1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 27/Table of contributors


A. B. Go. Alfred Bradley Gough, M.A., Ph.D.
Sometime Casberd Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. English Lector at the University of Kiel, 1896-1905.
A. C. S. Algernon Charles Swinburne.
See the biographical article: Swinburne, Algernon Charles.
Tourneur, Cyril.
A. E. H. L. Augustus Edward Hough Love, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Secretary to the London Mathematical Society. Hon. Fellow of Queen’s College, Oxford; formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge.
Variations, Calculus of.
A. F. L. Arthur Francis Leach, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Charity Commissioner for England and Wales. Formerly Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, 1874-1881. Author of English Schools at the Reformation; &c.
Udal, Nicholas.
A. F. P. Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.
Vermigli, Pietro Martire.
A. Ge. Sir Archibald Geikie, K.C.B.
See the biographical article: Geikie, Sir Archibald.
Vesuvius (in part).
A. Go.* Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A.
Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.
Unitarianism; Valdes, Juan de.
A. H. K. Augustus Henry Keane, LL.D., F.R.G.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst.
Emeritus Professor of Hindustani at University College, London. Author of Ethnology; Man Past and Present; The World’s Peoples; &c.
Tripoli: North Africa (in part); Ural-Altaic.
A. H.-S. Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, C.I.E.
General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.
Urmia, Lake of.
A. J. Alexander Johnston.
See the biographical article: Johnston, Alexander.
United States: History (in part).
A. J. G. Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D.
Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of Mysore Educational Service.
Ursula, St (in part).
A. J. L. Andrew Jackson Lamoureux.
Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of the Rio News (Rio de Janeiro), 1879-1901.
Venezuela: Geography and Statistics.
A. L. Andrew Lang.
See the biographical article: Lang, Andrew.
A. Lo. Auguste Longnon.
Professor at the College de France, Paris. Director of the Ecole des Hautes Études. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Livre des vassaux du Comté de Champagne et de Brie; Geographie de la Gaule au VI siècle; Atlas historique de la France depuis César jusqu’à nos jours; &c.
A. M.* Rev. Allan Menzies, M.A., D.D.
Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, St Mary’s College, St Andrews. Author of History of Religion; &c. Editor of Review of Theology and Philosophy.
United Free Church of Scotland.
A. M.-Fa. Alfred Morel-Fatio.
Professor of Romance Languages at the College de France, Paris. Member of the Institute of France; Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Secretary of the Ecole des Chartes, 1885-1906. Author of L’Espagne au XVIe et au XVIIe siècles.
Vega Carpio (in part).
A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred.
Toucan; Touracou;
; Trogon;
; Trumpeter;
; Turnstone.
A. P. H. Alfred Peter Hillier, M.D., M.P.
Author of South African Studies; The Commonweal; &c. Served in Kaffir War, 1878–1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in South Africa till 1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and political prisoner at Pretoria, 1895–1896. M.P. for the Hitchin Division of Herts, 1910.
Transvaal: History (in part).
A. R. B. The Rev. Augustus Robert Buckland, M.A.
Secretary of the Religious Tract Society, London. Morning Preacher, Foundling Hospital, London. Author of The Heroic in Missions; &c.
Tract: Tract Societies.
A. Sp. Archibald Sharp.
Consulting Engineer and Chartered Patent Agent.
A. Sy. Arthur Symons.
See the biographical article: Symons, Arthur.
Verlaine, Paul.
A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland.
Formerly Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray’s Inn, 1900.
Utrecht, Treaty of.
A. W. R. Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B.
Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England.
Trade Marks (in part).
B. M. Brander Matthews, A.M., LL.D., Litt.D., D.C.L.
Professor of Dramatic Literature, Columbia University, New York. President of the Modern Language Association of America (1910). Author of French Dramatists of the 19th Century; &c.
Twain, Mark.
B. R. Sir Boverton Redwood, D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.), F.I.C., Assoc.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E.
Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, Home Office, India Office, Corporation of London, and Port of London Authority. President of the Society of Chemical Industry. Member of the Council of the Chemical Society. Member of Council of the Institute of Chemistry. Author of Cantor Lectures on Petroleum; Petroleum and its Products; Chemical Technology; &c.
B. W. G. Benedict William Ginsburg, M.A., LL.D.
St Catharine’s College, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law of the Inner Temple. Formerly Editor of The Navy, and Secretary of the Royal Statistical Society. Author of Hints on the Legal Duties of Shipmasters; &c.
C. A. C. Charles Arthur Conant.
Member of Commission on International Exchange of U.S., 1903. Treasurer, Morton Trust Co., New York, 1902–1906. Author of History of Modern Banks of Issue; The Principles of Money and Banking; &c.
Trust Company.
C. A. S. Rev. Charles Anderson Scott, M.A.
Dunn Professor of the New Testament, Theological College of the Presbyterian Church of England, Cambridge. Author of Ulfilas, Apostle of the Goths; &c.
C. B. P. Catherine Beatrice Phillips (Mrs W. Alison Phillips).
Associate of Bedford College, London.
C. C. W. Charles Crawford Whinery, A.M.
Cornell University. Assistant Editor 11th Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
United States: History (in part).
C. D. W. Hon. Carroll Davidson Wright.
See the biographical article: Wright, Carroll Davidson.
Trade Unions: United States.
C. El. Sir Charles Norton Edgcumbe Eliot, K.C.M.G., LL.D., D.C.L.
Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford. H.M.’s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East Africa Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar; Consul-General for German East Africa, 1900–1904.
C. F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbor.
Transvaal: History (in part); Turenne, Vicomte de; Uniforms.
C. H. Ha. Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York. Member of the American Historical Association.
Truce of God;
Urban II.-VI
C. J. L. Sir Charles James Lyall, K.C.S.I., C.I.E., LL.D. (Edin.).
Secretary, Judicial and Public Department, India Office, London. Fellow of King’s College, London. Secretary to Government of India in Home Department, 1889–1894. Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, India, 1895–1898. Author of Translations of Ancient Arabic Poetry; &c.
Tulsi Das.
C. M. Carl Theodor Mirbt, D.Th.
Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publizistik im Zeitalter Gregor VII.; Quellen zur Geschichte des Papstthums; &c.
Trent, Council of; Ultramontanism;
Vatican Council, The
C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. H v, Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
Varthema, Ludovico di; Vespucci, Amerigo.
C. W. W. Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1907).
Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary Commission. .Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of Lord Clive; &c.
Turkey (in part).
D. B. Ma. Duncan Black Macdonald, M.A., D.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn. Author of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory; Selections from Ibn Khaldun; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; &c.
D. C. B. Demetrius Charles Boulger.
Author of England and Russia in Central Asia; History of China; Life of Gordon; India in the 19th Century; History of Belgium; Belgian Life in Town and Country; &c.
D. C. G. Daniel Coit Gilman.
See the biographical article: Gilman, Daniel Coit.
Universities: United States.
D. C. T. David Croal Thomson.
Formerly Editor of the Art Journal. Author of The Brothers Maris; The Barbizon School of Painters; Life of “Phiz”; Life of Bewick; &c.
Troyon, Constant.
D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey.
Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.
D. G. H. David George Hogarth, M.A.
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and Fellow of Magdalen College. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
Tralles; Tripoli: Syria; Troy and Troad (in part).
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal Navy; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c.
Toulon; Tourville, Comte de; Trafalgar, Battle of.
E. B.* Ernest Charles Francois Babelon.
Professor at the College de France. Keeper of the Department of Medals and Antiquities at the Bibliotheque Nationale. Member of the Academic des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Descriptions Historiques des Monnaies de la Republique Romaine; Traites des Monnaies Grecques et Romaines; Catalogue des Camées de la Bibliotheque Nationale.
E. C. B. Rt. Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., M.A., D.Litt.
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of “The Lausiac History of Palladius,” in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi.
Trappists; Trinitarians; Vallombrosians.
E. E. A. Ernest E. Austen.
Assistant in the Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington.
E. F. S. Edward Fairbrother Strange.
Assistant Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member of Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects. Joint-editor of Bell’s “Cathedral” Series.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund.
Topelius, Zakris; Triolet; Troubadour; Trouvère; Usk, Thomas; Vers de Société; Verse.
E. Ga. Emile Garcke, M.Inst.E.E.
Managing Director of the British Electric Traction Co., Ltd. Author of Manual of Electrical Undertakings; &c.
E. H. M. Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A.
University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College.
E. J. W. G. Elias John Wilkinson Gibb.
Translator of several Turkish books.
Turkey: Literature.
E. K. C. Edmund Kerchever Chambers.
Assistant Secretary, Board of Education. Sometime Scholar of Corpus Christ! College, Oxford. Chancellor’s English Essayist, 1891. Author of The Medieval Stage. Editor of the “Red Letter” Shakespeare; Donne’s Poems; Vaughan’s Poems.
Vaughan, Thomas.
Ed. M. Eduard Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt., LL.D.
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums; Geschichte des alien Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstämme.
E. O.* Edmund Owen, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary’s Hospital, London, and to the Children’s Hospital, Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
Tongue: Surgery; Tonsillitis; Ulcer; Varicose Veins; Venereal Diseases.
E. Tn. Rev. Ethelred Luke Taunton, S.J. (d. 1907).
Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in England.
Torquemada, Thomas.
E. W. H. Ernest William Hobson, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.R.A.S.
Fellow and Tutor in Mathematics, Christ’s College, Cambridge. Stokes Lecturer in Mathematics in the University.
F. C. C. Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Tn.
Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Editor of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle. Author of Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.
Tongues, Gift of.
F. D. A. Frank Dawson Adams, Ph.D.. D.Sc., F.G.S., F.R.S.
Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science and Logan Professor of Geology, McGill University, Montreal. President of the Canadian Mining Institute. Author of Papers dealing with problems of Metamorphism; &c.
Vancouver Island.
F. G. M. B. Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer of Clare College, Cambridge.
Vandals (in part).
F. G. P. Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst.
Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas’s Hospital, London, and the London School of Medicine for Women. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons.
Tongue; Vascular System: Anatomy; Veins: Anatomy.
F. J. H. Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A.
Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Censor, Student, Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford’s Lecturer, 1906-1907. Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain; &c.
Trimontium; Trinovantes; Uriconium; Verulamium.
F. J. T. Frederick Jackson Turner, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D., Ph.D.
Professor of History, Harvard University. Formerly Professor of American History at the University of Wisconsin. Author of Rise of the New West; &c.
United States: History (in part).
F. Po. Sir Frederick Pollock, Bart., LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Pollock (Family).
F. R. C. Frank R. Cana.
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
Transvaal: Geography and Statistics, and History (in part); Tripoli: North Africa (in part); Tsana (in part); Tuat.
F. R. M. Francis Richard Maunsell, C.M.G.
Lieut.-Col., Royal Artillery. Military Vice-Consul, Sivas, Trebizond, Van (Kurdistan), 1807-1898. Military Attaché British Embassy, Constantinople, 1901-1905. Author of Central Kurdistan; &c.
Van: Turkey (in part).
F. S. P. Francis Samuel Philbrick, A.M., Ph.D.
Formerly Fellow of Nebraska State University and Scholar and Resident Fellow of Harvard University. Member of the American Historical Association.
United States: Population and Social Conditions; Industries and Commerce; Finance and Army.
F. Wa. Francis Watt, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Author of Law’s Lumber Room.
Treasure Trove.
F. W. Ga. Frederick William Gamble, D.Sc., F.R.S.
Professor of Zoology, Birmingham University. Formerly Assistant Director of the Zoological Laboratories and Lecturer in Zoology, University of Manchester. Author of Animal Life. Editor of Marshall and Hurst’s Practical Zoology; &c.
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1897-1902. President of the Geologists’ Association, 1887-1889.
Topaz; Tourmaline; Turquoise.
G. A. B. George A. Boulenger, D.Sc., F.R.S.
In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London.
G. A. C.* Rev. George Albert Cooke, M.A., D.D.
Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture, Oxford, and Fellow of Oriel College. Canon of Rochester. Hon. Canon of St Mary’s Cathedral, Edinburgh. Author of Text-Book of North Semitic Inscriptions; &c.
Tyre (in part).
G. E. Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford’s Lecturer, 1909. Hon. Member Dutch Historical Society, and Foreign Member, Netherlands Association of Literature.
Utrecht: Province (in part).
G. E. D. George Edward Dobson, M.A., M.B., F.Z.S., F.R.S. (1848-1805).
Army Medical Department, 1868-1888. Formerly Curator of the Royal Victoria Museum, Netley. Author of Monograph of the Asiatic Chiroptera; A Monograph of the Insectivora, Systematic and Anatomical; &c.
G. H. Bo. Rev. George Herbert Box, M.A.
Rector of Sutton Sandy, Beds. Formerly Hebrew Master, Merchant Taylors' School, London. Author of Translation of the Book of Isaiah; &c.
Urim and Thummim.
G. J. T. George James Turner.
Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln’s Inn. Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Selden Society.
Trinoda Necessitas.
G. Re. Sir George Reid, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Reid, Sir George.
G. W. C.* Rev. George Willis Cooke.
Lecturer at Rand School of Social Science, New York. Author of Critical Study of Emerson; History of Unitarianism in America; Woman in the Progress of Civilization; &c.
Unitarianism: United States.
H. A. C. Howard Adams Carson, A.M.
Civil Engineer. Past President of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers. Formerly Chief Engineer of the Boston Transit Commission. In charge of designing and constructing the Boston Subway, the East Boston Tunnel; &c.
H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the 11th edition.
Transvaal: History (in part).
H. De. Rev. Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J.
Bollandist. Joint-editor of the Acta Sanctorum and the Analecta Bollandiana.
Valentine; Veronica, St.
H. E. A. Henry Edward Armstrong, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S.
Professor of Chemistry at the City and Guilds of London Central Institute, South Kensington. Author of Introduction to the Study of Organic Chemistry.
H. F. B. Horatio Robert Forbes Brown, LL.D.
Editor of the Calendar of Venetian State Papers, for the Public Record Office. Author of Life on the Lagoons; Venetian Studies; John Addington Symonds, a Biography; &c.
H. F. G. Hans Friedrich Gadow, F.R.S., Ph.D.
Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author of “Amphibia and Reptiles” in the Cambridge Natural History.
H. F. T. Rev. Henry Fanshawe Tozer, M.A., F.R.G.S.
Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Corresponding Member of the Historical Society of Greece. Author of History of Ancient Geography; Classical Geography; Lectures on the Geography of Greece; &c.
H. H. Henri Simon Hymans, Ph.D.
Keeper of the Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique, Brussels. Author of Rubens: sa vie et son œuvre.
Van Dyck (in part).
H. Ha. Heber Leonidas Hart, LL.D.
Valuation and Valuers.
H. H. F. H. Hamilton Fyfe.
Special Correspondent of the Daily Mail; Dramatic Critic of The World. Author of A Modern Aspasia; The New Spirit in Egypt; &c.
Tricoupis, Charilaos.
H. H. J. Sir Harry Hamilton Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., D.Sc., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Johnston, Sir H. H.
Tunisia; Uganda; Unyoro.
H. Lb. Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Professor of Mathematics, University of Manchester. Formerly Fellow and Assistant Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. Member of Council of the Royal Society, 1894-1896. Royal Medallist, 1902. President of the London Mathematical Society, 1902-1904. Author of Hydrodynamics; &c.
Vector Analysis.
H. L. C. Hugh Longbourne Callendar, F.R.S., LL.D.
Professor of Physics, Royal College of Science, London. Formerly Professor of Physics in McGill College, Montreal, and in University College, London.
H. L. H. Harriet L. Hennessy, M.D. (Brux.), L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I.
H. L. O. Herbert Levi Osgood, A.M., Ph.D.
Professor of History at Columbia University, New York. Author of The American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century; &c.
United States: History (in part).
H. M. C. Hector Munro Chadwick, M.A.
Fellow and Librarian of Clare College, Cambridge. Author of Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions.
H. M. R. Hugh Munro Ross.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. Editor of The Times Engineering Supplement. Author of British Railways.
Typography: Modern Practical Typography (in part).
H. M. Wo. Harold Mellor Woodcock, D.Sc.
Assistant to the Professor of Proto-Zoology, London University. Fellow of University College, London. Author of “Haemoflagellates” in Sir E. Ray Lankester’s Treatise on Zoology, and of various scientific papers.
H. St. Henry Sturt, M.A.
Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; Personal Idealism.
H. Sw. Henry Sweet, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D.
University Reader in Phonetics, Oxford. Member of the Academies of Munich, Berlin, Copenhagen and Helsingfors. Author of A History of English Sounds since the Earliest Period; A Handbook of Phonetics; &c.
Universal Languages.
I. M. A. Rev. Isaac Morgan Atwood, M.A., D.D., LL.D.
Secretary of the Universalist General Convention. Associate-editor of the Universalist Leader, Boston. General Superintendent of the Universalist Church, 1898-1906. Author of Latest Word of Universalism; &c.
Universalist Church.
J. An. Joseph Anderson, LL.D.
Keeper of the National Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh, and Assistant Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Honorary Professor of Antiquities to the Royal Scottish Academy. Author of Scotland in Early Christian and Pagan Times.
J. A. F. John Ambrose Fleming, M.A., F.R.S., D.Sc.
Fender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge, and Lecturer on Applied Mechanics in the University. Author of Magnets and Electric Currents.
Transformers; Units, Physical.
J. A. H. John Allen Howe.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of The Geology of Building Stones.
Torridonian; Triassic System.
J. Br. Right Hon. James Bryce, D.C.L., D.Litt.
See the biographical article: Bryce, James.
Tribonian; United States: Constitution and Government.
J. Bt. James Bartlett.
Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation. Quantities, &c., at King’s College, London. Member of the Society of Architects. Member of the Institute of Junior Engineers.
J. B. M. James Bass Mullinger, M.A.
Lecturer in History, St John’s College, Cambridge. Formerly University Lecturer in History and President of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Birkbeck Lecturer in Ecclesiastical History at Trinity College, Cambridge, 1890-1894. Author of History of the University of Cambridge; The Schools of Charles the Great; &c.
J. C. H. Right Rev. John Cuthbert Hedley, O.S.B., D.D.
R.C. Bishop of Newport. Author of The Holy Eucharist; &c.
J. F.-K. James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S.
Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c.
Translation; Valera y Alcalá Galiano, Juan; Vega Carpio (in part).
J. F. W. John Forbes White, M.A., LL.D. (d. 1904).
Joint-author of the Life and Art of G. P. Chalmers, R.S.A.; &c.
Velazquez (in part).
J. G. H. Joseph G. Horner, A.M.I.Mech.E.
Author of Plating and Boiler-Making; Practical Metal-Turning; &c.
J. G. M. John Gray M'Kendrick, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S. (Edin.).
Emeritus Professor of Physiology in the University of Glasgow. Professor of Physiology, 1876-1906. Author of Life in Motion; Life of Helmholtz; &c.
Touch; Vascular System: History of Discovery.
J. H. H. John Henry Hessels, M.A.
Author of Gutenberg: an Historical Investigation.
Typography: History.
J. H. M. John Henry Middleton, M.A., Litt.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896).
Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1886-1895. Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889-1892. Art Director of the South Kensington Museum, 1892-1896. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Times; Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times.
Verona (in part); Verrocchio, Andrea del; Vesta (in part).
J. H. R. John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D.
Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and Pedigree.
Vere (Family).
J. J. T. Sir Joseph John Thomson, F.Sc., LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.
Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. President of the British Association, 19091910. Author of A Treatise on the Motion of Vortex Rings; Application of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry; Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism; &c.
Vacuum Tube.
J. L.* Sir Joseph Larmor, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S.
Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge, and Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in the University. Secretary of the Royal Society. Professor of Natural Philosophy, Queen’s College, Galway, 1880-1885. Author of Ether and Matter, and various memoirs on Mathematics and Physics.
Units, Dimensions of.
J. L. E. D. John Louis Emil Dreyer.
Director of Armagh Observatory. Author of Planetary Systems from Thales to Kepler; &c.
Transit Circle.
J. L. W. Jessie Laidlay Weston.
Author of Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory.
J. O. Josiah Oldfield, M.A., D.C.L., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P.
Barrister-at-law. Senior Physician of the Lady Margaret Fruitarian Hospital, Bromley. Author of Myrrh and Amaranth; The Voice of Nature; &c.
J. O. B. John Oliver Borley, M.A.
Gonville and Cams College, Cambridge.
Trawling, Seining and Netting.
J. P.-B. James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst.
Editor of the Guardian, London.
Vernis Martin.
J. P. P. Rev. John Punnett Peters, Ph.D., D.D.
Canon Residentiary, Protestant Episcopal Cathedral of St John the Divine in New York City. Formerly Professor of Hebrew, University of Pennsylvania. In charge of the Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania to Nippur, 1888-1895. Author of Scriptures, Hebrew and Christian; Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates; &c.
J. So. John Southward.
Author of A Dictionary of Typography and its Accessory Arts; Practical Printing; &c.
Typography: Modern Practical Typography (in part).
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.
Tonalite; Trachyte; Tuff; Variolites; Veins (Geology).
J. S. N. Joseph Shield Nicholson, M.A., Sc.D.
Professor of Political Economy at Edinburgh University. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Principles of Political Economy; Money and Monetary Problems; &c.
Usury; Value.
J. S. R. James Smith Reid, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D.
Professor of Ancient History and Fellow and Tutor of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Christ’s College. Browne’s and Chancellor’s Medals. Editor of editions of Cicero’s Academia; De Amicitia; &c.
Trajan; Tribune; Varro, Marcus Terentius.
J. T. Be. John Thomas Bealby.
Joint-author of Stanford’s Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin’s Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.
Transbaikalia (in part); Transcaspian Region (in part); Turgai (in part); Turkestan (in part); Ufa (Government) (in part); Ural Mountains (in part).
J. W. James Williams, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D.
All Souls Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln College. Author of Wills and Succession; &c.
J. W. He. James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A.
Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education, London. Formerly Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at Queen’s College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German Empire; &c.
Treitschke, Heinrich von.
J. W. J. Jeremiah Whipple Jenks.
See the biographical article: Jenks, Jeremiah Whipple.
K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger.
Editor of The Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra.
Trigonon; Tromba Marina; Trombone (in part); Trumpet (in part); Tuba; Valves.
L. C.* Louis Courtauld, M.A., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P.
Formerly Research Scholar, Middlesex Hospital Cancer Laboratories. Author of Life-History of Pneumococcus; &c.
L. Du. Louis Duncan, Ph.D., M.Am.Inst.E.E.
Late Associate Professor of Applied Electricity, at the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. Head of the Department of Electrical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
L. E. H. Leonard Erskine Hill, F.R.S., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P.
Lecturer on Physiology at the London Hospital. Formerly Demonstrator of Physiology in the University of Oxford; and Assistant Professor of Physiology, University College, London. Author of Manual of Physiology; &c.
Vascular System: Physiology.
L. J.* Lionel James, F.R.G.S.
The Times Special Correspondent in South Africa, 1899-1901. Reuter’s Special Correspondent in the Chitral Campaign, 1894-1895. Author of With the Chitral Relief Force; On the Heels of De Wet; &c. &c.
Transvaal: History (in part).
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A.
Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
Torbernite; Tremolite; Tridymite; Vanadinite; Vesuvianite.
L. V.* Luigi Villari.
Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Department). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent in the east of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906; Philadelphia, 1907; and Boston, 1907-1910. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; &c.
Tuscany: History; Vespers, Sicilian.
M. Br. Margaret Bryant.
Tourneur, Cyril: Introduction and Bibliography.
M. G. Moses Gaster, Ph.D.
Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine Literature, 1886 and 1891. Author of A New Hebrew Fragment of Ben-Sira; The Hebrew Version of the Secretum Secretorum of Aristotle.
M. N. T. Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum.
M. O. B. C. Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A.
Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham University, 1905-1908.
Trachis; Umbria (Ancient).
N. D. M. Newton Dennison Mereness, A.M., Ph.D.
Author of Maryland as a Proprietary Province.
United States: Fauna and Flora.
O. Ba. Oswald Barron, F.S.A.
Editor of the Ancestor, 1902–1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the Honourable Society of the Baronetage.
Tournament; Tudor (Family).
P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince P. A.
Transbaikalia (in part); Transcaspian Region (in part); Turgai (in part); Turkestan (in part); Ufa (Government) (in part); Ural Mountains (in part).
P. C. M. Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc., LL.D.
Secretary of the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888–1891. Author of Outlines of Biology; &c.
Variation and Selection; Vertebrata.
P. C. Y. Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A.
Magdalen College, Oxford. Editor of Letters of Princess Elizabeth of England.
Vane, Sir H.
P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Lrrr.D.
Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological Society.
U. V.
P. G. K. Paul George Konody.
Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of the Artist. Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez: Life and Work; &c.
Van Dyck (in part).
P. La. Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S.
Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Kayser’s Comparative Geology.
Venezuela: Geology.
R. A.* Robert Anchel.
Archivist of the Department de l’Eure.
Vendée, Wars of the.
R. A. S. Richard Alexander Streatfeild.
Assistant in the Department of Printed Books, British Museum. Musical Critic of the Daily Graphic. Author of Masters of Italian Music; The Opera; &c.
Verdi, Giuseppe.
R. C. J. Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, LL.D., D.C.L., Litt.D.
See the biographical article: Jebb, Sir Richard C.
Troy and Troad (in part).
R. D. S. Rollin D. Salisbury, A.M., LL.D.
Geologist in charge of Pleistocene Geology of New Jersey. Dean of Ogden (Grad.) School of Science and Head of the Department of Geography in the University of Chicago.
United States: Geology (in part).
R. I. P. Reginald Innes Pocock, F.Z.S.
Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London.
R. J. M. Ronald John McNeill, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-law. Formerly Editor of the St James’s Gazette (London).
Tone, Theobald Wolfe; Tyler, Wat; Ulster, Earls of.
R. K. D. Robert Kennaway Douglas.
Formerly Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at the British Museum; and Professor of Chinese, King’s College, London. Author of The Language and Literature of China; &c.
Tsēng Kuo-fan.
R. L.* Sir Richard Lydekker, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.
Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874–1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer of All Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c.
Toxodontia; Tylopoda; Ungulata.
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883–1909. Author of Scandinavia: the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513–1900; The First Romanovs, 1613–1725; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796; &c.
Tordenskjold, Peder; Torstensson, Count; Valdemar I., II. and IV. of Denmark; Verböczy, Istvan.
R. P. S. R. Phené Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.
Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King’s College, London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson’s History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c.
Tower; Tracery; Triumphal Arch; Vault.
R. S. C. Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt. (Cantab.).
Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects.
Veneti; Vestini.
R. Tr. Roland Truslove, M.A.
Fellow, Dean and Lecturer in Classics at Worcester College, Oxford.
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A.
Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904–1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.
Tree-Worship; Uzziah.
S. M. C. Sydney Monckton Copeman, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., F.R.S.
Medical Inspector to H.M. Local Government Board, London. Medical Lecturer on Public Health at Westminster Hospital. Lt.-Col. and Divisional Sanitary Officer, 1st London Division, Territorial Force. Milroy Lecturer, Royal College of Physicians, London, 1898. Author of Vaccination, its Natural History and Pathology; &c.
S. M. E.-W. Sir Sydney Marow Eardley-Wilmot.
Rear-Admiral (retired). Commanded H.M.S. “Dolphin” in Red Sea, 1885–1886, and assisted in the defence of Suakin. Superintendent of Ordnance Stores, 1902–1909. Author of Life of Vice-Admiral Lord Lyons; Our Navy for a Thousand Years; &c.
S. N. Simon Newcomb, LL.D., D.Sc.
See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon.
Uranus (Astronomy); Venus (Astronomy).
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt.
Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna.
Tortona; Trapani;
Trasimene, Lake
; Trebula; Turin; Turris Libisonis;
: Geography; Tusculum; Tyndaris;
; Umbria (Modern); Valeria, Via; Varia; Vasto; Veii; Veleia; Velia; Velletri; Venafrum; Venusia; Vercelli; Verona (in part); Vesuvius (in part).
T. A. A. Thomas Andrew Archer, M.A.
Author of The Crusade of Richard I.; &c.
Ursula, St (in part).
T. A. I. Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D.
Trinity College, Dublin.
Unemployment; Vagrancy.
T. C. C. Thomas Chrowder Chamberlin, A.M., Ph.D., LL.D., Sc.D., F.G.S., F.A.A.S., &c.
Professor and Head of Department of Geology and Director of the Walker Museum, University of Chicago. Investigator of Fundamental Problems of Geology at the Carnegie Institute. Consulting Geologist, United States and Wisconsin Geological Survey. Author of Geology of Wisconsin; General Treatise on Geology (with R. D. Salisbury); &c.
United States: Geology (in part).
T. E. H. Thomas Erskine Holland, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., K.C.
Fellow of the British Academy. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Professor of International Law and Diplomacy in the University of Oxford, 1874–1910. Bencher of Lincoln’s Inn. Author of Studies in International Law; The Elements of Jurisprudence; Alberici Gentilis de jure belli; The Laws of War on Land; Neutral Duties in a Maritime War; &c.
Treaties; Vacarius.
T. F. C. Theodore Freylinghuysen Collier, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass.
Urban VII. and VIII.
T. H. Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L., Litt.D.
See the biographical article: Hodgkin, Thomas.
Vandals (in part).
T. S. The Right Honourable Lord Shaw of Dunfermline.
Lord of Appeal. M.P. for Hawick District, 1892–1909. Lord Advocate for Scotland, 1905–1909.
Vergniaud, Pierre.
T. Se. Thomas Seccombe, M.A.
Balliol College, Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of Dictionary of National Biography, 1891–1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c.
Vanbrugh, Sir John.
V. C.* Sir Vincent Henry Penalver Caillard.
Director of Vickers, Sons & Maxim, Ltd.; and the London, Chatham & Dover Railway. Formerly President of the Ottoman Public Debt Council, and Financial Representative of England, Holland and Belgium in Constantinople. Author of Imperial Fiscal Reform.
Turkey: Geography and Statistics.
V. M. Victor Charles Mahillon.
Principal of the Conservatoire Royal deMusique at Brussels. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour.
Trombone (in part); Trumpet (in part).
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S.
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David’s College, Lampeter, 1880–1881. Author of Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880–1889.
Töpffer, Rodolphe; Trent; Tschudi; Unterwalden; Uri; Valais; Var; Vaud.
W. A. He. William Abbott Herdman, D.Sc., F.R.S.
Professor of Natural History in the University of Liverpool. President of the Linnean Society, 1904. Author of Report upon the Tunicata collected during the Voyage of the “Challenger”; &c.
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.
Utrecht: Province (in part); Valet; Vavassor;
Verona, Congress of
; Vestments.
W. Bo. Wilhelm Bousset, D.Th.
Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the University of Göttingen. Author of Das Wesen der Religion; The Antichrist Legend; &c.
Valentinus and the Valentinians.
W. E. G. Sir William Edmund Garstin, G.C.M.G.
Governing Director, Suez Canal Co. Formerly Inspector-General of Irrigation, Egypt, and Adviser to the Ministry of Public Works in Egypt.
Tsana (in part).
W. F. C. William Feilden Craies, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King s College, London. Editor of Archbold’s Criminal Pleading (23rd edition).
Trade Marks (in part); Treason; Trial; Venue.
W. G.* Walcot Gibson, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Geologist on H.M. Geological Survey. Author of The Gold-bearing Rocks of the S. Transvaal; Mineral Wealth of Africa; The Geology of Coal and Coal Mining; &c.
Transvaal: Geology.
W. L. F. Walter Lynwood Fleming, A.M., Ph.D.
Professor of History in Louisiana State University. Editor of Documentary History of Reconstruction; &c.
Union League of America, The.
W. McD. William McDougall, M.A.
Wilde Reader in Mental Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge.
W. MacD.* William Macdonald, LL.D.
Professor of American History in Brown University, Providence, R.I. Professor of History and Political Science at Bowdoin, 1893-1901. Author of History and Government of Maine; &c. Editor of Select Documents illustrative of the History of the United States; &c.
Tyler, John; Van Buren, Martin.
W. M. D. William Morris Davis, D.Sc., Ph.D.
Professor of Geology in Harvard University. Formerly Professor of Physical Geography. Author of Physical Geography; &c.
United States: Physical Geography and United States: Climate.
W. P. C. William Prideaux Courtney.
See the biographical article: Courtney, L. H. Baron.
Tooke, John Horne.
W. R. M. William Richard Morfill, M.A. (d. 1910).
Formerly Professor of Russian and the other Slavonic Languages in the University of Oxford. Curator of the Taylorian Institution, Oxford. Author of Russia: Slavonic Literature; &c.
Turgueniev, Ivan.
W. R. S. William Robertson Smith, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Smith, William Robertson.
Tyre (in part).


Townshend, Charles.
Townshend, Viscount.
Trade, Board of.
Trade Organization.
Trade Unions (in part).
Transylvanian Mountains.
Trenck, Franz.
Trendelenburg, Friedrich.
Trenton (N.J.).
Tresham, Francis.
Tristan da Cunha.

Trollope, Anthony.
Troy (N.Y.).
Trust and Trustees.
Tschaikovsky, Peter.
Tuke (Family).
Turgot, Anne Robert Jacques.
Turkey: History.
Tweeddale, Marquesses of.
Tyndale, William.
Tyndall, John.
Typhoid Fever.
Typhus Fever.

Ulfeldt, Korfits.
United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland
United Presbyterian Church.
United Provinces of Agra and
United States Naval Academy.
Urinary System.
Ursins, Princess des.
Usher, James.
Utica (N.Y.).

Valencia (Province).
Valencia (City).
Valentinian I.-II.
Valla, Lorenzo.
Vanderbilt, Cornelius.
Vane, Sir Henry.
Vaughan, Henry.
Vauvenargues, Marquis de.
Venezuela: History.
Venus's Fly-trap.
Vernet (Family).
Verney (Family).
Vernon, Edward.

  1. A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume