rudis, 258

Chasmagnathus lævis, 206

Chætogaster limnæi, 192

Chaffinch, notes on breeding of, 195, 270 ; song, 195, 270, 269

Charadrius pluvialis, 508

Charaxes varanes, 254

Charybdis cruciatus, 204

Chelidon urbica, 190, 267, 317, 321, 433

Cheraps bicarinatus, 236

Chicken reared by Partridges, 189

Chiffchaff, breeding sites, 214

Chlamydoselachus anguineus, 41

Christmas Island, zoological explora- tion, 519

Chrysomitris citrinella, 275, 506 ; spinus, 507

Cicada attacked by Mantis, 275

Cinclus aquaticus, 23, 507

Cinnyris chalybæus, nest, 418 ; gut- turalis, nest, 418

Circus cinerescens, 24

Classification of Moths, 289

Coccinella bipunctata, 468 ; decem- punctata (variabilis), 468 ; septem- punctata, 468

Coccothraustes coccothraustes, 188 Coccystes jacobinus, 258 ; serratus, 258

Codfish, malformed, 130, — figured, 130

Coition of birds in the air, 415

Collett, Prof., on a remarkable Shark, 441

Colouration, assimilative, 377, 453

Colours of Nonpareil Finch, experi- ments on, 23

Columba palumbus, 190, 275, 508

Coracias garrulus, 24

Coregonus, 463

Corncrake in December, 25

Corsica, ornithological notes from, 275

Corvus corone, 190, 508 ; frugilegus, 124, 190, 508 ; monecula, 190, 508

Corystes cassivelaunus, 183

Cotile rupestris, 275

Cotinga cayana, 392 ; cærulea, 392

Cottus groenlandicus, 220

County Records:—

Bedfordshire — Scaup Duck, 319 ;

Kentish Plover, 320

Cambridgeshire — Birdsnesting in

August, 415

Cumberland — Mallard and Pintail

interbreeding in captivity, 361 ; Sea Lamprey, 365

Derbyshire — Dipper, 23
Devonshire — Birds of, 39 ; Melo-

dious Warbler, 265 ; Gannet, 319 ; House Martin, 433

Dorsetshire — Song Thrush, 264
Gloucestershire — Coition of birds

in the air, 415

Hampshire— Hobby, 24, 83, 125 ;

Brambling, 123 ; Rough-legged Buzzard, 124 ; ornithological notes, 126.218 ; Long-eared Bat, 261 ; Stoats, 261 ; Otters, 262 ; Mammalia, 429 ; Crossbill, 482, 505 ; Swift, 485 ; Scoter, 505

Hertfordshire — Birds of, 506

Kent— Little Gull, 216 ; Bank Vole, 477 ; Pectoral Sandpiper, 480

Lancashire — Frog attacking Toad,

365 ; Epeira diadema, 440 ; Spot- ted Crake, 479

Leicestershire — ; Spotted Fly-

catcher, 359 ; irregular nesting sites, 480

Lincolnshire — Barn Owl, 215 ;

Lapwing, 272 ; Barred Warbler, 504

Middlesex — Birds of London, 189,

216, 272, 273 ; Chaffinch, 270 ; parasites in birds, 415

Norfolk — Pectoral Sandpiper, 25 ;

notes from Haddiscoe, 26 ; Fishes of Great Yarmouth, 88 ; notes, 106; Little Bustard, 125; mal- formed Codfish, 130 ; Wretham Meres, 145; Stalk-eyed Crustacea of Great Yarmouth, 178 ; notes from Great Yarmouth, 219, 364, 508; Edible Crab, 220; Mam- malia of Great Yarmouth, 299 ; Centrolophus pomphilus, 364 ; Porpoises at Great Yarmouth, 504

Northumberland — Insectivora and

Rodentia, 264

Nottingham — Varieties of Plover,

Starling, and House Sparrow, 482 ; Scoters, 482 ; Heron, 484 ; Great Skua, 485

Oxfordshire — Tree Pipit, 122 ;

Rooks, 124 ; Stoats, 193 ; House Martin, 267 ; Marsh Warbler, 356

Somersetshire — House Sparrow,

123 ; Nightingale, 317 ; Greater Spotted Woodpecker, 318, 319; Birds singing during thunder- storm, 322 ; House Martin, 415 ; Swallow v. Flycatcher's peculiar nesting site, 429 ; Swift, 436 ; Nuthatch, 480

Suffolk — Polecat, 22, 122, 503 ;

Black Water Vole, 122 ; Stoats, 187 ; Chickens reared by Par- tridge, 189 ; Cuckoo, 477 ; Bank Vole, 503 ; Owls and Kestrels, 505

Surrey — Kingfisher, 82 ; Haw-

finch, 188 ; hybrid Finches, 188

Sussex — Common Roller, 24 ; Her-

mit Crabs, 131 ; Canada Goose, 216 ; abnormal scalariformity in shells, 191; Woodchat Shrike, 267 ; conduct of Rabbit when pursued by Dog, 413

Warwickshire — Starlings, 24 ;

Brent Goose, 24 ; Meadow Pipit, 214

Westmorland — Asagena phalse-

rata, 440

Worcestershire — Spotted Fly-

catcher, 358

Yorkshire — Common Guillemot,

25 ; notes from Scarborough, 28, 219; Roseate Tern, 83; Scar- borough Field Naturalists' So- ciety, 140; Stoats, 187; Yar- rell's Blenny, 191 ; Two-spotted Goby, 191; Badger, 213; Mi- gration at Spurn Lighthouse, 345 ; Nesting notes, 349 ; Fork- tailed Petrel, 362 ; Python mo- lurus, 436 ; Short Sunfish, 439 ; Cuckoo, 478 ; Corn Bunting, 485 ; Redwing, 504 ; Phasianus col- chicus, 505 ; Moorhen, 506

Crab Edible, meristic variation in, 220 ; Hermit, struggle for existence among, 131

Crake, Spotted, in Furness, 479

Crangon fasciatus, 185 ; trispinosus, 185 ; vulgaris, 184, — varietal colouration, figured, 184

Crateropus bicolor, 256

Crenis rosa, 276

Crex pratensis, 25

Crinum, 255 ; ammocharoides, 255

Crossbill, in Severn Valley, 124 ; in Hants, 482, 505

Crossopus fodiens, 303

Crustacea, Stalk-eyed, of Great Yar- mouth, 178; Australian Malaco- stracous, habits of some, 202

Cuckoo, popular fallacies concerning, 85 ; sucking eggs, 87 ; questions, 270 ; in Aberdeen, 359 ; economy, 430, 477, 478 ; in 1898, 431

Cuculus canorus, 85, 87, 110, 111, 190, 270, 359, 430, 431, 477, 478 ; clamosus, 258

Cyanospiza ciris, 23

Cyclograpsus lavauxi, 206

Cymochorea leucorrhoa, 362

Cymodocea pubescens, 211

Cynœlurus jubatus, 163, 462

Cypselus apus, 485

Cystophora cristata, 100

Dafila acuta, 361

Danainæ, 283

Darwin, Charles, home of, 235

Daulias luscinia, 317

Delias eucharis, 283

Delphinus albirostris, 310 ; delphis, 310

Dendrocopus major, 318, 319

Dermochelys coriacea, 500

Diplognatna hebræa, 256

Dipper, pale-coloured, 23

Disa erubescens, 380

Dragonet, breeding of, 231

Dryopithecus, 404

Duck, Ferruginous, in Ireland, 25 ; Scaup, in Bedfordshire, 319, 361

Eel in stomach of Cachalot, 489

Eggs of Roseate Tern, 83 ; of birds, at what hour usually laid?, 84; of wild birds, protection of, 322; spotless, of Spotted Flycatcher, 359

Elanus cæruleus, 257, 259

Elephant, merciful execution of, 287 ; proposed preservation of, in Central Africa, 517

Elephas indicus, 166

Emberiza cirlus, 478 ; citrinella, 508 ; schœniclus, 508

Enchytræids, British, 121

Enchytræus parvulus, 121

Entermorphas, 396

Epeira diadema courtship, 440

Epunda lichenea, 456

Equus burchelli var. chapmani, 49 ; quagga, existing specimens, 213; zebra, 213

Erinaceus europæus, 100, 302

Erithacus rubecula, 190

Eubolia bipunctaria, 455

Eupagurus sinuatus, 207

Eurynome aspera, 181

Evotomys glareolus, 101

Expedition to Patchora River and Siberia, 43

Eyes, abnormal, of Hyla arborea and Bombinator igneus, 486

Falco subbuteo, 24, 83, 125 ; tinnun- culus, 508

Fallacies, popular ornithological, 27 ; concerning Cuckoo, 85

Fauna, East African Butterfly, sou- therly extension, 276

Faunal areas, minor, 96

Fecundity, varying, in birds, 495

Feeding of Eooks on Elvers, 270

Felis catus, 100; pardus, 160; tigris, 154

Finch, Citril, in Corsica, 275 ; Non- pareil, experiments in colours of, 23

Finches, hybrid, at Crystal Palace Show, 188

Fish culture, 93 ; strange error re- garding, 48 ; acclimatization in South Africa, 143

Fishery, Seal and Whale, 69

Fishes, of Great Yarmouth, 88 ; me- mory in, 92 ; in vicinity of New York, 140 ; of Trent, as recorded in 1622, 141 ; structure and mor- phology, 230 ; Sea, resources of the sea, 376

Floridæ, 396

Flycatcher, Spotted, nesting of, 358 ; spotless eggs, 359

Flycatcher v. Swallow's peculiar nest- ing site, 429

Food of Barn Owl, 215 ; of Redwing, 504

Fratercula arctica, 321

Fridericia striata, 121

Fregilus graculus, 321

Fringilla cœlebs, 190, 195, 269, 270, 507 ; montifringilla, 123

Frog attacking Toad, 323, 365

Fuliea atra, 508

Fuligula marila, 319, 361, 362 ; nyroca, 25

Gadus morrhua, 130

Galathea squamifera, 183

Gallinago cœlestis, 127, 508

Gallinula chloropus, 190, 506, 508

Gannet, breeding of, 319

Garganey breeding in Hants, 126

Gasteracantha, 30

Gaur, miscalled Bison, 2

Geese on fresco, Ghizeh Museum, 91

'Geological Magazine,' longevity, 230

Glyceria fluitans, 406

Gnophos obscuraria, 456

Gobius ruthensparri, 191

Goby, Two-spotted, at Scarborough, 191

Godartia wakefieldii, 276

Goose, Brent, in Warwickshire, 24 ; Canada, near Dungeness, 216

Grapsus variegatus, 205

Grouse, Red, varieties, 125

Guillemot, Common, variety, 25

Gull, Iceland, in Co. Sligo in sum- mer, 320 ; Ivory, on Solway, 414 ; Little, in Kent, 216

Habits, of Rattlesnakes, 93 ; of some Australian Malacostracous Crusta- cea, 202 ; of Python molurus in confinement, 436 ; nesting habits of Moorhen, 506

Haddiscoe, winter notes from, 26

Hæmatopus ostralegus, 363

Halcyon albiventris, 258 ; cyano- leuca, 258

Halichærus gryphus, 308

Halimus tumidus, 202

Hants, Mid-, ornithological notes from, 126

Hare, Brown, in Ireland, 239 ; Indian Hispid, 22

Harpactira, 1G ; chrysogaster, stridu- lating organ, figured, 17 ; gigas, 251; tigrina, 17

Harrier, Montagu's, alleged breeding in Ireland, an error, 24

Hawfinch near Reigate railway sta- tion, 188

Helæcius cordiformis, 205

Helix cantiana, 463 ; cartusiana, 463

Helotarsus ecaudatus, 258

Hemitubifex benedii, 120

Hepialidæ, 291

Heron nest of wire, 484

Hesperiadæ, 295

Hippoglossoides limandoides, 220

Hippolyte cranchii, 185 ; varians, 185

Hirundo rustica, 190, 321, 429, 507

Hobby nesting in Hants, 24, 83, 125

Homarus vulgaris, 183

Hoplostomus fuliginosus, 419

Horn of Rhinoceros, artificial re- moval of, 142

"Horse-match" a name for the Red- backed Shrike, 188, 266

Hyas araneus, 181 ; coarctatus, 181

Hybrid, supposed, between Fieldfare and Redwing, 95 ; Finches at Crystal Palace Show, 188; between Linnet and Greenfinch, 109 ; be- tween White-eyed Duck and Po- chard, 108 ; Zebra-Horse, 49

Hydrochelidon leucoptera, 129

Hyena arvennensis, 465 ; brunnea, 465 ; crocuta, 465 ; exima, 465 ; spelaea, 465 ; striata, 465

Hyla arborea, abnormal eyes, 486

Hymenosoma varium, 207

Hyodrilus, 120

Hyperoodon rostratum, 309

Hypolais icterina, 266 ; polyglotta, 266

Hypolimnas misippus, 283

Hysterocrates, 18

Hystrix afra-australis, 250

Ibacus peronii, 208

Idotea annulata, 455

Immigration of Song Thrush, 264

Insect pests of British Columbia, 46; strength, 92 ; visitors of flowers in New Mexico, 78, 311

Insectivora of Northumberland, 264

Insects, destructive, in France, 285

Interbreeding of Pintail and Mallard in captivity, 361

International code of zoological no- menclature, 423

Ireland. — Montagu's Harrier, 24 Ferruginous Duck, 25 ; White Wagtail, 245 ; Chaffinch, 269 Rooks, 270 ; Iceland Gull in Co Sligo, 320; Whinchat in Co. Dub lin, 356

Isle of Wight, ornithological notes, 218

Ityræa nigrocincta, 256

Java, scientific expedition to, 451

Julus pulchellus, 121

Kestrel, abnormal nesting sites, 110

Kestrels and Owls, plea for, 449, 505

"Killers" in New South Wales, &c, 447

Kingfisher in Surrey, 82

Kites in Wales, 199, 271

Labrus auritus, 454

Lacnanthes, 381

Lagopus mutus, 364 ; scoticus, 125, 508

Lakeland, Guide to, 40

Lamna cornubica, 509

Lamprey, Sea, in Cumberland, 365

Laniarius atrococcineus, 258

Lanius collurio, 188, 266 ; pomera- nus, 267

Lapland, reported summer appear- ance of Bernicla brenta and Phala- ropus mlicarius, 25, 84

Lapwing, disappearance, in North Lincolnshire, 272

Larentidæ, 290

Lark, Sky, sexual differences in wing- feathering, 104

Larus argentatus, 508 ; canus, 126, 127, 508; fuscus, 508; leucopterus, 320 ; minutus, 216 ; ridibundus, 321, 363

Lasiocampina, 296

Leander intermedius, 210

Lepidosteus sp., 379

Leptodius exaratus, 203

Lepus cuniculus, 101, 307; europaeus, 101; hispidus, 22; timidus, 101, 307

Ligurinus chloris, 190, 507

Limacodidæ, 294

Limnæa stagnalis, 147

Limnodrilus udekemianus, 120 ; wordsworthianus, 120

Linnet, Mountain, 431

Linota cannabina, 507 ; flavirostris, 360, 431 ; rufescens, 507

L'Intermédiaire des Biologistes, 40

Lithodes maia, 181

Lizard, Tuatara, development of, 488

Lobster, Common Spiny, limit of northern distribution, 142

Locustella nævia, 351

London, birds of, 91, 189, 216, 272, 273

Lophius piscatorius, 365

Loss, 398

Loxia curvirostra, 124, 363, 505

Lumbricus terrestris, 119

Lusciniola schwarzi, 520

Lutra lutra, 100 ; vulgaris, 262, 304

Lycaena adonis, 455 ; corydon, 455

Macrophthalmus setosus, 205

Macrotoma palmata, 259

Mallard and Pintail interbreeding in captivity, 361

Mammalia of Great Yarmouth and immediate neighbourhood, 299 ; of Hampshire, 429

Mammals, British, technical names of, 97

Man, Isle of, notes from (1897), 321

Mantis attacking Cicada, 275

Marine Biological Stations — Liver- pool, 333 ; Port Erin, Isle of Man, 333; Millport, 334; St. Andrews, 335 ; Jersey, 335

Marlborough College Nat. Hist. Soc, 375

Martin, House, date of arrival, 267, 317, 433

Megascops asio, 402

Melanippe procellata, 456

Melanargia galatea, 455

Melelonthidæ, 31

Meles meles, 263 ; taxus, 213, 263, 304

Melierax niger, 259

Mergus merganser, 364 ; serrator, 364

Meristic variation in Edible Crab, 220

Mexico, New, insect visitors of flowers, 78, 311

Microtus agrestis, 101, 264, 306 ; amphibius, 100, 122, 306 ; glareolus, 477, 503 ; gregarius, 264

Migrants in Aberdeenshire (1898), 275

Migration at Spurn Lighthouse (1897-98), 345

Micropterygidæ, 291

Millipedes, mode of progression, 365

Mimicry, 283

Miomantis fenestrata, 275

Molua molva, 463

Monkeys, decrease, on Gold Coast, 45

Montifringilla nivalis, 475

Moor-hen, nesting habits, 506

Motacilla alba, 245 ; lugubris, 82, 216 ; raii, 82 ; yarrellii, 245

Moths and their classification, 289

Mullus surmulatus, 365

Mus agrestis, 264; alexandrinus, 306 ; decumanus, 100, 306 ; gregarius, 264; minutus, 100, 305; musculus, 100, 264, 305; rattus, 100, 305; sylvaticus, 100, 264, 305

Muscardinus avellanarius, 100, 304

Muscicapa grisola, 190, 275, 358, 359, 429

Museum Reports:—

Museum of Comparative Zoology

at Harvard College, 95

Field Columbian Museum, Chi-

cago, 138

Newcastle Museum, 240
Taxidermy for Museums, 330
Appointment of new Director for

Nat. Hist. Dep., S. Kensington, 373

South African Museum, Report for

1897, 446

Mus. Compar. Zool., Cambr., Mass.,

resignation of Prof. Alec Agassiz, 451

British Museum, recent acquisi-

tions, 487 ; Ocean exploration off the coasts of Cork and Kerry, 518

Temporary Museums, 490
Australian Museum, 1897, 516

Mustela erminea, 122, 187, 213, 261, 304 ; martes, 100, 303 ; putorius, 22, 122, 304, 503 ; vulgaris, 303

Mycteris longicarpus, 207 ; platy- cheles, 207

Mygale, 14, 16, 29, 251 ; avicularia, 251

Mygalidæ, 14

Mylabridæ, 31

Myotis bechsteini, 100 ; daubentoni, 100, 317, 368; mystacinus, 100; nattereri, 100

Myoxus nanus, 421

Mysis chamaeleon, 186; vulgaris, 186

Mythology, ornithological, 46

Natica, 131

Natural History literature of Great Britain and Ireland, 519

Nectocarcinus integrifrons, 204

Neomys fodiens, 100

Nephile, 30

Nephrops norvegicus, 184

Neptunus pelagicus, 203 ; sanguino- lentus, 204

Nerooila sp. ?, 211

Nest of Common Sandpiper with four eggs, 110 ; of Social Spider, figured, 253 ; of Anthodiaeta collaris, 418 ; of Cinnyris gutturalis and C. chalybaeus, 418 ; of Heron made of wire, 484

Nesting of Hobby in Hants, 24, 83, 125 ; site, abnormal, of Kestrel, 110 ; early, of House Sparrow, 123; of Nightingale at Wells, Somerset, 317 ; of Greater Spotted Woodpecker near Bath, 318, — at Wells, Somerset, 319; notes from Yorkshire, 349 ; of Spotted Fly- catcher, 358 ; site, peculiar, of Swallow v. Flycatcher, 429 ; of Nuthatch, 480 ; sites, irregular, 480 ; late, of Corn Bunting, 485 ; habits of Moor-hen, 506

Nestor notabilis of New Zealand, 216

Nightjar nesting at Wells, Somerset, 317

Nika couchii, 185 ; edulis, 185

Noctua glareosa, 456

Nomenclature, zoological, remarks on proposed international code, 423

Norfolk, ornithological notes from (1897), 106

Notodontina, 296

Notornis mantelli, 492

Nucifraga caryocatactes, 474

Numenius phæopus, 321

Nuthatch, nesting of, 480

Obituary:—

Allman, Prof. George J., M.D.,

F.K.S., 519

Dennis, George Christopher, 240
Frenzel, Dr. Johannes, 47
Horn, Dr. George H., 47
Hurst, C. Herbert, 287
I'Anson, James, 240
Kleinenberg, Dr. Nicolaus, 144
Marks, Henry Stacy, B.A., 48
Salvin, Osbert, 315
Van Voorst, John, 452

Oceanodroma castro, 320; crypto- leucura, 320

Ocypoda cordimana, 205

Odobœnus rosmarus, 100

Œdemia nigra, 505

Œdipodea germanica, 457

Oncorhynchus tschawytscha, 140

Orca gladiator, 309, 447

Ornithological millinery, 286

Orthagoriscus mola, 509

Otis tetrax, 125

Otters in S.W. Hampshire, 262

Owl, Barn, food of, 215

Owls, morphology of, 231

Owls and Kestrels, a plea for, 449, 505

Oxalis stricta, 406

Oysters, food of, 233

Ozius truncatus, 202

Pachygrapsus transversus, 206

Paguridæ, 131

Paguristes barbatus, 208

Pagurus bernhardus, 183

Palæmon serratus, 186 ; squilla, 186 ; varians, 186

Palinurus hügeli, 208 ; vulgaris, 142, 183

Pandalus annulicornis, 185

Pandion haliaëtus, 362

Papilio aristolochiae, 283 ; ophidi- cephalus, 254 ; polites, 283

Papilionina, 297

Parasites in birds, 415

Parastacus, Dr. E. Löonberg on, 373

Parrot, Kea, of New Zealand, 216

Partridge, variety, 114

Partridges rearing chickens, 189 ; rare, in Leadenhall Market, 215

Parus ater, 190, 507 ; borealis, 116 ; caeruleus, 190, 507 ; cristatus, 363 ; major, 190, 507 ; palustris, 507 ; palustris dresseri, 117; salicarius, a British bird, 116

Passer domesticus, 123, 190, 507

Penæus canaliculatus, 209; esculen- tus, 209

Perdix barbata, 215 ; cinerea, 508 ; daurica, 215 ; montana, 114 ; sibi- rica, 215

Petrel, Fork-tailed, on Yorkshire coast, 362

Petromyzon marinus, 365

Phalaropus fulicarius, 26, 84 ; hyper- boreus, 26, 84

Phasianus colchicus, 505, 508

Philippine Islands, ornithology of, 236

Phoca grœnlandica, 100 ; hispida, 100 ; vitulina, 100, 307

Phocæna communis, 310; phocæna, 504

Phoneyusa, sp. stridulating organ, figured, 18

Phylloscopus rufus, 214 ; trochilus, 214

Physeter macrocephalus, 309

Pica rustica, 216, 508

Pilumnopeus serratifrons, 203

Pilumnus fissifrons, 203 ; hirtellus, 181

Pinnotheres veterum, 183

Pintail and Mallard interbreeding in captivity, 361

Pipistrellus leisleri, 100 ; noctula, 100 ; pipistrellus, 100

Pipit, Meadow, perching on trees, 214, 266,— and Cuckoo, 430 ; Tree, in January, 122; Water, in Car- narvonshire, 187

Pirimela denticulata, 181

Plagusia chabrus, 206 ; glabra, 207

Planorbis complanatus, 191 ; vortex var. compressa, 191

Platyonychus bipunctulatus, 204

Plecotus auritus, 100, 261, 302

Plectrophenax nivalis, 508

Pleuronectes flesus, 454

Plocepasser mahali, 258

Plover, Green, variety, 482 ; Kentish, alleged, in Bedfordshire, 320

Plutellidæ, 292

Podicipes fluviatilis, 191

Pogonorhynchus leucomelas, 256

Polecat in Suffolk, 22, 122, 503

Polycanthus sp., 455

Porcellana dispar, 208; longicornis, 183

Porpoises at Great Yarmouth, 504

Portumnus depurator, 182 ; varie- gatus, 182

Porzana maruetta, 479

Pratincola rubetra, 356

Preservation of zoological specimens, 366

Protogoniomorpha anacardii, 254

Protopterus annectans, 379

Psammoryctes, 120

Pseudocarcinus gigas, 203

Psychina, 294

Purpura, 131

Putorius ermineus, 100 ; hibernicus, 100 ; nivalis, 100 ; putorius, 100 Pyralidina, 294

Pyrrhocorax alpinus, 474

Pyrrhula europæa, 507

Python molurus, habits in confine- ment, 436

Querquedula crecca, 508

Rabbit, conduct of a, when pursued by a Dog, 413

Raia miraletus, 220 ; pastinaca, 364

Rail, flightless, of New Zealand, 492

Rambles, zoological, in the Trans- vaal, 249

Rana adspersa, 323 ; temporaria, 365

Raniceps trifurcus, 28

Ranunculus calthæfolia, 406 ; ficaria, 406

Raoulia, 217

Rattlesnakes, habits, 93

Redwing, food of, 504

Regulus cristatus, 507

Rhinoceros, artificial removal of horn, 142 ; indicus, 172 ; lasiotis, 142, 175 ; sondaicus, 174 ; sumatrensis, 174 ; unicornis, 171

Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum, 100 ; hipposideros, 100

Rhombus maximus, 365

Rhynchocinetes typus, 209

Riffelalp, Canton Valais, Switzerland, birds of, 474, 506

Rinderpest among wild animals at the Cape, 47, — South African game, 143

Rodentia of Northumberland, 264

Roller, Common, in Sussex, 24

Rooks and buttercup bulbs, 124 ; feeding on Elvers, 270

Ruticilla tythis, 475

Sale of birds belonging to the late Mr. R. Ashby, 45 ; of Moa skeleton, 45 ; of Lepidoptera belonging to the late Rev. A. Matthews, 45

Salix jacquiniana, 386 ; retusa, 386 ; retusoides, 386

Salmo, 463 ; fario, 140 ; salar, 364

Salmon in Natal, 235 ; life-history, 284

Sanderling in Australia, 83

Sandpiper, Common, nest and four eggs, in Norfolk, 110 ; in St. James's Park, 240; Pectoral, in Norfolk, 25,— in Kent, 480

Sark, ornithological notes from, 274

Saxby, Dr., and the breeding of the Turnstone, 435

Saxicola œnanthe, 321

Scalariformity, abnormal, in shells, 191

Scarborough, notes from, 28, 219

Schizœrhis concolor, 258

Sciurus vulgaris, 100, 264, 304

Scolopax rusticula, 508

Scomber scomber, 364 ; scriptus, 864

Scorpæna dactyloptera, 88

Scoter in Notts, 482

Scoters in summer, 414; in Hants and Isle of Wight, 505

Scotland — Corncrake, 25 ; Wagtails eating Trout, 82 ; Cuckoo, 270 Migrants in Aberdeenshire, 275 Cuckoos in Aberdeen, 359, 431 Scaup-Duck, 361 ; Bird-notes from Northern Cairngorms, 362 ; Sco- ters, 414 ; Ivorv Gull on Solway, 414 ; Birds of Moffat. 507

Scutigera coleoptrata, 489

Scylla serrata, 204

Seal and Whale Fishery (1897), 69

Seleucides nigricans, 379

Sesamopteris pentaphylla, 256

Sesarma erythrodactyla, 206

Shark, remarkable, 41

Sharks on the Cornish coast, 451

Shells, abnormal scalariformity in, 191

Shrike, Red-backed, "Horse-match" a name for, 188, 266 ; Woodchat, in Sussex, 267

Singing of birds during thunderstorm, 322

Sitta caesia, 480

Skua, Great, in Notts, 485

Smelts in the Upper Thames, 449

Societies, Natural History — Scar- borough Field Naturalists' Society, 140 ; Marlborough College Natural History Society, 375

Socotra, scientific expedition to, 491

Solea vulgaris, 219

Song of Chaffinch, 195, 269, 270 autumn, of birds, 410

Sorex araneus, 100 ; minutus, 100 pyginaeus, 264 ; vulgaris, 264, 303 Sparrow, House, early nesting, 123 wing, figured, 243 ; variety, 482

Spatula clypeata, 219

Spharageomon, 457

SpheDodon punctatus, 488

Spider versus Wasp, 29, 44

Spiders. African, stridulation in some, 14 ; South African Social, notes on, 417 ; Social, nest figured, 253

Spiders' webs manufactured into bal- loon net, 45

Sprats, extraordinary catch at Shore- ham, 517

Spurn lighthouse, migration at (1897- 98), 345

Squilla lævis, 211

Starling, variety, 482

Starlings, brood of young, in mid- November, 24 ; breeding in Buck- ingham Palace, 287

Stegodyphus, 417; gregarius, 251, 252, 253, 417

Stegostoma tigrinum, 467

Stenorhynchus rostratus, 181 ; tenui- rostris, 181

Sterna dougalli, 83

Stoats turning white in winter, 122, 187, 193, 213, 261

Strepsilas interpres, 321, 435

Stridulation in some African Spiders, 14

Strix flammea, 215

Sturgeon, Royal, in Ireland, 144

Sturnus vulgaris, 24, 190, 508

Sula bassana, 319

Sunfish, Short, near Scarborough. 439

Sus africanus, 250 ; salvanius, 176

Swallow versus Flycatcher's peculiar nesting site, 429

Swift, late stay, 436, 485

Swordfish, monster, 45

Sylvia cinerea, 190 ; nisoria, 504

Syrnium aluco, 508

Tadorna cornuta, 321

Talorchestia quadrimana, 212

Talpa europæa, 100, 264, 303

Tapirus bairdi, 463 ; indicus, 176

Taraxacum dens leonis, 406 ; palus- tre, 407

Taxidermy for museums, 330 ; cor- rect attitudes for birds, 331

Technical names of British mam- mals, 97

Teracolus, 259 ; achine, 259 ; agoye, 259 ; auxo, 259 ; celimene, 255 ; eris, 259 ; evenina, 259 ; phlege- tonia, 259 ; subfasciatus, 259

Tern, Roseate, eggs of, 83

Tetrao tetrix, 508

Thalamita admete, 204 ; sima, 204

Theraphosidæ, 14

Thrush, Song, immigration of, 264

Thymallus, 463

Tibicen carinatus, 275

Tineidæ, 292

Toad attacked by Frog, 323, 365

Tortoise, giant, 44

Tortricina, 292

Totanus calidris, 321 ; canescens, 363 ; hypoleucus, 321, 363

Trachyphonus caffer, 256

Transvaal, zoological rambles in, 249

Trichechus rosmarus, 308

Trigla lineata, 219

Trimerorhinus tritæniatus, 259

Tringa alpina, 321 ; maculata, 25, 480

Troglodytes hirtensis, 482 ; parvulus, 190, 507

Trout in Natal, 235

Trypanidæ, 293

Tsine, 1

Tubifex, distribution, 119; rivulorum, 119

Turdus iliacus, 95, 504, 507 ; merula, 507 ; musicus, 190, 264, 507 ; pi- laris, 95, 507 ; viscivorus, 507

Turner, William, father of British Zoology, 337

Turnstone, Dr. Saxby and the breed- ing of, 435

Turtle, Leathery (Plate V.), 500

Ulvaceae, 396

Uraeginthus cyanogaster, 258

Uria troile, 25

Urolestes melanoleucus, 256

Ursus euryspilus, 166 ; labiatus, 163, 164 ; malayanus, 165 ; meles, 263 ; tibetanus, 163

Vanellus vulgaris, 272, 508

Varieties of Red Grouse, 125

Variety of Common Guillemot, 25 ; Partridge, 114 ; Water Vole, 122 ; Green Plover, 482 ; Starling, 482 ; House Sparrow, 482

Vespertilio murinus, 100 ; nattereri, 493 ; serotinus, 100

Vespertilionidæ of North America, 45, 46

Vesperugo noctula, 302 ; pipistrellus, 302

Vivaria and aquaria, 40

Voice-registers of birds, 11

Vole, Bank, large, in Kent, 477, — notes on, 503 ; Black Water, in Suffolk, 122 ; Common, scientific name of, 263

Vulpes vulgaris, 303 ; vulpes, 100

Wagtail, White, in Ireland, 245 Wagtails eating Trout, 82 Wales. — Water Pipit in Carnarvon- shire, 187 ; ornithological notes, 198 ; Meadow Pipit , 266 ; Kite, 271 ; Daubenton's Bat in the Conway Valley, 317 ; Cuckoo, 430 ; Cirl Bunting in Breconshire 478, 505 ; Natterer's Bat, 493

Warbler, Barred, in Lincolnshire, 504; Marsh, in Oxfordshire, 356; Melodious, in South-east Devon, 265 ; Willow, breeding sites, 214; new to Britain, 520

Wasp versus Spider, 29, 44

Water supply, chemical and vegetable life in, 489

Waterton, Charles, reminiscences of, 144

Whale and Seal Fishery, 69

Whales attacking vessels, 42

Whinchat in Co. Dublin, 356

White, Gilbert, 'Garden Kalendar,' 235

Wild animals, price of, 234 ; beasts, Indian, a chat about, 154 ; birds and their eggs, protection of, 322, 449 ; Cattle, Indian, 1

Wing of Sky Lark, sexual differences in feathering, 104 ; of Sparrow, figured, 243

Wolf, American, versus Irish Wolf- hounds, 94

Wood, Rev. J.G., and his publica- tions, 42

Woodpecker, Greater Spotted, nest- ing near Bath, 318 ; at Wells, Somerset, 319

Wren, St. Kilda, the so-called, 413, 482

Wretham Meres, 145

Xipholena pompadora, 392

Yarmouth, Great, Fishes of, 88 ; some notes on the Stalk-eyed Crustacea of, 178 ; notes from, 219, 364, 508 ; Mammalia of, 299

Yorkshire, rough notes from, 349

Zebra-Horse Hybrids (Plates I., II., III.), 49

'Zoological Record' for 1896, 39

Zoological Park, New York, 139 ; Gardens, how animals are provided, 141,— in Edinburgh, 449, 518 — proposed, in Australia, 518 ; Society of London, 237,— of Ireland, 331 ; rambles in Transvaal, 249 ; speci- mens, preservation of, 366

Zoology, International Congress of, 42

New Species of British Animals described in this Volume.

Vermes.Limnodrilus wordsworthianus, Friend (Cumberland), p. 120.

ILLUSTRATIONS.

page

Plates I., II., III. Zebra-Horse Hybrids to face 49

Plate IV. Natterer's Bat (Vespertilio nattereri) to face 493

Plate V. Leathery Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) to face 500

Stridulating organ of Harpactira chrysogaster 17

Stridulating organ of Phoneyusa sp. 18

Malformed Codfish (Gadus morrhua) 130

Varietal coloration in Sand Shrimp (Crangon vulgaris) 184

Wing of Sparrow (Passer domesticus) 243

Nest of Social Spider (Stegodyphus gregarius) 253