1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 14/Table of contributors

9064181911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 14 — - Vol 14 Table of contributors


A. Ba. Adolfo Bartoli (1833–1894).
Formerly Professor of Literature at the Istituto di Studi superior at Florence. Author of Studia della letteratura Italiana; &c.
Italian Literature (in part).
A. Bo.* Auguste Boudinhon, D.D., D.C.L.
Professor of Canon Law at the Catholic University of Paris. Honorary Canon of Paris. Editor of the Canoniste contemporain.
Index Librorum Prohibitorum; Infallibility.
A. Cy. Arthur Ernest Cowley, M.A., Litt.D.
Sub-Librarian of the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College.
Ibn Gabirol;
: Semitic.
A. C. G. Albert Charles Lewis Gotthilf Gunther, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.
Keeper of Zoological Department, British Museum, 1875–1895. Gold Medallist, Royal Society, 1878. Author of Catalogues of Colubrine Snakes, Batrachia Salientia, and Fishes in the British Museum; Reptiles of British India; Fishes of Zanzibar; Reports on the “Challenger” Fishes; &c.
Ichthyology (in part).
A. E. G.* Rev. Alfred Ernest Garvie, M.A., D.D.
Principal of New College, Hampstead. Member of the Board of Theology and the Board of Philosophy, London University. Author of Studies in the inner Life of Jesus; &c.
A. E. H. L Augustus Edward Hough Love, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Hon. Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford; formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Secretary to the London Mathematical Society.
Infinitesimal Calculus.
A. F. C. Alexander Francis Chamberlain, A.M., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts. Member of American Antiquarian Society; Hon. Member of American Folk-lore Society. Author of The Child and Childhood in Folk Thought.
Indians, North American.
A. G. Major Arthur George Frederick Griffiths (d. 1908).
H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878–1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate; Secrets of the Prison House; &c.
A. Ge. Sir Archibald Geikie, LL.D.
See the biographical article, Geikie, Sir A.
Hutton, James.
A. Go.* Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A.
Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.
A. G. G. Sir Alfred George Greenhill, M.A., F.R.S.
Formerly Professor of Mathematics in the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author of Differential and Integral Calculus with Applications; Hydrostatics; Notes on Dynamics; &c.
A. H.-S. Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, C.I.E.
General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.
Isfahān (in part).
A. M. C. Agnes Mary Clerke.
See the biographical article, Clerke, A. M.
Huygens, Christiaan.
A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article, Newton, Alfred.
Ibis; Icterus.
A. So. Albrecht Socin, Ph.D. (1844–1890).
Formerly Professor of Semitic Philology in the Universities of Leipzig and Tübingen. Author of Arabische Grammatik; &c.
Irak-Arabi (in part).
A. S. Wo. Arthur Smith Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S.
Keeper of Geology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Secretary of the Geological Society, London.
A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland.
Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900.
Imperial Cities;
Instrument of Government
A. W. Po. Alfred William Pollard, M.A.
Assistant Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Fellow of King's College, London. Hon. Secretary Bibliographical Society. Editor of Books about Books and Bibliographica. Joint-editor of The Library. Chief Editor of the “Globe” Chaucer.
A. W. R. Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B.
Puisne judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England.
Inebriety, Law of;
: Law.
C. F. A. Charles Francis Atkinson.
Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour.
Italian Wars
C. G. Colonel Charles Grant.
Formerly Inspector of Military Education in India.
India: Costume.
C. H. Ha. Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History at Columbia University, New York City. Member of the American Historical Association.
Innocent V., VIII.
C. Ll. M. Conway Lloyd Morgan, LL.D., F.R.S.
Professor of Psychology at the University of Bristol. Principal of University College, Bristol, 1887–1909. Author of Animal Life and Intelligence; Habit and Instinct.
Intelligence in Animals
C. R. B. Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S. F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford; and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator ; The Dawn of Modern Geography ; &c.
Ibn Batuta (in part);
C. S.* Carlo Salvioni.
Professor of Classical and Romance Languages, University of Milan.
Italian Language (in part).
C. T. L. Charlton Thomas Lewis, Ph.D. (1834–1904).
Formerly Lecturer on Life Insurance, Harvard and Columbia Universities, and on Principles of Insurance. Cornell University, Author of History of Germany ; Essays; Addresses; &c.
Insurance (in part).
C. We. Cecil Weatherly.
Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple.
Infant Schools.
D. B. Ma. Duncan Black Macdonald, M.A., D.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U.S.A. Author of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory ; Selection from Ibn Khaldum; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; &c.
D. G. H. David George Hogarth, M.A.
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904–1905; Assiut, 1906–1907; Director, British School at Athens, 1897–1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
Ionia (in part);
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Navy, 1217–1688; Life of Emilio Castelar ; &c.
D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey.
Author of Essays in Musical Analysis ; comprising The Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.
D. S. M. Dugald Sutherland MacColl, M.A., LL.D.
Keeper of the National Gallery of British Art (Tate Gallery). Lecturer on the History Art, University College, London; Fellow of University Colllege, London. Author of Nineteenth Century Art ; &c.
E. A. M. Edward Alfred Minchin, M.A., F.Z.S.
Professor of Protozoology in the University of London. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford; and Lecturer on Comparative Anatomy in the University of Oxford. Author of “Sponges and Sporozoa” in Lankester’s Treatise on Zoology ; &c.
E. Br. Ernest Barker, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Modern History, St John’s College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895.
Imperial Chamber.
E. Bra. Edwin Bramwell, M.B., F.R.C.P., F.R.S. (Edin).
Assistant Physician, Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh.
Hysteria (in part).
E. C. B. Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., D.Litt.
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of “The Lausiac History of Palladius” in Cambridge Texts and Studies.
Imitation of Christ.
E. C. Q. Edmund Crosby Quiggin, M.A.
Fellow, Lecturer in Modern History, and Monro Lecturer in Celtic, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.
Ireland: Early History.
E. F. S. Edward Fairbrother Strange.
Assistant Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member of Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art Subjects. Joint-editor of Bell's “Cathedral” Series.
Illustration: Technical Developments.
E. F. S. D. Lady Dilke.
See the biographical article: Dilke, Sir C. W., Bart.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D.
See the biographical article, Gosse, Edmund.
Huygens, Sir Constantijn; Ibsen; Idyl.
E. Hü. Emil Hübner.
See the biographical article, Hübner, Emil.
Inscriptions: Latin (in part).
E. H. B. Sir Edward Herbert Bunbury, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1895).
M.P. for Bury St Edmunds, 1847–1852. Author of a History of Ancient Geography; &c.
Ionia (in part).
E. H. M. Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A.
Lecturer and Assistant Librarian, and formerly Fellow, Pembroke College, Cambridge. University Lecturer in Palaeography.
Iazyges; Issedones.
E. H. P. Edward Henry Palmer, M.A.
See the biographical article, Palmer, E. H.
Ibn Khaldun (in part).
E. K. Edmund Knecht, Ph.D., M.Sc.Tech. (Manchester), F.I.C.
Professor of Technological Chemistry, Manchester University. Head of Chemical Department, Municipal School of Technology, Manchester. Examiner in Dyeing, City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of A Manual of Dyeing; &c. Editor of Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists.
E. L. H. The Right Rev. the Bishop of Lincoln (Edward Lee Hicks).
Honorary Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Formerly Canon Residentiary of Manchester. Fellow and Tutor of Corpus Christi College. Author of Manual of Greek Historical Inscriptions; &c.
Inscriptions: Greek (in part).
Ed. M. Eduard Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt. (Oxon.), LL.D.
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums; Geschichte des alten Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstämme.
Hystaspes; Iran.
E. M. T. Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, G.C.B., I.S.O., D.C L., Litt.D., LL.D.
Director and Principal Librarian, British Museum, 1898–1909. Sandars Reader in Bibliography, Cambridge, 1895–1896. Hon. Fellow of University College, Oxford. Correspondent of the Institute of France and of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences. Author of Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography. Editor of Chronicon Angliae. Joint-editor of publications of the Palaeographical Society, the New Palaeographical Society, and of the Facsimile of the Laurentian Sophocles.
Illuminated MSS.
E. O.* Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary’s Hospital, London, and to the Children’s Hospital, Great Ormond Street; late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, Durham and London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
F. A. F. Frank Albert Fetter, Ph.D.
Professor of Political Economy and Finance, Cornell University. Member of the State Board of Charities. Author of The Principles of Economics; &c.
Interstate Commerce.
F. C. C. Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen).
Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.
Image Worship
F. G. M. B. Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge.
F. J. H. Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A.
Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Censor, Student, Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford’s Lecturer, 1906–1907. Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain; &c.
Icknield Street.
F. Ll. G. Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A.
Reader in Egyptology. Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial German Archaeological Institute.
Hyksos; Isis.
F. P.* Frederick Peterson, M.D. Ph.D.
Professor of Psychiatry, Columbia University. President of New York State Commission in Lunacy, 1902–1906. Author of Mental Diseases; &c.
Insanity: Hospital Treatment.
F. S. P. Francis Samuel Philbrick, A.M., Ph.D.
Formerly Fellow of Nebraska State University, and Scholar and Resident Fellow of Harvard University. Member of American Historical Association.
Independence, Declaration of.
F. Wa. Francis Watt, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Author of Law’s Lumber Room.
Inn and Innkeeper.
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology. London, 1879–1902. President of the Geologists' Association, 1887–1889.
Hyacinth; Iolite.
F. Y. P. Frederick York Powell, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article, Powell, Frederick York.
Iceland: History and Ancient Literature.
G. A. B. George A. Boulenger, F.R.S., D.Sc., Ph.D.
In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London.
Ichthyology (in part).
G. A. Gr. George Abraham Grierson, C.I.E., Ph.D., D.Litt. (Dublin).
Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873–1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, 1898–1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Languages of India; &c.
Indo-Aryan Languages.
G. A. J. C. Grenville Arthur James Cole.
Director of the Geological Survey of Ireland. Professor of Geology, of Science for Ireland, Dublin. Author of Aids in Practical Geology; &c.
Ireland: Geology.
G. B. Sir George Christopher Molesworth Birdwood, K.C.I.E.
See the biographical article, Birdwood, Sir G. C. M.
G. F. H.* George Francis Hill, M.A.
Assistant in Department of Coins and Medals, British Museum. Author of Sources for Greek History 478–431 B.C.; Handbook of Greek and Roman Coins; &c.
Inscriptions: Greek (in part).
G. G. Co. George Gordon Coulton, M.A.
Birkbeck Lecturer in Ecclesiastical History, Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Medieval Studies; Chaucer and his England; &c.
G. H. C. George Herbert Carpenter, B.Sc. (Lond).
Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: their Structure and Life.
G. I. A. Graziadio I. Ascoli.
Senator of the Kingdom of Italy. Professor of Comparative Grammar at the University of Milan. Author of Codice Islandese; &c.
Italian Language (in part).
G. J. George Jamieson, C.M.G., M.A.
Formerly Consul-General at Shanghai, and Consul and Judge of the Supreme Court, Shanghai.
Hwang Ho.
G. K. Gustav Krüger, Ph.D.
Professor of Church History in the University of Giessen. Author of Das Papstthum; &c.
G. P. M. George Percival Mudge, A.R.C.S., F.Z.S.
Lecturer on Biology, London Hospital Medical College, and London School of Medicine for Women, University of London. Author of A Text Book of Zoology; &c.
Incubation and Incubators.
G. W. K. Very Rev. George William Kitchin, M.A., D.D., F.S.A.
Dean of Durham, and Warden of the University of Durham. Hon. Student of Christ Church, Oxford. Fellow of King's College, London. Dean of Winchester, 1883–1894. Author of A History of France; &c.
Hutten, Ulrich von.
G. W. T. Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D.
Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of a Commentary on Judges; An Arabic Grammar; &c.
Ibn ʽAbd Rabbihi;
Ibn ʽArabi
; Ibn Athīr;
Ibn Duraid
; Ibn Faradī;
Ibn Fārid
; Ibn Hazm;
Ibn Hisham
; Ibn Isḥaq;
Ibn Jubair
; Ibn Khaldūn (in part);
Ibn Khallikān
Ibn Qutaiba
; Ibn Ṣaʽd;
Ibn Ṭufail
; Ibn Usaibiʽa;
Ibrahīm Al-Mauṣilī
H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the 10th edition.
Iron Mask; Ismail.
H. C. R. Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, Bart., K.C.B.
See the biographical article, Rawlinson, Sir Henry Creswicke.
Isfahan: History.
H. L. H. Harriet L. Hennessy, M.D., (Brux.) L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I.
Intestinal Obstruction
H. M. H. Henry Marion Howe, A.M., LL.D.
Professor of Metallurgy, Columbia University. Author of Metallurgy of Steel; &c.
Iron and Steel.
H. N. D. Henry Newton Dickson, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.G.S.
Professor of Geography, University College, Reading. Author of Elementary Meteorology; Papers on Oceanography; &c.
Indian Ocean.
H. O. Hermann Oelsner, M.A., Ph.D.
Taylorian Professor of the Romance Languages in University of Oxford. Member of Council of the Philological Society. Author of A History of Provencal Literature; &c.
Italian Literature (in part).
H. St. Henry Sturt, M.A.
Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; and Personal Idealism.
H. T. A. Rev. Herbert Thomas Andrews.
Professor of New Testament Exegesis, New College, London. Author of the “Commentary on Acts” in the Westminster New Testament; Handbook on the Apocryphal Books in the “Century Bible.”
H. Y. Sir Henry Yule, K.C.S.I., C.B.
See the biographical article, Yule, Sir Henry.
Ibn Batuta (in part).
I. A. Israel Abrahams, M.A.
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society in England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; &c.
Ibn Tibbon;
Immanuel Ben Solomon
J. A. F. John Ambrose Fleming, M.A., F.R.S., D.Sc.
Pender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and Lecturer on Applied Mechanics in the University. Author of Magnets and Electric Currents.
Induction Coil.
J. Bs. James Burgess, C.I.E., LL.D., F.R.S. (Edin.), F.R.G.S., Hon.A.R.I.B.A.
Formerly Director General of Archaeological Survey of India. Author of Archaeological Survey of Western India. Editor of Fergusson's History of Indian Architecture.
Indian Architecture.
J. B. T. Sir John Batty Tuke, Kt., M.D., F.R.S. (Edin.), D.Sc., LL.D.
President of the Neurological Society of the United Kingdom. Medical Director, of New Saughton Hall Asylum, Edinburgh. M.P. for the Universities of Edinburgh St Andrews, 1900–1910.
Hysteria (in part);
: Medical.
J. C. H. Right Rev. John Cuthbert Hedley, O.S.B., D.D.
R.C. Bishop of Newport. Author of The Holy Eucharist; &c.
Immaculate Conception.
J. C. Van D. John Charles Van Dyke.
Professor of the History of Art, Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N.J. Formerly Editor of The Studio and Art Review. Author of Art for Art's Sake; History of Painting; Old English Masters; &c.
Inness, George.
J. C. W. James Claude Webster.
Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple.
Inns of Court.
J. D. B. James David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S.
King’s College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria.
Ionian Islands.
J. F. F. John Faithfull Fleet, C.I.E. Ph.D.
Commissioner of Central and Southern Divisions of Bombay, 1891–1897. Author of Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings; &c.
Inscriptions: Indian.
J. F.-K. James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S.
Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c.
Isla, J. F. de.
J. G. K. John Graham Kerr, M.A., F.R.S.
Regius Professor of Zoology in the University of Glasgow. Formerly Demonstrator in Animal Morphology in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of Christ’s College, Cambridge, 1898–1904. Walsingham Medallist, 1898. Neill Prizeman, Royal Society of Edinburgh, 1904.
Ichthyology (in part).
J. G. Sc. Sir James George Scott, K.C.I.E.
Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma, a Handbook; The Upper Burma Gazetteer; &c.
J. H. A. H. John Henry Arthur Hart, M.A.
Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John’s College, Cambridge.
J. H. Mu. John Henry Muirhead, M.A., LL.D.
Professor of Philosophy in the University of Birmingham. Author of Elements of Ethics; Philosophy and Life; &c. Editor of Library of Philosophy.
J. H. Be. Very Rev. John Henry Bernard, M.A., D.D., D.C.L.
Dean of St Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin. Archbishop King’s Professor of Divinity and formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. Joint-editor of the Irish Liber Hymnorum; &c.
Ireland, Church of.
J. H. van’t H. Jacobus Henricus van’t Hoff, LL.D., D.Sc., D.M.
See the biographical article van't Hoff, Jacobus Henricus.
J. L. M. John Lynton Myres, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S.
Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Formerly Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Ancient Geography, University of Liverpool. Lecturer in Classical Archaeology in University of Oxford.
Iberians; Ionians.
J. Mn. John Macpherson, M.D.
Formerly Inspector-General of Hospitals, Bengal.
Insanity: Medical (in part).
J. M. A. de L. Jean Marie Antoine De Lanessan.
See the biographical article, Lanessan, J. M. A. de.
Indo-China, French (in part).
J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell.
Sometime Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote’s History of Greece.
J. P. E. Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adhémar Esmein.
Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours élémentaire d’histoire du droit français; &c.
J. P. Pe. Rev. John Punnett Peters, Ph.D., D.D.
Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in the University of Pennsylvania. Director of the University Expedition to Babylonia, 1888–1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates.
Irak-Arabi (in part).
J. S. Bl. John Sutherland Black, M.A., LL.D.
Assistant Editor 9th edition Encyclopaedia Britannica. Joint-editor of the Encyclopaedia Biblica.
Huss, John.
J. S. Co. James Sutherland Cotton, M.A.
Editor of the Imperial Gazetteer of India. Hon. Secretary of the Egyptian Exploration Fund. Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Queen’s College, Oxford. Author of India; &c.
India: Geography and Statistics; History (in part);
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geologica1 Society of London.
J. T. Be. John T. Bealby.
Joint-author of Stanford’s Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin’s Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.
Irkutsk (in part).
J. V.* Jules Viard.
Archivist at the National Archives, Paris. Officer of Public Instruction. Author of La France sous Philippe VI. de Valois; &c.
Isabella of Bavaria.
Jno. W. John Westlake, K.C., LL.D.
Professor of International Law, Cambridge, 1888–1908. One of the Members for United Kingdom of International Court of Arbitration under the Hague Convention, 1900–1906. Bencher of Lincoln’s Inn. Author of A Treatise on Private International Law, or the Conflict of Laws; Chapters on the Principles of International Law pt. i. “Peace,”; pt. ii. “War.”
International Law.
L. Count Lützow, Litt.D. (Oxon.), Ph.D. (Prague), F.R.G.S.
Chamberlain of H.M. the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia. Hon. Member of the Royal Society of Literature. Member of the Bohemian Academy; &c. Author of Bohemia, a Historical Sketch; The Historians of Bohemia (Ilchester Lecture, Oxford, 1904); The Life and Times of John Hus; &c.
L. C. B. Lewis Campbell Bruce, M.D., F.R.C.P.
Author of Studies in Clinical Psychiatry.
Insanity: Medical (in part).
L. Ho. Laurence Housman.
See the biographical article, Housman, L.
Illustration (in part).
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A.
Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
Hypersthene; Ilmenite.
L. T. D. Sir Lewis Tonna Dibdin, M.A., D.C.L., F.S.A.
Dean of the Arches; Master of the Faculties; and First Church Estates Commissioner. Bencher of Lincoln’s Inn. Author of Monasticism in England; &c.
Incense: Ritual Use.
M. Ha. Marcus Hartog, M.A., D.SC., F.L.S.
Professor of Zoology, University College, Cork. Author of “Protozoa” in Cambridge Natural History; and papers for various scientific journals.
M. Ja. Morris Jastrow, Jun., Ph.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Author of Religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c.
M. O. B. C. Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A.
Reader In Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham University, 1905–1908.
Irene (752–805).
N. M. Norman McLean, M.A.
Fellow, Lecturer and Librarian of Christ’s College, Cambridge. University Lecturer in Aramaic. Examiner for the Oriental Languages Tripos and the Theological Tripos at Cambridge.
Isaac of Antioch.
O. J. R. H. Osbert John Radcliffe Howarth, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, 1901. Assistant Secretary of the British Association.
Ireland: Geography.
P. A. Paul Daniel Alphandéry.
Professor of the History of Dogma, École pratique des hautes études, Sorbonne, Paris. Author of Les Idées morales chez les hétérodoxes latines au début du XIII e siecle.
P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article, Kropotkin, Peter Alexeivich
Irkutsk (in part).
P. C. M. Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S. F.Z.S. D.Sc. LL.D.
Secretary to the Zoological Society of, London. University Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888–1891. Examiner in Zoology to the University of London, 1903. Author of Outlines of Biology; &c.
P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D.
Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative Philologv. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology; &c.
Indo-European Languages
P. Sm. Preserved Smith, Ph.D.
Rufus B. Kellogg Fellow, Amherst College, Amherst, Mass.
Innocent I., II.
R. The Right Hon. Lord Rayleigh.
See the biographical article, Rayleigh, 3rd Baron.
Interference of Light.
R. A. S. M. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A.
St John’s College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund.
R. Ba. Richard Bagwell, M.A., LL.D.
Commissioner of National Education for Ireland. Author of Ireland under the Tudors; Ireland under the Stuarts.
Ireland: Modern History.
R. C. J. Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article, Jebb, Sir Richard Claverhouse.
Isaeus; Isocrates.
R. G. Richard Garnett, LL.D.
See the biographical article, Garnett, Richard.
Irving, Washington.
R. H. C. Rev. Robert Henry Charles, M.A., D.D., D.Litt.
Grinheld Lecturer, and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Professor of Biblical Greek, Trinity College, Dublin. Author of Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; Book of Jubilees; &c.
Isaiah, Ascension of.
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S.
Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India 1874–1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; &c.
 (in part);
; Insectivora.
R. P. S. R. Phene Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.
Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King’s College, London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson’s History of Architecture. Author of Architecture; East and West; &c.
R. S. C. Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt. (Cantab.).
Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects.
Iguvium; Iovilae.
S. The Right Hon. The Earl of Selborne.
See the biographical article, Selborne, 1st Earl of.
R. Tr. Roland Truslove, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Dean, Fellow and Lecturer in Classics at Worcester College, Oxford.
Indo-China, French (in part).
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A.
Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.
S. Bl. Sigfus Blöndal.
Librarian of the University of Copenhagen.
Iceland: Recent Literature.
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon).
Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ, Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute.
Interamna Lirenas; Ischia.
T. A. I. Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D.
Trinity College, Dublin.
 (in part).
T. Ba. Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P.
Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.
International Law
T. F. Rev. Thomas Fowler, M.A., D.D., LL.D. (1832–1904).
President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 1881–1904. Honorary Fellow of Lincoln College. Professor of Logic, 1873–1888. Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford, 1899–1901. Author of Elements of Deductive Logic; Elements of Inductive Logic; Locke (“English Men of Letters”); Shaftesbury and Hutcheson (“English Philosophers”); &c.
Hutcheson, Francis (in part).
T. F. C. Theodore Freylinghuysen Collier, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., U.S.A.
Innocent IX.-XIII.
T. H. H.* Colonel Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., Hon.D.Sc.
Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892–1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S., London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King’s Award; India; Tibet; &c.
T. K. C. Rev. Thomas Kelly Cheyne, D.D.
See the biographical article, Cheyne, Thomas Kelly
Th. T. Thorvaldur Thoroddsen.
Icelandic Expert and Explorer. Honorary Professor in the University of Copenhagen. Author of History of Icelandic Geography; Geological Map of Iceland; &c.
Iceland: Geography and Statistics.
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A. F.R.G.S., Ph.D.(Bern).
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David’s College, Lampeter, 1880–1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphiné; The Range of the Tödi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and History; &c. Editor of The Alpine Journal, 1880–1881; &c.
Hyères; Innsbruck;
; Iseo, Lake of;
Isère (River)
Isère (Department)
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.
Innocent III., IV.
W. C. U. William Cawthorne Unwin, LL.D., F.R.S., M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E., A.R.I.B.A.
Emeritus Professor, Central Technical College, City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs; Treatise on Hydraulics; &c.
W. F. C. William Feilden Craies, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King’s College, London. Editor of Archbold’s Criminal Pleading (23rd edition).
W. F. Sh. William Fleetwood Sheppard, M.A.
Senior Examiner in the Board of Education, London. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Senior Wangler, 1884.
W. G. William Garnett, M.A., D.C.L.
Educational Adviser to the London County Council. Formerlv Fellow and Lecturer of St John’s College, Cambridge. Principal and Professor of Mathematics, Durham College of Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Author of Elementary Dynamics; &c.
W. Go. William Gow, M.A., Ph.D.
Secretary of the British and Foreign Marine Insurance Co. Ltd., Liverpool. Lecturer on Marine Insurance at University College, Liverpool. Author of Marine Insurance; &c.
Insurance: Marine.
W. H. F. Sir William Henry Flower, F.R.S.
See the biographical article, Flower, Sir W. H.
Ibex (in part).
W. H. Po. W. Haldane Porter.
Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple.
Ireland: Statistics and Administration.
W. Ma. Sir William Markby, K.C.I.E.
See the biographical article, Markby, Sir William.
Indian Law.
W. McD. William McDougall, M.A.
Wilde Reader in Mental Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge.
W. M. L. Wallace Martin Lindsay, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D.
Professor of Humanity, University of St Andrews. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford. Author of Handbook of Latin Inscriptions ; The Latin Language ; &c.
Inscriptions: Latin (in part).
W. M. Ra. Sir William Mitchell Ramsay, Litt.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article, Ramsay, Sir W. Mitchell.
W. R. So. William Ritchie Sorley, M.A. Litt.D. LL.D.
Professor of Moral Philosophy; in the University of Cambridge. Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College. Author of The Ethics of Naturalism ; The Interpretation of Evolution ; &c.
W. T. T.-D. Sir William Turner Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S., K.C.M.G., C.I.E., D.Sc., LL.D.,
Ph.D., F.L.S.
Hon. Student of Christ Church, Oxford. Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 1885–1905. Botanical Adviser to Secretary of State for Colonies, 1902–1906. Joint-author of Flora of Middlesex. Editor of Flora Capenses and Flora of Tropical Africa.
W. Wn. William Watson, D.Sc., F.R.S., A.R.C.S.
Assistant Professor of Physics, Royal College of Science, London. Vice-President of the Physical Society. Author of A Text Book of Practical Physics ; &c.
W. W. H. Sir William Wilson Hunter.
See the biographical article, Hunter, Sir William Wilson.
India: History; Geography and Statistics (in part).


Husband and Wife.

Income Tax.
Indian Mutiny.

International, The.


  1. A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume