1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 9/Table of contributors

A. A. T. Arthur Augustus Tilley, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Modern Languages, King's College, Cambridge. Author The Literature of the French Renaissance; &c.
A. C. Arthur Cayley, LL.D., F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Cayley, Arthur.
A. C. McG. Arthur Cushman McGiffert, M.A., Ph.D., D.D.
Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age; &c. Editor of the Historic Ecclesia of Eusebius.
Eusebius: of Caesarea.
A. E. G.* Rev. Alfred Ernest Garvie, M.A., D.D.
Principal of New College, Hampstead. Member of the Board of Theology and the Board of Philosophy, London University. Author of Studies in the Inner Life of Jesus; &c.
A. E. H. A. E. Houghton.
Formerly Correspondent of the Standard in Spain. Author of Restoration of the Bourbons in Spain.
A. E. H. L. Augustus Edward Hough Love, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Hon. Fellow of Queen's College. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Secretary of the London Mathematical Society.
A. Fi.* Alexander Fisher.
Expert Examiner to the Board of Education, London. Gold Medallist, Barcelona. Hon. Associate, Royal College of Art. Author of The Art of Enamelling on Metals; &c.
A. F. K. A. F. Kendrick.
Keeper of the Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington.
Embroidery (in part).
A. F. P. Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc.
Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford. Professor of English History in the University of London. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893–1901. Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.
Elizabeth, Queen;
; Englefield;
English History (VII. and XIII.)
A. Go.* Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A.
Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.
A. Hl. Arthur Hassall, M.A.
Student and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Author of A Handbook of European History; The Balance of Power; &c. Editor of the 3rd edition of T. H. Dyer's History of Modern Europe.
Europe: History (in part).
A. H. G. Alan Henderson Gardiner, M.A.
Joint Editor of the New Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Berlin. Formerly Worcester Reader in Egyptology, University of Oxford.
Egypt: Ancient Religion.
A. H. S. Rev. A. H. Sayce, Litt.D., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Sayce, A. H.
A. H.-S. Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, C.I.E.
General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.
A. J. G. Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D.
Professor of New Testament and Church History at the United Independent College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University and Member of Mysore Educational Service.
Epistle (in part).
A. Mw. Allen Mawer, M.A.
Professor of English Language and Literature, Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Fellow of Gonvilie and Caius College, Cambridge. Formerly Lecturer in English at the University of Sheffield.
England (V.).
A. McM. Alexander Macmorran, K.C., M.A.
Bencher of the Middle Temple. Author of works on the Local Government Act 1888; Local Government Act 1894; London Government Act 1899; &c.
England: X. (in part).
A. M. C. Agnes Mary Clerke.
See the biographical article: Clerke, A. M.
A. M. Cl. Agnes Muriel Clay (Mrs Wilde).
Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint Author of Sources of Roman History, 133–70 B.C.
A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred.
A. Se.* Adam Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S.
Professor of Zoology at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. Fellow, and formerly Tutor, of Trinity College, Cambridge. Professor of Zoology in the University of Cambridge, 1907–1909.
A. S. C. Alan Summerly Cole, C.B.
Assistant Secretary for Art, Board of Education, 1900–1908. Author of Ancient Needle Point and Pillow Lace; Embroidery and Lace; Ornament in European Silks; &c.
Embroidery (in part).
A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland.
Formerly Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray’s Inn, 1900.
A. W. R. Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B.
Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England. Eminent Domain.
Eminent Domain
C. B. Rev. Charles Boutell, M.A. (1812–1877).
Author of English Heraldry; A Manual of British Archaeology; &c. Effigies (in part).
Effigies (in part).
C. N. E. E. Sir Charles Norton Edgcumbe Eliot, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.
Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. H.M.’s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East Africa Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at J Zanzibar; Consul-General for German East Africa, 1900–1904. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford. Author of Turkey in Europe; Letters from the Far East; &c.
 (in part).
C. E. N. R. Charles Edmund Newton Robinson, M.A.
Trinity College, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Founder of the Epee Club, London. Author of The Golden Hind; &c.
Epee de Combat.
C. F. B. Charles Francis Bastable, M.A., LL.D.
Regius Professor of Laws and Professor of Political Economy in the University of Dublin. Author of Public Finance; Commerce of Nations; Theory of International Trade.
English Finance.
C. H. Ha. Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member of the American Historical Association.
Eugenius II. and IV.
C. W. C. O. Charles William Chadwick Oman, M.A., F.S.A.
Chichele Professor of Modern History, Oxford University. Fellow of All Souls' College. Fellow of the British Academy. Corresponding Member of the Madrid Academia de la Historia. Author of The Art of War in the Middle Ages; The Great Revolt of 1381; Warwick the King-maker; &c.
English History (I., II., III., IV., V., VI.).
C. W. W. Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836–1907).
Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary Commission, 1858–1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Commission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886–1894. Director-General of Military Education, 1895–1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of Lord Clive; &c.
Erzerum (in part);
 (in part);
 (in part).
D. G. H. David George Hogarth
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, and Fellow of Magdelan College, Oxford. Fellow of The British Academy . Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904–1905; Assiut, 1906–1907. Director, British School at Athens, 1897–1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Navy, 1217–1688; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c.
Espagnols sur Mer
D. J. M. D. J. Matthews.
Hydrographer, Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Plymouth.
English Channel (in part).
D. M. W. Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O.
Extra Groom of the Bedchamber to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign Department of The Times, 1891–1899. Member of Institut de Droit International and Officer de l'Instruction Publique of France. Joint Editor of New Volumes (10th ed.) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt and the Egyptian Question; The Web of Empire; &c.
Egypt: Modern History (in part);
: History (in part).
D. S. M.* David Samuel Margoliouth, M.A., D.Litt.
Laudian Professor of Arabic, Oxford. Fellow of New College. Author of Arabic Papyri of the Bodleian Library; Mohammed and the Rise of Islam; Cairo, Jerusalem and Damascus.
Egypt: History (Mahommedan period);
E. A. S.* Edward Anthony Spitzka.
Professor of General Anatomy, Jefferson Medical College and Hospital, Philadelphia. Member of Association of American Anatomists, American Anthropologists' Association, &c.
E. Br. Ernest Barker, M.A.
Fellow of, and Lecturer in Modern History at, St John's College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895.
E. B. T. Edward Burnett Tylor, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Tylor, E. B.
E. C. B. Rt. Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., M.A.. D.Litt. (Dublin).
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of “The Lausiac History of Palladius,” in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund W.
Elegy; Epic Poetry; Epilogue; Epistle: Poetry; Essay;
; Euphemism.
E. Ga. Emile Garcke, M.Inst.E.E.
Managing Director of British Electric Traction Co., Ltd. Author of Manual of Electrical Undertakings; &c.
Electricity Supply: Commercial.
E. Go. Sir Eldon Gorst, K.C.B.
See the biographical article: Gorst, Sir John Eldon.
Egypt: Finance (in part).
E. Gr. Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A
See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.
Eleusis; Elis; Epidaurus; Erechtheum; Eretria.
E. He. Edward Heawood, M.A.
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Librarian of the Royal Geographical Society, London.
Ed. M. Eduard Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt. (Oxon.), LL.D.
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums; Geschichte des alten Ägyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstämme.
E. S. P. Edward Stanley Poole.
See the biographical article: Poole, Reginald Stuart.
Egypt: History (II. in part).
E. V. Rev. Edmund Venables (1810–1895).
Canon and Preceptor of Lincoln. Author of Episcopal Palaces of England.
Ember Days and Ember Weeks.
E. Wo. Field-Marshal Sir Evelyn Wood, V.C., G.C.M.G.
See the biographical article: Wood, Sir Evelyn.
Egypt: Modern, Army.
F. C. C. Frederick Cornwallis Conybeare, M.A., D.Th. (Giessen).
Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c.
F. G. M. B. Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge.
Essex, Kingdom of
F. J. H. Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D. (Aberdeen), F.S.A.
Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. Formerly Senior Censor, Student, Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1906. Author of Monographs on Roman History; &c.
Ermine Street.
F. Ll. G. Francis Llewelyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D.
Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial German Archaeological Institute.
Egypt: Ancient.
F. R. C. Frank R. Cana.
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
Egypt: Modern (in part).
F. R. M. Francis Richard Maunsell, C.M.G.
Lieutenant-Colonel, R.A. Military Vice-Consul, Sivas, Trebizond, Van (Kurdistan), 1897–1898. Military Attaché, British Embassy, Constantinople, 1901–1905. Author of Central Kurdistan; &c. I
Erzerum (in part);
 (in part).
F. W. M. Frederick William Maitland, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Maitland, F. W.
English Law.
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1870–1902. President of the Geologists' Association, 1887–1889.
G. C. W. George Charles Williamson, Litt.D.
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard Conway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of new edition of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.
G. E. Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909–1910. Employed by British Government in preparation of the British case in the British Guiana-Venezuelan and British Guiana-Brazilian boundary arbitrations.
Egmont, Count of.
G. G. C. George Goudie Chisholm, M.A.
Lecturer on Geography in the University of Edinburgh. Secretary of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society. Author of Handbook of Commercial Geography Editor of Longman's Gazetteer of the World.
Europe: Geography and Statistics.
G. H. C. George Herbert Carpenter, B.Sc.
Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: Their Structure and Life.
G. S. C. Sir George Sydenham Clarke, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., F.R.S.
Governor of Bombay. Author of Imperial Defence; Russia's Great Sea Power; The Last Great Naval War; &c.
Egypt: Military Operations, 1882–1885.
H. A. E. D. Hans A. E. Driesch, Ph.D., LL.D.
Gifford Lecturer at the University of Aberdeen, 1907–1908. Author of Die Organischen Regulationen; Der Vitalismus als Geschichte und als Lehre; The Science and Philology of the Organism; &c.
Embryology: Physiology of Development.
H. Br. Henry Bradley, M.A., Ph.D.
Fellow of the British Academy. Joint Editor of the New English Dictionary (Oxford). Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making of English; &c.
English Literature (I.).
H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britaanica. Co-Editor of the 10th edition.
English History: XII. (in part).
H. C. R. Major-General Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson, Bart., G.C.B.
See the biographical article: Rawlinson, Sir H. C.
Euphrates (in part).
H. F. T. Rev. Henry Fanshawe Tozer, M.A., F.R.G.S.
Hon. Fellow and formerly Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Corresponding Member of the Historical Society of Greece. Author of History of Ancient Geography; Classical Geography; Lectures on the Geography of Greece; &c.
H. Ha. Heber Hart, LL.D.
Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple.
Estate and House Agents.
H. H. W. Rev. Henry Herbert Williams, M.A.
Fellow, Tutor and Lecturer in Philosophy, Hertford College, Oxford. Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of Llandaff.
Ethics (in part).
H. M. R. Hugh Munro Ross.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. Editor of The Times Engineering Supplement. Author of British Railways.
English Channel (in part).
H. M. R. M. Hilda Mary R. Murray, M.A.
Lecturer on English at Royal Holloway College.
English Language (in part).
H. N. G. Harry Norman Gardiner, A.M.
Professor of Philosophy, Smith College, Northampton, U.S.A. Editor of Jonathan Edwards—a Retrospect.
Edwards, Jonathan (in part).
H. R. M. Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc., LL.D.
Director of British Rainfall Organization. Formerly President of the Royal Meteorological Society. Hon. Member of Vienna Geographical Society. Hon. Corresponding Member of Geographical Societies of Paris, Berlin, Budapest, St Petersburg, Amsterdam, &c. British Delegate to International Conference on the Exploration of the Sea at Christiania, 1901. Author of The Realm of Nature; The Clyde Sea Area; The English Lakes; The International Geography. Editor of British Rainfall.
England: Physical Geography (II., IV.).
H. S. Henry Sidgwick, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Sidgwick, H.
Ethics (in part).
H. Sw. Henry Sweet, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D.
University Reader in Phonetics, Oxford. Member of the Academies of Munich, Berlin, Copenhagen and Helsingfors. Author of A History of English Sounds since the Earliest Period; A Handbook of Phonetics; &c.
H. van D. Henry van Dyke, A.M., D.D., LL.D.
Professor of English Literature, Princeton University, U.S.A. Author of The Poetry of Tennyson; The Ruling Passion; The Spirit of America; &c.
H. W. C. D. Henry William Carless Davis, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, 1895–1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne.
Eleanor of Aquitaine.
I. A. Israel Abrahams, M.A.
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; &c. Electrical Machine;
Einhorn, David;
Elijah Wilna
Elisha ben Abuyah
J. A. F. John Ambrose Fleming, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Pender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Vice-President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. Author of The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy; Magnets and Electric Currents; &c.
Electrical Machine;
Electricity Supply
; Electrokinetics; Electromagnetism; Electrometer;
; Electrostatics.
J. A. H. John Allen Howe, B.Sc.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of Geology of Building Stones.
England: Geology (III.);
J. A. H. M. Sir James Augustus Henry Murray, LL.D., D.C.L., Litt.D.
See the biographical article: Murray, Sir James A. H.
English Language.
J. G. C. A. John George Clark Anderson, M.A.
Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College; Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893.
J. G. M. John Gray McKendrick, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S. (Edin.).
Emeritus Profeor of Physiology at the University of Glasgow. Professor of Physiology, 1876–1906. Author of Life in Motion; Life of Helmholtz; &c.
J. G. R. John George Robertson, M.A., Ph.D.
Professor of German Language and Literature, University of London. Editor of the Modern Language Journal. Author of History of German Literature; Schiller after a Century; &c.
J. H. F. John Henry Freese, M.A.
Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge.
J. H. Rs. Rev. James Hardy Ropes, D.D.
Bussey Professor of New Testament Criticjsm and Interpretation, and Dexter Lecturer on Biblical Literature, Harvard University. Author of The Apostolic Age in the Light of Modern Criticism; &c.
Ephesians, Epistle to the.
J. Hl. R. John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D.
Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c.
Enghien, Duc d'.
J. J. T. Sir Joseph John Thomson, D.Sc., LL.D., Ph.D., F.R.S.
Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics, Cambridge. Fellow of Trinity College. President of the British Association, 1909–1910. Author of A Treatise on the Motion of Vortex Rings; Application of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry; Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism; &c.
Electric Waves.
J. L.* Sir Joseph Larmor, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S.
Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge. Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in Cambridge University. Secretary of the Royal Society. Professor of Natural. Philosophy, Queen’s College, Galway, and in the Queen’s University of Ireland, 1880–1885. Author of Ether and Matter, and various memoirs on Mathematics and Physics.
 (in part).
J. L. M. John Linton Myres, M.A., F.S.A.
Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Formerly Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Ancient Geography, University of Liverpool, and Lecturer on Classical Archaeology, University of Oxford.
J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell.
Sometime Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London College (University of London). Joint Editor of Grote’s History of Greece.
Erigena (in part).
J. M. Ma. John Matthews Manly, A.M., Ph.D.
Professor and Head of the Department of English in the University of Chicago. Managing Editor of Modern Philology. Author of The Language of Chaucer’s Legend of Good Women; &c. Editor of Specimens of the Pre-Shakespearean Drama; English Prose, 1137–1890; English Poetry, 1170–1892; &c.
English Literature (II.).
J. P. Pe. Rev. John Punnett Peters, Ph.D., D.D.
Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in the University of Pennsylvania. Director of the University Expedition to Babylonia, 1888–1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates.
 (in part).
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.
J. S. M. John Sturgeon Mackay, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. (Edin.).
Chief Mathematical Master at Edinburgh Academy, 1873–1904. First President of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society. Author of Arithmetical Exercises; Elements of Euclid.
J. T. Be. John T. Bealby.
Joint Author of Stanford’s Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin’s Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.
Esthonia (in part).
J. T. C. Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S.
Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association.
J. W. He. James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A.
Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, and Professor of Greek and Ancient History at Queen’s College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German Empire; &c.
Ernest II.
K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger.
Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra; &c. Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology.
L. D.* Louis Duchesne.
See the biographical article: Duchesne, L. M. O.
Eugenius I. and II.
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A.
Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineral­ogical Magazine.
L. V.* Luigi Villari.
Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Department). Formerly Newspaper Corre­spondent in East of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906; Philadelphia, 1907; and Boston, U.S.A., 1907–1910. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; &c.
M. G. Moses Gaster, Ph.D. (Leipzig).
Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine Literature, 1886 and 1891. President, Folklore Society of England. Vice-President, Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian Popular Literature; &c.
Eminescu, Michail.
M. H. S. Marion H. Spielmann, F.S.A.
Formerly Editor of the Magazine of Art. Member of Fine Art Committee of International Exhibitions of Brussels, Paris, Buenos Aires, Rome, and the Franco-British Exhibition, London. Author of History ofPunch”; British Portrait Painting to the Opening of the Nineteenth Century; Works of G. F. Watts, R.A.; British Sculpture and Sculptors of To-day; Henriette Ronner; &c.
Effigies (in part).
M. Ja. Morris Jastrow, Ph.D. (Leipzig).
Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Author of Religion of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c.
M. O. B. C. Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A.
Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham University, 1905–1908.
M. N. T. Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. Joint Author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum.
M. P. Mark Pattison.
See the biographical article: Pattison, Mark.
Erasmus (in part).
N. M. Norman McLean, M.A.
Lecturer in Aramaic, Cambridge University. Fellow and Hebrew Lecturer, Christ’s College, Cambridge. Joint Editor of the larger Cambridge Septuagint.
Ephraem Syrus.
O. E.* Oliver Elton, M.A.
Professor of English Literature at the University of Liverpool. Author of Modern Studies; The Augustan Ages; Michael Drayton; &c.
English Literature (III., IV.).
O. J. R. H. Osbert John Radcliffe Howarth, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Geographical Scholar, 1901. Assistant Secretary of the British Association.
England: Topography, Population and Industries (I., VI., VIII., IX.);
English Channel
 (in part).
P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince P. A.
Esthonia (in part).
P. La. Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S.
Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Kayser’s Comparative Geology.
Europe: Geology.
P. M. T. C. Mrs Craigie (“John Oliver Hobbes”).
See the biographical article: Craigie, P. M. T.
Eliot, George.
P. S. A. Percy Stafford Allen, M.A.
Fellow of Merton College, Oxford. Editor of the Letters of Erasmus.
Erasmus (in part).
R. Ad. Robert Adamson, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Adamson, R.
Erigena (in part).
R. A. S. M. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A.
Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund.
R. C. J. Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Jebb, Sir Richard C.
R. H. C. Rev. Robert Henry Charles, M.A., D.D., D.Litt.
Grinfield Lecturer, and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Professor of Biblical Greek, Trinity College, Dublin. Author of Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; Book of Jubilees; &c.
Enoch, Book of;
: Additions to.
R. H. V. Colonel Robert Hamilton Vetch, R.E., C.B.
Employed on defences of Bermuda, Bristol Channel, Plymouth Harbour and Malta, 1861–1876. Secretary of R.E. Institute, Chatham, 1877–1883. Commanded R.E. Submarine Mining Batt., 1884. Deputy Inspector-General of Fortifications, 1889–1894. Author of Gordon’s Campaign in China; Life of Lieutenant-General Sir Gerald Graham. Editor of the Professional Papers of the Corps of R.E.; also the R.E. Journal, 1877–1884.
Egypt: Military Operations, 1885–1900.
R. J. M. Ronald John McNeill, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James’s Gazette, London.
Emmet, Robert;
Emmet, Thomas Addis
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S.
Formerly Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; &c.
Eland; Elephant;
R. N. Richard Norton.
Formerly Director of the American School of Classical Studies in Rome, and Professor of History of Art and Archaeology, Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania.
Etruria (in part).
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum. Author of Scandinavia: the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513–1900; The First Romanovs, 1613 to 1723; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1706; &c.
Elizabeth Petrovna;
Eötvös, Baron
; Eric XIV.;
Esterházy of Galántha
R. S. C. Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt. (Cantab.).
Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the Univemty of Manchestir. Formerly Professor of Latin, University College, Cardiff, and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.
Etruria: Language.
R. S. P. Reginald Stuart Poole.
See the biographical article: Poole, Reginald Stuart.
Egypt: History, I. (in part).
R. W. Richard Williams.
R. We. Richard Webster, A.M.
Formerly Fellow in Classics, Princeton University. Editor of The Elegies of Maximianus; &c.
Edwards, Jonathan (in part).
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook.
Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer in Hebrew and Sriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904–1908. Council of Royal Asiatic Society, 1904–1905. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.
Eli (in part);
 (in part);
 (in part);
St G. S. St George Stock, M.A.
Pembroke College, Oxford. Lecturer in Greek in the University of Birmingham.
Essenes (in part).
S. L.-P. Stanley Lane-Poole, M.A., Litt.D.
Formerly Professor of Arabic, Dublin University, and Examiner in the University of Wales. Corresponding Member of the Imperial Russian Archaeological Society. Member of the Khedivial Commission for the Preservation of the Monuments of Arab Art, &c. Author of Life of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe; Life of Sir Harry Parks: Cairo; Turkey; &c. Edited The Koran; The Thousand and One Nights; &c.
Egypt: History, II. (in part).
S. R. G. Samuel Rawson Gardiner, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Gardiner, S. R.
English History (VIII., IX., X.).
S. W. Sir Spencer Walpole, K.C.B.
See the biographical article: Walpole, Sir Spencer.
English History: XII. (in part).
T. A. I. Thomas Allan Ingram, M.A., LL.D.
Trinity College, Dublin.
England: Local Government, X. (in part).
T. Ba. Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P.
Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.
T. F. C. Dr Theodore Freylinghuysen Collier, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., U.S.A.
Elvira, Synod of;
Ephesus, Council of
T. G. Br. Thomas Gregor Brodie, M.D., F.R.S.
Professor of Physiology in the University of Toronto. Author of Essentials of Experimental Physiology.
Epithelial, Endothelial, Glandular Tissues.
T. K. Thomas Kirkup, M.A., LL.D.
Author of An Inquiry into Socialism; Primer of Socialism; &c.
Essenes (in part).
T. K. C. Rev. Thomas Kelly Cheyne, LL.D., D.D., D.Litt.
See the biographical article: Cheyne, T. K.
T. L. H. Sir Thomas Little Heath, K.C.B., M.A., D.Sc. (Cantab.).
Assistant Secretary to the Treasury. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Treatise on Conic Sections; &c.
Eratosthenes of Alexandria.
T. R. R. S. Rev. Thomas Roscoe Rede Stebbing, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S.
Fellow of King's College, London. Hon. Fellow, and formerly Tutor, of Worcester College, Oxford. Zoological Secretary of Linnaean Society, 1903–1907. Author of A History of Crustacea; The Naturalist of Cumbrae; &c.
T. Se. Thomas Seccombe, M.A.
Balliol College, Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of Dictionary of National Biography, 1891–1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c.
English Literature (V., VI.).
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. (Bern).
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's College, Lampeter, 1880–1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphiné; The Range of the Todi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880–1889; &c.
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.
English History (XI.); Episcopacy; Esquire;
: History (in part).
W. B*. William Bacher, Ph.D.
Professor of Biblical Science at the Rabbinical Seminary, Budapest. Author of Die exegetische Terminologie der jüdischen Traditionslitteratur; &c.
Elias Levita.
W. C. D. W. William Cecil Dampier Whetham, M.A., F.R.S.
Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Theory of Solution; Recent Development of Physical Science; The Family and the Nation; &c.
W. C. T. W. Cave Thomas.
Author of Symmetrical Education; Mural or Monumental Decoration; Revised Theory of Light.
Encaustic Painting.
W. E. Co. Rev. William Edward Collins, M.A., D.D.
Bishop of Gibraltar. Formerly Professor of Ecclesiastical History, King's College, London. Lecturer of Selwyn and St John's Colleges, Cambridge. Author of The Study of Ecclesiastical History; Beginnings of English Christianity; &c.
: Reservation.
W. G. William Garnett, M.A., D.C.L.
Educational Adviser to the London County Council. Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, Cambridge. Principal and Professor of Mathematics, Durham College of Science, Newcastle-on-Tyne. Author of Elementary Dynamics; &c.
Energy (in part).
W. G. M. Walter G. M‘Millan, F.C.S., M.I.Mech.E. (d. 1904).
Formerly Secretary of the Institute of Electrical Engineers, and Lecturer on Metallurgy, Mason College, Birmingham. Author of A Treatise on Electrometallurgy.
W. Hu. Rev. William Hunt, M.A., Litt.D.
President of Royal Historical Society, 1905–1909. Author of History of the English Church, 597–1066; The Church of England in the Middle Ages; &c.
England, Church of.
W. M. F. P. William Matthew Flinders Petrie, F.R.S., D.C.L., Litt.D.
See the biographical article: Petrie, W. M. F.
Egypt: Art and Archaeology.
W. O. Wilhelm Ostwald, D.Sc., LL.D.
Formerly Professor of Chemistry at the University of Leipzig. Nobel Prizeman in Chemistry, 1909. Author of Energetische Grundlagen der Kulturwissenschaft; Die Energie; Prinzipien der Chemie; &c.
W. P. A. Lieut.-Colonel William Patrick Anderson, M.Inst.C.E., F.R.G.S.
Chief Engineer, Department of Marine and Fisheries of Canada. Member of the Geographic Board of Canada. Past President of Canadian Society of Civil Engineers.
Erie, Lake.
W. P. P. William Plane Pycraft, F.Z.S.
Assistant in the Zoological Department, British Museum. Formerly Assistant Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy, Oxford. Vice-President of the Selborne Society. Author of A History of Birds; &c.
W. R. S. William Robertson Smith, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Smith, W. R.
Eli (in part);
 (in part);
 (in part).
W. W. William Wallace.
See the biographical article: Wallace, William (1844–1897).
Empedocles (in part); Epictetus (in part);
 (in part).
W. Wr. Williston Walker, Ph.D., D.D.
Professor of Church History, Yale University. Author of History of the Congre­gational Churches in the United States; The Reformation; John Calvin; &c.
Eliot, John.


Electoral Commission.

Employers' Liability and
 Workmen's Compensation.

Engineers: Military.


Ethnology and Ethnography.