1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 12/Table of contributors


A. R.* Arthur Alcock Rambaut, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.R.A.S.
Radcliffe Observer, Oxford. Professor of Astronomy in the University of Dublin and Royal Astronomer of Ireland, 1892–1897.
Grant, Robert.
A. C. Se. Albert Charles Seward, M.A., F.R.S.
Professor of Botany in the University of Cambridge. Hon. Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. President of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, 1910.
A. F. P. Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Professor of English History in the University of London. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893–1901. Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.
A. Go.* Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A.
Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.
Grynaeus, Simon;
A. G. B.* Hon. Archibald Graeme Bell, M.Inst.C.E.
Director of Public Works and Inspector of Mines, Trinidad. Member Of Executive and Legislative Councils, Inst. C.E.
A. H.-S. Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, C.I.E.
General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.
Gīlān; Hamadān.
A. He. Arthur Hervey.
Formerly Musical Critic to Morning Post and Vanity Fair. Author of Masters of French Music; French Music in the XIX. Century.
A. H. S. Rev. A. H. Sayce, D.D.
See the biographical article, Sayce, A. H.
Grammar; Gyges.
A. J. G. Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D.
Professor of New Testament and Church History at the United Independent College Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University and Member of Myore Educational Service.
Haggai (in part).
A. J. H. Alfred James Hipkins.
Formerly Member of Council and Hon. Curator of Royal College of Music. Member of Committee of the Inventions and Music Exhibition, 1885; of the Vienna Exhibition, 1892; and of the Paris Exhibition, 1900. Author of Musical Instruments, A Description and History of the Pianoforte; &c.
Harmonium (in part).
A. L. Andrew Lang.
See the biographical article, Lang, Andrew.
Gurney, Edmund.
A. M. C. Agnes Mary Clerke.
See the biographical article, Clerke, A. M.
Halley; Hansen.
A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article, Newton, Alfred.
Goatsucker; Godwit;
; Goose;
; Grackle;
; Greenfinch; Greenshank; Grosbeak; Grouse; Guacharo; Guan; Guillemot; Guinea-Fowl;
; Hammer-Kop.
A. Ne. Alexander Nesbitt, F.S.A.
Author of the Introduction to A Descriptive Catalogue of the Glass Vessels in South Kensington Museum.
Glass: History of Manufacture (in part).
A. S. C. Alan Summerly Cole, C.B.
Assistant Secretary for Art, Board of Education, 1900–1908. Author of Ancient Needle Point and Pillow Lace; Embroidery and Lace; Ornament in European Silks; &c.
Gold and Silver Thread.
A. Sy. Arthur Symons.
See the biographical article, Symons, A.
Goncourt, De;
Hardy, Thomas
A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland.
Formerly Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray’s Inn, 1900.
Godfrey of Viterbo;
Golden Bull
; Habsburg.
A. W. R. Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B.
Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England.
Ground Rent;
A. W. W. Adolphus William Ward, LL.D. Litt.D.
See the biographical article, Ward, A. W.
Greene, Robert.
C. F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.
Grand Alliance, War of the; Grant, Ulysses S. (in part); Great Rebellion.
C. Gr. Charles Gross, A.M., Ph.D., LL.D. (1857–1909).
Professor of History at Harvard University, 1888–1909. Author of The Gild Merchant; Sources and Literature of English History; &c.
C. H.* Sir C. Holroyd.
See the biographical article: Holroyd, Sir C.
Haden, Sir F. S.
C. H. C. Charles H. Coote.
Formerly of Map Department, British Museum.
Hakluyt (in part).
C. H. Ha. Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M. Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member of the American Historical Association.
Gregory: Popes, VIII. to XII.; Guibert.
C. J. L. Sir Charles James Lyall, K.C.S.I., C.I.E., LL.D. (Edin).
Secretary, Judicial and Public Department, India Office. Fellow of King’s College, London. Secretary to Government of India in Home Department, 1889–1894. Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, India, 1895–1898. Author of Translations of Ancient Arabic Poetry; &c.
