Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute/Volume 10











Issued May, 1878.




The Editor begs to acknowledge assistance afforded by the following gentlemen in revising their papers for this volume:—viz., Messrs. Carruthers, Higginson, Buller, Newman, Skey, and Travers. Most of the proofs of Mr. Kirk's papers were also corrected by him, while Mr. Stack corrected his map and genealogies, and Mr. Cockburn-Hood sent his paper in print with corrections marked thereon.

The paper on the Botany of New Zealand, by Mr. Kirk, which appears in the Appendix, was reserved by the author for completion, on receipt of certain works of reference, until too late for insertion in its proper place in the volume.

The thanks of the Board are due to Mr. Gore for the preparation of the usual Meteorological Abstracts in advance of the annual statistics, and to Mr. Buchanan, draftsman, and Mr. Deveril, of the photo-lithographic department, for their valuable assistance in the illustration of the volume; and to Mr. Earle, who, by permission of the Hon. the Colonial Secretary, was allowed to print the plates at the Government lithographic establishment.

Attention has to be drawn to the fact that, subsequent to the publication of Volume IX., a supplement to that volume was published in July, containing the Proceedings for that year, and an Appendix containing several important papers that had been held over.


  9, line 15, after question insert ;
  9, line 16, for ice; read ice,
 12, line 11 from bottom, for there read then.
 16, line 8, for there read these.
 57, line 16 from bottom, for Peta Te Hone read Pita Te Hori.
 57, line 7 from bottom, for Mararoa read Maiharoa.
 57, line 6 from bottom, for Natanawhira read Natanahira.
 69, line 19 from bottom, for for read from.
 72, line 9 (and elsewhere), for Kane read Kaue.
 75, line 13, for Te Whai read Tetewhai.
 79, line 17 from bottom, for Ngaitaka read Ngaitara.
 84, line 13, for Te Kapuwai read Te Rapuwai.
 84, line 16 from below, omit "
 86, line 8 from below, for Browny read Browning's.
 88, In quotation, for her involved, read him involved.
 91, line 14 from bottom, for To read Io.
105, line 10, after settling insert on.
116, line 13 from bottom, for Le Maine read Le Maire.
123, line 3 from bottom (and elsewhere), for kumera read kumara.
126, line 17, after off insert to.
129, line 4, for Te Kuku read Te Koukou
152, line 3, for mohopatahi read mohopatatai.
213, In first footnote, for VII. read VI.



Art. I. New Zealand a Post-glacial Centre of Creation. By T. H. Cockburn-Hood, F.G.S. 3–24
II. On Mill's Fourth Fundamental Theorem respecting Capital. By John Carruthers, M. Inst. C.E. 24–34
III. Observations on the Evidences of recent Change in the Elevation of the Waikato District. By James Stewart, C.E. 34–37
IV. Address. By Professor Julius von Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S., President of the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury 37–56
V. Sketch of the Traditional History of the South Island Maoris. By the Rev. James W. Stack 57–92
VI. On the Influence of the Earth's Rotation on Rivers. By A. C. Baines 92–96
VII. On a peculiar Method of Arrow Propulsion as observed amongst the Maoris. By Coleman Phillips 97–99
VIII. On the Day in which Captain Cook took formal Possession of New Zealand. By W. Colenso, F.L.S. 99–108
IX. Manibus Parkinsonibus Sacrum: A brief Memoir of the First Artist who visited New Zealand; together with several little-known Items of Interest extracted from his Journal. By W. Colenso, F.L.S. 108–134
X. Notes, chiefly historical, on the ancient Dog of the New Zealanders. By W. Colenso, F.L.S. 135–155
XI. A System of Weights and Measures. By J. Carruthers, M. Inst. C.E. 155–160
XII. Notes on blowing up Snags in the Waikato River with Dynamite. By R. R. Hunt 161–164
XIII. Notes on the Firing of Torpedoes by Electricity. By J. A. Pond 164–170
XIV. Experiments on the Lifting-power of Inclined Planes in Aerial Transit. By Henry Skey 170–173
XV. Introduction of the Tension Wheel in Aerial Transit. By Henry Skey 173–176
XVI. Introduction of the Principle of the Gyroscope in Aerial Transit. By Henry Skey 176–180
XVII. On Floods in Lake Districts and Flooded Rivers in general, with Methods adopted for their Prevention and Control. By H. P. Higginson, M. Inst. C.E. 180–189
XVIII. On a means of selecting the most durable Timber. By John Buchanan 190
XIX. Notes on the Ornithology of New Zealand. By Walter L. Buller, C.M.G., Sc.D., F.L.S. 191–201
XX. Further Notes on the Ornithology of New Zealand. By W. L. Buller. 201–209
XXI. On the Disappearance of the Korimako (Anthornis melanura) from the North Island. By W. L. Buller 209–211
XXII. Further descriptive Notes of the Huia (Heteralocha acutirostris). By W. L. Buller 211
XXIII. On the Egg of the Huia (Heteralocha acutirostris). By W. L. Buller 212
XXIV. On the Species forming the Genus Ocydromus, a peculiar Group of brevi-pennate Rails. By W. L. Buller 213–216
XXV. Notice of the Occurrence of the Shy Albatros (Diomedea cauta) in the North Island. By W. L. Buller 217–219
XXVI. On the Addition of the Red-tailed Tropic Bird (Phæton rubricauda) to the Avifauna of New Zealand. By W. L. Buller 219–220
XXVII. Notice of a new Variety of Tuatara Lizard (Sphenodon) from East Cape Island. By W. L. Buller 220–221
XXVIII. Notes on the Physiology and Anatomy of the Tuatara (Sphenodon güntheri). By A. K. Newman, M.B., M.R.C.P. 222–239
XXIX. Disappearance of the small Birds of New Zealand. By D. C. Wilson 239–242
XXX. On two new Fishes. By F. E. Clarke 243–246
XXXI. Notes on Regalecus pacificus, a new Species of Ribbon-fish from the New Zealand Seas. By Julius von Haast, Ph.D., F.R.S. 246–250
XXXII. On the Habits of the New Zealand Grayling (Prototroctes oxyrhynchus). By J. Rutland 250–252
XXXIII. Supplementary Description of Species or Varieties of Chrysophani (Lepidoptera Rhopalocera) inhabiting New Zealand. By R. W. Fereday, C.M.E.S.L. 252–259
XXXIV. Description of new Genera and Species of Psychidæ. By R. W. Fereday 260–263
XXXV. On the Butterflies of New Zealand. By Arthur G. Butler, F.L.S., etc. Communicated by John D. Enys, F.G.S. 263–276
XXXVI. Notes on the Metamorphosis and Development of one of our large Butterflies (Danais berenice), or a closely-allied Species. By W. Colenso, F.L.S. 276–280
XXXVII. On a new Species of Trapdoor Spider from New Zealand. By the Rev. O. P. Cambridge, A.M., C.M.Z.S., Hon. Mem. N.Z. Inst. 281–287
XXXVIII. Second Note on the Maori Rat. By Professor F. W. Hutton 288
XXXIX. Notes on the New Zealand Myriopoda in the Otago Museum. By Professor F. W. Hutton 288–293
XL. Contributions to the Conchology of New Zealand. By Professor F. W. Hutton 293–299
XLI. Notes on a Marine Spider found at Cape Campbell. By C. H. Robson 299–300
XLII. Description of Trapdoor Spiders' Nests from California and firom Western Australia in the Christchurch Museum. By R. Gillies, F.L.S. 301–306
XLIII. Notes on some Changes in the Fauna of Otago. By R. Gillies 306–324
XLIV. The Dunedin Fish Supply. By P. Thomson 324–330
XLV. Notes on the Whales of the New Zealand Seas. By James Hector, C.M.G., M.D., F.R.S. 331–343
XLVI. On Grasses. By S. M. Curl, M.D. 345–353
XLVII. Notes on the Fertilization of Glossostigma. By T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S. 353–356
XLVIII. Description of a new Species of Polypodium. By T. F. Cheeseman 356–357
XLIX. Note on a branched Nikau Tree. By S. Percy Smith 357–358
L. Notes on Ferns. By T. H. Potts 358–362
LI. On the Naturalized Plants of Port Nicholson and the adjacent District. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. 362–378
LII. On the New Zealand Species of Phyllocladus. By T. Kirk 373–383
LIII. A revised Arrangement of the New Zealand Species of Dacrydium, with Descriptions of new Species. By T. Kirk 383–391
LIV. Notice of the Occurrence of a Variety of Zostera nana, Roth, in New Zealand. By T. Kirk 392–393
LV. Notice of the Occurrence of Juncus glaucus, L., in New Zealand. By T. Kirk 393–394
LVI. Description of a new Species of Hymenophyllum. By T. Kirk 394
LVII. On Hymenophyllum villosum, Colenso. By T. Kirk 395–396
LVIII. On Lindsaya viridis, Colenso. By T. Kirk 396–398
LIX. On Nephrodium decompositum, Br., and N. glabellum, A. Cunn. By T. Kirk 398–400
LX. On the Botany of the Bluff Hill. By T. Kirk 400–406
LXI. Contributions to the Botany of Otago. By T. Kirk 406–417
LXII. Notes on three dried Specimens of Matai (Podocarpus spicata). By T. Kirk 417–418
LXIII. Notice of the Discovery of Monoclea forsteri, Hook., in New Zealand. By T. Kirk 418–419
LXIV. Descriptions of New Plants. By T. Kirk 419–421
LXV. On certain of the Mineral Waters of New Zealand. By William Skey, Analyst to the Geological Survey Department 423–448
LXVI. On the Result of an Examination of certain of our Manganese Ores for Cobalt. By William Skey 448–449
LXVII. On the Solubility of Calcic Carbonate in Solutions of the Alkaline Chlorides. By William Skey 449–452
LXVIII. On the Degree of Solubility of certain Earthy Carbonates in pure Water. By William Skey 452–454
LXIX. On the Presence of Nickel in the Auckland District. By J. A. Pond 454–456
LXX. Notes on a Deposit in the Shaft of the Pumping Association. By G. Black 456–458
LXXI. Remarks as to the Cause of the Warmer Climate which existed in high Northern Latitudes during former Geological Periods. By W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S. 459–469
LXXII. Further Remarks as to the Cause of the Warmer Climate which existed in high Northern Latitudes during former Geological Epochs. By W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S. 470–474
LXXIII. On the Formation of detached Shingle Beaches. By John Carruthers, M. Inst. C.E. 475–477
LXXIV. On Gold in the Wellington Provincial District. By J. C. Crawford, F.G.S. 477–480
LXXV. On the Occurrence of Gold in the Mackenzie Country, Canterbury. By Alexander McKay, of the Geological Survey Department 481–484
LXXVI. On the Belemnites found in New Zealand. By Dr. Hector, C.M.G., F.R.S., Director of the Geological Survey 484–489
LXXVII. Notes on some of the New Zealand Minerals belonging to the Otago Museum, Dunedin. By A. Liversidge, Professor in the University of Sydney. Communicated by Professor Hutton 490–505
LXXVIII. Analyses of a Rock Specimen from New Zealand, showing the Junction between Granite and Slate. By Archibald Liversidge, Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of Sydney. Communicated by Professor Hutton 505–506
Ninth Annual Report of the Board of Governors 509–510
Museum 511–515
Laboratory 515
Accounts of the New Zealand Institute 516

Address by the President, W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S. (abstract) 519
Notice regarding the Occurrence of the Tidal Wave of 11th May, 1877 (abstract). By J. F. Martin. Communicated by Capt. E. A. Edwin, R.N. 520–522
Notice of an Albino of the New Zealand Crow (Glaucopis wilsoni). By Dr. Hector, F.R.S. 522
On Black Mahi. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. 522
Notes on the Tidal Wave of 11th May, 1877. By W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S., President 522
On the Development of Azolla rubra. By Dr. Berggren, of Lund, Hon. Mem. N.Z. Inst. 522
On the Reciprocity of the Seasons with those of the Northern Hemisphere (abstract). By S. G. Rawson. Communicated by Captain Edwin 523
Some Remarks on the Plant called Prickly Comfrey (Symphytum asperrimum) (abstract). By J. C. Crawford, F.G.S. 523–524
Further Remarks upon Prickly Comfrey, with Description of Mode of storing it and other Forage Plants (abstract). By J. C. Crawford, F.G.S. 528
On the Improvement of Wellington Harbour in providing additional Wharf Accommodation (abstract). By J. C. Crawford, F.G.S. 528–529
On Nephrodium pentangularum. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. 531
On Hymenophyllum armstrongii, By T. Kirk 532
On the relative Ages of the Australian, Tasmanian, and New Zealand Coal-fields (abstract). By Dr. Hector, F.R.S. 532–533
On Regalecus gladius, and other additions to the Colonial Museum. By Dr. Hector 533
On the Mercurial Springs of the Bay of Islands (abstract). By Dr. Hector 535
Abstract Report of Council 536
Election of Officers for 1878 536
On Paper Currency, being a Reply to a Paper by John Carruthers, M. Inst. C.E. (abstract). By J. Young 536–538
Anniversary Address of the President, W. T. L. Travers, F.L.S. 539–544
Anniversary Address of the President, R. C. Barstow 545–550
The Study of Statistics. By F. J. Moss 550
Descriptions of new Species of Coleoptera (abstract). By Capt. T. Broun 550
Notes on the recent Earthquake Wave, as observed at the Bay of Islands. By James Macfarlane 551
Notes on the Earthquake Wave as felt at Gisborne. By Captain Crisp, Harbourmaster 551
Description of a new Mollusk from Auckland Harbour. By T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S. 551
Descriptions of new Species of Coleoptera (abstract). By Capt. T. Broun 551
Early Records of Auckland (abstract). By His Honour Mr. Justice Gillies 552
Reason in the Lower Animals. By F. G. Ewington 552
Note on the Discovery of Moa Remains at Awitu (abstract). By A. Mactier 552
Descriptions of new species of Coleoptera (abstract). By Capt. T. Broun 552
Tewkesbury. By J. Adams, B.A. 553
Personal Reminiscences (abstract). By J. L. Campbell, M.D. 553
Descriptions of new species of Coleoptera (abstract). By Capt. T. Broun 553
Notes on the Aphodiadæ of New Zealand (abstract). By Capt. T. Broun 553
Descriptions of two new Mollusks from Auckland Harbour. By T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S. 553
Technical Education. By J. C. Firth 554
On a Marine Plant called by the Maoris "Totaramoana." By Capt. G. Mair, F.L.S. 554–555
The Curculionidæ of New Zealand (abstract). By Capt. T. Broun 555
The New Zealand Heteromera (abstract). By Capt. T. Broun 555
Abstract of Annual Report 555
Election of Officers for 1878 555
On the Drainage of Christchurch. By H. Czerwonka 556
Election of Officers for 1878 557
Abstract of Annual Report 557
The Earth a Cinder. By Professor Black 559
On Schivendener's Theory of the Nature of Lichens. By Prof. Hutton, F.G.S. 559
On a Fungus-penetrating Nostoc. By Prof. Hutton 559
On Mental Physics. By Prof. Macgregor 559
On the Hot Springs of New Zealand. By Dr Hocken 560
On Religion and the Drama. By Prof. Sale 560
On Eudyptes schlegeli, Finsch. By Prof. Hutton 560
On the Hand in different Animals. By Prof. Scott 561
Abstract of Annual Report 561
Election of Officers for 1878 562
Address by the President, the Rt. Rev. Bishop Neville 562–566
Abstract of Annual Report 567
Election of Officers for 1877–8 567
On two indigenous Productions—Manganese and Zostera marina—which might be made fair Articles of Export. By J. A. Smith 568–569

Meteorological Statistics of New Zealand, for 1877 xxi–xxiii
Earthquakes reported in New Zealand, during 1877 xxiii
Comparative Abstract for 1877, and previous Years xxiv
Notes on the Weather during 1877 xxv
Abstract of Meteorological Observations, taken at Delanasau, Bay of Islands, Bua, Fiji, for the Year ending 31st December, 1877. By R. L. Holmes, F.M.S. xxvi–xxvii
An Enumeration of recent Additions to the New Zealand Flora, with Critical and Geographical Notes. By T. Kirk, F.L.S. xxviii–xlv
Honorary Members of the New Zealand Institute xlvi
Ordinary Members xlvi–lvii
List of Public Institutions and Individuals to whom this volume is presented lviii–lx
Addenda et Corrigenda iv
Contents v–x
List of Plates x
Board of Governors of the New Zealand Institute xi
Abstract of Rules and Statutes of the New Zealand Institute xi–xiii
List of Incorporated Societies xiv–xvii
Officers of Incorporated Societies, and Extracts from the Rules xiv–xvii


I. v. Haast.—Rock Paintings  52
II. Stack.—Map showing Maori Migrations and Genealogies  88
III. Hunt.—Blowing up Snags with Dynamite 162
IV. H. Skey.—Aerial Transit 176
V. Buller.—Heads of Huia 212
VI. Clarke.Argyropelecus intermedius, Æhæonichthys appellii 244
VII. v. Haast.Regalecus pacificus 248
VIII. Fereday.—New Zealand Chrysophani 256
IX. {{{1}}} New Zealand Psychidæ 260
X. Cambridge.Nemesia gilliesii 284
XI. Hutton.Myriopoda 292
XII. Butler.—New Zealand Butterflies 272
XIII. R. Gillies.—Nests of Trapdoor Spiders 304
XIV. Higginson.—Lake Wakatipu 184
XV. Smith.—Branched Nikau Palm 358
XVI. Hector.Berardius arnuxii 338
XVII. {{{1}}} Mesoplodon hectori 340
XVIII. Kirk.Dacrydium westlandicum 386
XIX. {{{1}}} Dacrydium kirkii 390
XX. {{{1}}} Dacrydium intermedium 386
XXI. {{{1}}} Hymenophyllum armstrongii, H. montanum 394
XXII. Hector.—New Zealand Belemnites 486
XXIII. {{{1}}} 488