C. L.* Charles Lapworth, M.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S., F.G.S.
Professor of Geology and Physiography in the University of Birmingham. Editor of Monograph on British Graptolites, Palaeontographical Society, 1900–1908.
C. L. K. Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A.
Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor of Chronicles of London, and Stow’s Survey of London.
Glendower, Owen;
Gloucester, Humphrey,
  Duke of
Hallam, Bishop
Hardyng, John
C. M. Carl Theodor Mirbt, D.Th.
Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publizistik im Zeitalter Gregor VII.; Quellen zur Geschichte des Papstthums; &c.
Gregory VII.
C. Mi. Chedomille Mijatovich.
Senator of the Kingdom of Servia. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the King of Servia to the Court of St James, 1895–1900 and 1902–1903.
C. M. W. Sir Charles Moore Watson, K.C.M.G., C.B.
Colonel, Royal Engineers. Deputy-Inspector-General of Fortifications, 1896–1902. Served under General Gordon in the Soudan, 1874–1875.
Gordon, General.
C. Pf. Christian Pfister, D.-ès-L.
Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Études sur le règne de Robert le Pieux.
Gregory, St, of Tours;
Gunther of Schwarzburg
C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor Of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
Gomez; Hakluyt (in part).
C. We. Cecil Weatherly.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law.
C. W. E. Charles William Eliot.
See the biographical article, Eliot, C. W. J.
Gray, Asa.
D. C. To. Rev. Duncan Crookes Tovey, M.A.
Editor of The Letters of Thomas Gray; &c.
Gray, Thomas.
D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey.
Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analysis of many other classical works.
Gluck; Handel.
D. G. H. David George Hogarth, M.A.
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904–1905; Assiut, 1906—1907; Director, British School at Athens, 1897–1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Navy, 1217–1688; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.
Gondomar, Count;
Grand Alliance, War of the:
Naval Operations
; Hamilton, Emma.
D. Ll. T. Daniel Lleufer Thomas.
Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln’s Inn. Stipendiary Magistrate at Pontypridd and Rhondda.
Glamorganshire; Gower.
D. Mn. Rev. Dugald Macfadyen, M.A
Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Author of Constructive Congregational Ideals; &c.
Glas, John;
D. M. W. Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O.
Extra Groom-in-Waiting to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign Department of The Times, 1891–1899. Member of Institut de Droit International and Officier de l'Instruction Publique of France. Joint-editor of new volumes (10th edition) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt and the Egyptian Question; The Web of Empire; &c.
Giers; Gorchakov.
E. A. F. Edward Augustus Freeman, LL.D.
See the biographical article, Freeman, E. A.
Goths (in part).
E. A. J. E. Alfred Jones.
Author of Old English Gold Plate; Old Church Plate of the Isle of Man; Old Silver Sacramental Vessels of Foreign Protestant Churches in England; Illustrated Catalogue of Leopold de Rothschild’s Collection of Old Plate; A Private Catalogue of The Royal Plate at Windsor Castle; &c.
Golden Rose (in part).
E. B. Ernest Charles François Babelon.
Professor at the Collège de France. Keeper of the department of Medals and Antiquities at the Bibliothèque Nationale. Member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Descriptions historiques des monnaies de la république romaine; Traités des monnaies grecques et romaines; Catalogue des camées de la bibliotheque nationale.
E. Br. Ernest Barker, M.A.,
Fellow and Lecturer in Modern History at St John’s College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895.
Godfrey of Bouillon.
E. C. B. Rt. Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., M.A., D.Litt. (Dublin).
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of “The Lausaic History of Palladius” in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi.
Gilbert of Sempringham, St; Grandmontines; Groot.
E. C. Sp. Rev. Edward Clarke Spicer, M.A.
New College, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, 1900.
E. F. G. Edwin Francis Gay, Ph.D.
Professor of Economics and Dean of the Graduate School of Business Administration, Harvard University.
Hanseatic League.
E. F. S. D. Lady Dilke.
See the biographical article, Dilke, Sir C. W., Bart.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D.
See the biographical article, Gosse, E.
E. H. P. Edward Henry Palmer, M.A.
See the biographical article, Palmer, E. H.
E. J. P. Edward John Payne, M.A. (1844–1904).
Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Editor of the Select Works of Burke. Author of History of European Colonies; History of the New World called America; The Colonies, in the “British Citizen” Series; &c.
Grey, 2nd Earl.
Ed. M. Eduard Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt. (Oxon), LL.D. (Chicago).
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums; Geschichte des alten Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstämme.
E. M. W. Rev. Edward Mewburn Walker, M.A.
Fellow, Senior Tutor and Librarian of Queen’s College, Oxford.
Greece: History, Ancient,
 to 146 B.C
E. O.* Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary’s Hospital, London, and to the Children’s Hospital, Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
Goitre; Haemorrhoids.
E. Pr. Edgar Prestage.
Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Commendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. Editor of Letters of a Portuguese Nun; Azurara’s Chronicle of Guinea; &c.
Goes, Damião De;
E. R. Lord Lochee of Gowrie (Edmund Robertson), P.C., LL.D., K.C.
Civil Lord of the Admiralty, 1892–1895. Secretary to the Admiralty, 1905–1908. M.P. for Dundee, 1885–1908. Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford.
Hallam, Henry.
E. S. G. Edwin Stephen Goodrich, M.A., F.R.S.
Fellow and Librarian of Merton College, Oxford. Aldrichian Demonstrator of Comparative Anatomy, University Museum, Oxford.
F. C. C. Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen).
Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.
Gregory the Illuminator.
F. G. M. B. Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge.
Goths (in part).
F. G. S. F. G. Stephens.
Formerly Art Critic of the Athenaeum. Author of Artists at Home; George Cruikshank; Memorials of W. Mulready; French and Flemish Pictures; Sir E. Landseer; T. C. Hook, R.A.; &c.
Gilbert, Sir John.
F. H. D. Rev. Frederick Homes Dudden, D.D.
Fellow, Tutor and Lecturer in Theology, Lincoln College, Oxford. Author of Gregory the Great, his Place in History and Thought; &c.
Gregory I.
F. H. H. Franklin Henry Hooper.
Assistant Editor of the Century Dictionary.
Hancock, Winfield Scott.
F. J. H. Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A.
Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain; &c.
Graham’s Dyke.
F. N. Fridtjof Nansen.
See the biographical article, Nansen, Fridtjof.
F. R. C. Frank R. Cana.
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
Gold Coast.
F. S. P. Francis Samuel Philbrick, A.M., Ph.D.
Formerly Scholar and Resident Fellow of Harvard University. Member of American Historical Association.
Hamilton, Alexander.
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.:
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879–1902. President of the Geologists' Association, 1887–1889.
Gypsum; Haematite.
G. A. Gr. George Abraham Grierson, C.I.E., Ph.D., D.Litt. (Dublin).
Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873–1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, 1898–1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Languages of India; &c.
Gujarati and Rajasthani.
G. C. M. George Campbell Macaulay, M.A.
Lecturer in English in the University of Cambridge. Formerly Professor of English Language and Literature in the University of Wales. Editor of the Works of John Gower; &c.
Gower, John.
G. C. W. George Charles Williamson, Litt.D.
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of new edition Of Bryan’s Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.
Greco, El.
G. F. Z. George Frederick Zimmer, A.M.Inst.C.E.
Author of Mechanical Handling of Material.
G. G. Sir Alfred George Greenhill, M.A., F.R.S.
Formerly Professor of Mathematics in the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Examiner in the University of Wales. Member of the Aeronautical Committee. Author of Notes on Dynamics; Hydrostatics; Differential and Integral Calculus, with Applications; &c.
Gyroscope and Gyrostat.
G. Sn. Grant Showerman, A.M., Ph.D.
Professor of Latin in the University of Wisconsin. Member of the Archaeological Institute of America. Member of American Philological Association. Author of With the Professor; The Great Mother of the Gods; &c.
Great Mother of the Gods.
G. S. C. Sir George Sydenham Clarke, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., F.R.S.
Governor of Bombay Author of Imperial Defence; Russia’s Great Sea Power; The Last Great Naval War; &c.
Greco-Turkish War, 1897.
G. W. E. R. Rt. Hon. George William Erskine Russell, P.C., M.A., LL.D.
Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department, 1894–1895; for India, 1892–1894. M.P. for Aylesbury, 1880–1885; for North Beds., 1892–1895. Author of Life of W. E. Gladstone; Collections and Recollections; &c.
Gladstone, W. E.
G. W. T. Rev. Griffiths Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D.
Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.
Hājjī Khalīfa; Hamadhānī; Hamdānī; Hammād ar-Rāwiya; Harīrī.
H. A. de C. Henry Anselm De Colyar, K.C.
Author of The Law of Guarantees and of Principal and Surety; &c.
H. B. Wo. Horace Bolingbroke Woodward, F.R.S., F G.S.
Formerly Assistant Director of the Geological Survey of England and Wales. President, Geologists Association, 1893–1894. Wollaston Medallist, 1908.
Haidinger, W. K.
H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; co-editor of the 10th edition.
Goschen, 1st Viscount; Granville, 2nd Earl;
Hamilton, Alexander
 (in part);
Harcourt, Sir William
H. De. Hippolyte Delehaye, S. J.
Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist publications: Analecta Bollandiana and Acta sanctorum.
Giles, St; Hagiology.
H. G. H. Horatio Gordon Hutchinson.
Amateur Golf Champion, 1886–1887. Author of Hints on Golf; Golf (Badminton Library); Book of Golf and Golfers; &c
H. J. P. Harry James Powell, F.C.S.
Of Messrs James Powell & Sons, Whitefriars Glass Works, London. Member of Committee of six appointed by Board of Education to prepare the scheme for the rearrangement of the Art Collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum. Author of Glass Making; &c.
H. Lb. Horace Lamb, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Professor of Mathematics, University of Manchester. Formerly Fellow and Assistant Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. Member of Council of Royal Society, 1894–1896. Royal Medallist, 1902. President of London Mathematical Society, 1902–1904. Author of Hydrodynamics; &c.
Harmonic Analysis.
H. L. H. Harriet L. Hennessy, L.R.C.S.I., L.R.C.P.I., M.D. (Brux.)
H. M. C. Hector Munro Chadwick, M.A.
Librarian and Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge. Author of Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions.
Goths: Gothic Language.
H. M. Wo. Harold Mellor Woodcock, D.Sc.
Assistant to the Professor of Proto-Zoology, London University. Fellow of University College, London. Author of Haemoflagellates in Sir E. Ray Lankester’s Treatise of Zoology, and of various scientific papers,
Gregarines; Haemosporidia.
H. R. Henry Reeve, D.C.L.
See the biographical article, Reeve, Henry.
Guizot (in part).
H. Sw. Henry Sweet, M.A., PHD., LL.D.
University Reader in Phonetics, Oxford. Member of the Academies of Munich, Berlin, Copenhagen and Helsingfors. Author of A History of English Sounds since the Earliest Period; A Handbook of Phonetics; &c.
Grimm, J. L C.;
Grimm, Wilhelm Carl
H. S.-K. Sir Henry Seton-Karr, C.M.G., M.A.
M.P. for St. Helen’s, 1885–1906. Author of My Sporting Holidays; &c.
H. W. C. D. Henry William Carless Davis, M.A. S
Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, 1895–1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne.
Gilbert Foliot;
Gloucester, Robert, Earl of
H. W. R.* Rev. Henry Wheeler Robinson, M.A.
Professor of Church History in Rawdon College, Leeds. Senior Kennicott Scholar, Oxford University, 1901. Author of Hebrew Psychology in Relation to Pauline Anthropology (in Mansfield College Essays); &c.
I. A. Israel Abrahams, M.A.
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages.
Graetz; Habdala;
; Halevi;
; Harizi.
J. A. F. M. John Alexander Fuller Maitland, M.A., F.S.A.
Musical Critic of The Times. Author of Life of Schumann; The Musician’s Pilgrimage; Masters of German Music; English Music in the Nineteenth Century; The Age of Bach and Handel. Editor of new edition of Grove’s Dictionary of Music; &c.
Grove, Sir George.
J. A. H. John Allen Howe, B.Sc.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of The Geology of Building Stones.
Glacial Period;
J. A. S. John Addington Symonds, LL.D.
See the biographical article, Symonds, J. A.
J. Bl. James Blyth, M.A., LL.D.
Formerly Professor of Natural Philosophy, Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College. Editor of Ferguson’s Electricity.
J. Bt. James Bartlett.
Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., King’s College, London. Member of Society of Architects, Institute of Junior Engineers, Quantity Surveyors’ Association. Author of Quantities.
J. D. B. James David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S.
King’s College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria.
Greece: Geography and   History: Modern;
Greek Literature: III. Modern
J. E. S.* John Edwin Sandys, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D.
Public Orator in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of History of Classical Scholarsship; &c.
Greek Law.
J. Fi. John Fiske.
See the biographical article, Fiske, J.
Grant, Ulysses S.
J. G. C. A. John George Clark Anderson, M.A.
Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College. Craven Fellow (Oxford), 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893.
J. G. R. John George Robertson, M.A., Ph.D.
Professor of German Language and Literature, University of London. Author of History of German Literature; Schiller after a Century; &c. Editor of the Modern Language Journal.
Goethe; Grillparzer.
J. H. F. John Henry Freese, M.A.
Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge.
Gracchus; Gratian;
 (in part).
J. H. H. John Henry Hessels, M.A.
Author of Gutenberg: an Historical Investigation.
Gloss; Gutenberg.
J. H. P. John Henry Poynting, D.Sc., F.R.S.
Professor of Physics and Dean of the Faculty of Science in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Joint-author of Text-Book of Physics.
Gravitation (in part).
J. Hl. R. John Holland Rose, M.A., LITT.D.
Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate Author of Life of Napoleon I., Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c.
Gourgaud, Baron.
J. L. W. Miss Jessie Laidlay Weston.
Author of Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory.
Grail, The Holy;
J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell.
Sometime Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics East London College (University Of London). Joint-editor of Grote’s History of Greece.
Hamilton, Sir William,
 (in part); Harem.
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.
Glauconite; Gneiss; Granite; Granulite; Gravel; Greisen; Greywacke.
J. T. Be. John T. Bealby.
Joint author of Stanford’s Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin’s Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.
J. T. S.* James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D.
Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City.
Golden Rose (in part);
 (in part).
K. G. J. Kingsley Garland Jayne.
Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. Author of Vasco da Gama and his Successors.
K. Kr. Karl Krumbacher.
See the biographical article, Krumbacher, Carl.
Greek Literature: II. Byzantine.
K. S. Miss Kathleen Schlesinger.
Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra, &c.
Glockenspiel; Gong;
; Guitar Fiddle;
; Harmonica; Harmonichord;
 (in part).
L. D.* Louis Duchesne.
See the biographical article, Duchesne, L. M. O.
Gregory: Popes, II. – VI.
L. F. D. Lewis Foreman Day, F.S.A. (1845–1909).
Formerly Vice-President of the Society of Arts. Past Master of the Art Workers' Gild. Author of Windows, a book about Stained Glass; &c.

Glass, Stained
L. F. V.-H. Leveson Francis Vernon-Harcourt, M.A., M.Inst.C.E. (1839–1907).
Formerly Professor of Civil Engineering at University College, London. Author of Rivers and Canals; Harbours and Docks; Civil Engineering as applied in Construction; &c.
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A.
Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
Goniometer; Göthite; Graphite (in part);
L. R. F. Lewis Richard Farnell, M.A., Litt.D.
Fellow and Senior Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford; University Lecturer in Classical Archaeology; Wilde Lecturer in Comparative Religion. Author of Cults of the Greek States; Evolution of Religion.
Greek Religion.
M. Lord Macaulay.
See the biographical article, Macaulay, T. B. M., Baron.
Goldsmith, Oliver.
M. G. Moses Gaster, Ph.D.
Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England. Vice-President Zionist Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine Literature 1886 and 1891. President, Folk-lore Society of England. Vice-President, Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian Popular Literature; &c.
M. H. S. Marion H. Spielmann, F.S.A.
Formerly Editor of the Magazine of Art. Member of Fine Art Committee of International Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome and the Franco-British Exhibition, London. Author of History of “Punch”; British Portrait Painting to the opening of the Nineteenth Century; Works of G. F. Watts, R.A.; British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day; Henriette Ronner; &c.
Gilbert, Alfred;
Greenaway, Kate
M. Ja. Morris Jastrow, Jun., Ph.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Author of Religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c.
Gilgamesh, Epic of;
M. M. Max Arthur Macauliffe.
Formerly Divisional Judge in the Punjab Author of The Sikh Religion: its Gurus, Sacred Writings and Authors; &c. Editor of Life of Guru Nanak, in the Punjabi language.
M. N. T. Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum.
M. O. B. C. Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A.
Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham University, 1905–1908.
Greece: History:
 146 B.C. 1800 A.D.
Hamilcar Barca
M. P. Mark Pattison.
See the biographical article, Pattison, Mark.
M. P.* Leon Jacques Maxime Prinet.
Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary of the Institute of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences).
Gouffier; Harcourt.
O. Ba. Oswald Barron, F.S.A.
Editor of The Ancestor, 1902–1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the Honourable Society of the Baronetage.
P. A. Paul Daniel Alphandéry.
Professor of the History of Dogma, École Pratique des Hautes Études, Sorbonne, Paris. Author of Les Idées morales chez les hétérodoxes latines au début du XIIIe siècle.
Gonzalo de Berceo.
P. A. A. Philip A. Ashworth, M.A., Doc. Juris.
New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Translator of H. R. von Gneist’s History of the English Constitution.
P. C. Y. Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A.
Magdalen College, Oxford.
Gunpowder Plot;
Halifax, 1st Marquess of
; Hamilton, 1st Duke of.
P. G. Percy Gardner, M.A.
See the biographical article, Gardner, Percy.
Greek Art.
P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D.
Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology.
Greek Language;
P. G. K. Paul George Konody.
Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of The Artist. Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; &c.
Hals, Frans.
P. G. T. Peter Guthrie Tait, LL.D.
See the biographical article, Tait, Peter Guthrie.
Hamilton, Sir William Rowan.
P. La. Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S.
Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Kayser’s Comparative Geology.
Greece: Geology.
P. McC. Primrose McConnell, F G.S.
Member of the Royal Agricultural Society. Author of Diary of a Working Farmer; &c.
Grass and Grassland.
R. A. W. Colonel Robert Alexander Wahab, C.B., C.M.G., C.I.E.
Formerly H. M. Commissioner, Aden Boundary Delimitation. Served with Tirah Expeditionary Force, 1897–1898, and on the Anglo-Russian Boundary Commission, Pamirs, 1895.
R. A. S. M. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A.
St John’s College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund.
Gilead; Gilgal;
R. C. J. Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article, Jebb, Sir R. C.
Greek Literature: I. Ancient.
R. J. M. Ronald John McNeill, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James’s Gazette, London.
Gowrie, 3rd Earl of;
Grattan, Henry
Green Ribbon Club
; Gymnastics;
Harcourt, 1st Viscount
Hardwicke, 1st Earl of
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.
Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874–1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c.
Giraffe; Glutton;
; Goat;
; Hamster; Hare.
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1900).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883–1909. Author of Scandinavia, the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513–1900; The First Romanovs, 1613–1725; Slavonic Europe, the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1769; &c.
Golitsuin, Boris, Dmitry,
 and Vasily
Golovin, Count
Golovkin, Count
Görtz, Baron von
Griffenfeldt, Count
Gustavus I.
, and IV.;
Hall, C. C.
R. S. T. Ralph Stockman Tarr.
Professor of Physical Geography, Cornell University.
Grand Canyon.
R. We. Richard Webster, A.M. (Princeton).
Formerly Fellow in Classics, Princeton University. Editor of The Elegies of Maximianus; &c.
Great Awakening.
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A.
Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904–1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.
S. Bl. Sigfus Blondal.
Librarian of the University of Copenhagen.
S. C. Sidney Colvin, LL.D.
See the biographical article, Colvin, Sidney.
Giorgione; Giotto.
St. C. Viscount St. Cyres.
See the biographical article, Iddesleigh, 1st Earl of.
Guyon, Madame.
S. N. Simon Newcomb, LL.D., D.Sc.
See the biographical article, Newcomb, Simon.
Gravitation (in part).
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt., F.S.A.
Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Corresponding Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1897. Author of The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna; &c.
Girgenti; Gnatia;
; Gubbio;
; Halaesa.
T. A. J. Thomas Athol Joyce, M.A.
Assistant in Department of Ethnography, British Museum. Hon. Sec., Royal Anthropological Institute.
Hamitic Races (I.).
T. Ba. Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P.
Member of the institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.
T. E. H. Thomas Erskine Holland, K.C., D.C.L., LL.D.
Fellow of the British Academy. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Professor of International Law in the University of Oxford, 1874–1910. Bencher of Lincoln’s Inn. Author of Studies in International Law; The Elements of Jurisprudence; Alberici Gentilis de jure belli; The Laws of War on Land; Neutral Duties in a Maritime War; &c.
Hall, William E.
T. F. C. Theodore Freylinghuysen Collier, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., U.S.A.
Gregory: Popes, XIII. – XV.
T. H. H.* Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc., F.R.G.S.
Colonel in the Royal Engineers. Superintendent Frontier Surveys, India, 1892–1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S. (London), 1887. H.M. Commissioner for the Persa-Beluch Boundary, 1896. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Gates of India; &c.
T. K. Thomas Kirkup, M.A., LL.D.
Author of An Inquiry into Socialism; Primer of Socialism; &c.
Hadrian (in part).
T. Se. Thomas Seccombe, M.A.
Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, University of London Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Formerly Assistant Editor of Dictionary of National Biography, 1891–1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c.; Joint-author of The Bookman History of English Literature.
Gilbert, Sir W. S.
V. H. S. Rev. Vincent Henry Stanton, M.A., D.D.
Ely Professor Of Divinity in the University of Cambridge. Canon of Ely and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of The Gospels as Historical Documents; The Jewish and the Christian Messiahs; &c.
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. (Bern).
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David’s College, Lampeter, 1880–1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphiné; The Range of the Tödi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of The Alpine Journal, 1880–1889; &c.
Glarus; Goldast Ab
; Grenoble; Grindelwald; Grisons;
Gruner, G. S.
; Gruyère.
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.
Girondists; Goethe:
Descendants of
Greek Independence, War of
W. Bo. Wilhelm Bousset, D.Th.
Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the University of Göttingen. Author of Das Wesen der Religion; The Antichrist Legend; &c.
W. Bu. William Burnside, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S.
Professor of Mathematics, Royal Naval College, Greenwich. Hon. Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Author of The Theory of Groups of Finite Order.
Groups, Theory of.
W. F. C. William Feilden Craies, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King’s College, London. Author of Craies on Statute Law. Editor of Archbold’s Criminal Pleading (23rd edition).
Habeas Corpus;
W. G. M. Walter George McMillan, F.C.S., M.I.M.E. (d. 1904).
Formerly Secretary of the Institute of Electrical Engineers and Lecturer on Metallurgy, Mason College, Birmingham. Author of A Treatise on Electro-Metallurgy.
Graphite (in part).
W. Hu. Rev. William Hunt, M.A., Litt.D.
President of Royal Historical Society, 1905–1909. Author of History of English Church, 597–1906; The Church of England in the Middle Ages; Political History of England 1760–1801.
Green, J. R.
W. H. Be. William Henry Bennett, M.A., D.D., D.Litt. (Cantab.).
Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in New and Hackney Colleges, London. Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth College, Sheffield. Author of Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets; &c.
Gomer; Ham.
W. H. F.* William Henry Fairbrother, M.A.,
Formerly Fellow and Lecturer, Lincoln College, Oxford. Author of Philosophy of Thomas Hill Green.
Green, Thomas Hill.
W. J. F. William Justice Ford (d. 1904).
Formerly Scholar of St John’s College, Cambridge. Headmaster of Leamington College.
Grace, W. G.
W. McD. William McDougall, M.A.
Reader in Mental Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Author of A Primer of Physiological Psychology; An Introduction to Social Psychology; &c.
W. M. M. W. Max Muller, Ph.D.
Professor of Exegesis in the R.E. Seminary, Philadelphia. Author of Asien und Europa nach den Aegptischen Denkmälern; &c.
Hamitic Races: II. Languages.
W. M. R. William Michael Rossetti.
See the biographical article, Rossetti, Dante G.
Giulio Romano; Gozzoli;
Guido Reni
W. P. A. Lieut.-Colonel William Patrick Anderson, M.Inst.C.E., F.R.G.S.
Chief Engineer, Department of Marine and Fisheries of Canada. Member of the Geographic Board of Canada. Past President of Canadian Society of Civil Engineers.
Great Lakes.
W. P. R. Hon. William Pember Reeves.
Director of London School of Economics. Agent-General and High Commissioner for New Zealand, 1896–1909. Minister of Education, Labour and Justice, New Zealand, 1891–1896. Author of The Long White Cloud: a History of New Zealand; &c.
Grey, Sir George.
W. R. Whitelaw Reid, LL.D.
See the biographical article, Reid, Whitelaw.
Greeley, Horace.
W. Ri. William Ridgeway, M.A., D.Sc.
Professor of Archaeology, Cambridge University, and Brereton Reader in Classics. Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. President of Royal Anthropologica Institute, 1908. President of Anthropological Section, British Association, 1908. Author of The Early Age of Greece; &c.
W. Rn. W. Rosenhain, D.Sc.
Superintendent of the Metallurgical Department, National Physical Laboratory.
Glass (in part).
W. R. D. Wyndham Rowland Dunstan, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., F.C.S.
Director of the Imperial Institute. President of the International Association of Tropical Agriculture. Member of the Advisory Committee for Tropical Agriculture, Colonial Office.
W. R. E. H. William Richard Eaton Hodgkinson, Ph.D., F.R.S. (Edin.), F.C.S.
Professor of Chemistry and Physics, Ordnance College, Woolwich. Formerly Professor of Chemistry and Physics, R.M.A., Woolwich. Part-author of Valentin-Hodgkinson’s Practical Chemistry; &c.
Gun Cotton;
W. R. S. William Robertson Smith, LL.D.
See the biographical article, Smith, William Robertson.
Haggai (in part).
W. R. S. R. William Ralston Shedden-Ralston, M.A.
Assistant in the Department of Printed Books, British Museum. Author of Russian Folk Tales; &c.
W. W. R.* William Walker Rockwell, Lic.Theol.
Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York.
Gregory XVI.



Grain Trade.
Great Salt Lake.

Griqualand East and West.
Guelphs and Ghibellines.
Guise, House of.

Hampton Roads.

  1. A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume