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Index:Principles of Political Economy Vol 1.djvu

Principles of Political Economy Vol 1.djvu

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Principles of Political Economy, vol. 1

- - - - - -  i  ii  iii  iv  v  vi

Contents

 vii  viii  ix  x  xi  xii  xiii  xiv  xv  xvi

Book 1

001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 - 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 041 042 043 044 045 046 047 048 049 050 051 052 053 054 055 056 057 058 059 060 061 062 063 064 065 066 067 068 069 070 071 072 073 074 075 076 077 078 079 080 081 082 083 084 085 086 087 088 089 090 091 092 093 094 095 096 097 098 099 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246

Book 2

247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 -

Book 3

533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 -

Appendix

595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 Print Adv Adv - - - -

 

CONTENTS

OF

THE FIRST VOLUME.

 
  1. Page
  2. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    1
  3.  
    BOOK I.
     
    PRODUCTION.
     
    Chapter I. Of the Requisites of Production.
  4. § 1.
    Requisites of production, what
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    29
  5. 2.
    The function of labour defined
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    31
  6. 3.
    Does nature contribute more to the efficacy of labour in some occupations than in others?
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    33
  7. 4.
    Some natural agents limited, others practically unlimited, in quantity
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    34
  8.  
    Chapter II. Of Labour as an Agent of Production.
  9. § 1.
    Labour employed either directly about the thing produced, or in operations preparatory to its production
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    37
  10. 2.
    Labour employed in producing subsistence for subsequent labour
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    39
  11. 3.
    —in producing materials
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    42
  12. 4.
    —or implements
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    44
  13. 5.
    —in the protection of labour
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    46
  14. 6.
    —in the transport and distribution of the produce
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    47
  15. 7.
    Labour which relates to human beings
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    50
  16. 8.
    Labour of invention and discovery
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    51
  17. 9.
    Labour agricultural, manufacturing, and commercial
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    53
  18.  
    Chapter III. Of Unproductive Labour.
  19. § 1.
    Labour does not produce objects, but utilities
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    55
  20. 2.
    —which are of three kinds
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    57
  21. 3.
    Productive labour is that which produces utilities fixed and embodied in material objects
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    58
  22. 4.
    All other labour, however useful, is classed as unproductive
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    61
  23. 5.
    Productive and Unproductive Consumption
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    64
  24. 6.
    Labour for the supply of Productive Consumption, and labour for the supply of Unproductive Consumption
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    65
  25.  
    Chapter IV. Of Capital.
  26. § 1.
    Capital is wealth appropriated to reproductive employment
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    68
  27. 2.
    More capital devoted to production than actually employed in it
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    71
  28. 3.
    Examination of some cases illustrative of the idea of Capital
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  29.  
    Chapter V. Fundamental Propositions respecting Capital.
  30. § 1.
    Industry is limited by Capital
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    79
  31. 2.
    —but does not always come up to that limit
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81
  32. 3.
    Increase of capital gives increased employment to labour, without assignable bounds
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    83
  33. 4.
    Capital is the result of saving
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    86
  34. 5.
    All capital is consumed
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    88
  35. 6.
    Capital is kept up, not by preservation, but by perpetual reproduction
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    92
  36. 7.
    Why countries recover rapidly from a state of devastation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    94
  37. 8.
    Effects of defraying government expenditure by loans
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95
  38. 9.
    Demand for commodities is not demand for labour
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    99
  39. 10.
    Fallacy respecting Taxation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    111
  40.  
    Chapter VI. Of Circulating and Fixed Capital.
  41. § 1.
    Fixed and Circulating Capital, what
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    114
  42. 2.
    Increase of fixed capital, when at the expense of circulating, might be detrimental to the labourers
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    117
  43. 3.
    —but this seldom if ever occurs
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    121
  44.  
    Chapter VII. On what depends the degree of Productiveness of Productive Agents.
  45. § 1.
    Land, labour, and capital, are of different productiveness at different times and places
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    126
  46. 2.
    Causes of superior productiveness. Natural advantages
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    127
  47. 3.
    —greater energy of labour
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    129
  48. 4.
    —superior skill and knowledge
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    132
  49. 5.
    —superiority of intelligence and trustworthiness in the community generally
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    134
  50. 6.
    —superior security
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    139
  51.  
    Chapter VIII. Of Co-operation, or the Combination of Labour.
  52. § 1.
    Combination of Labour a principal cause of superior productiveness
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    144
  53. 2.
    Effects of separation of employments analyzed
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    147
  54. 3.
    Combination of labour between town and country
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    150
  55. 4.
    The higher degrees of the division of labour
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    152
  56. 5.
    Analysis of its advantages
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    154
  57. 6.
    Limitations of the division of labour
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    162
  58.  
    Chapter IX. Of Production on a Large, and Production on a Small Scale.
  59. § 1.
    Advantages of the large system of production in manufactures
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    164
  60. 2.
    Advantages and disadvantages of the joint-stock principle
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    170
  61. 3.
    Conditions necessary for the large system of production
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    176
  62. 4.
    Large and small farming compared
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    179
  63.  
    Chapter X. Of the Law of the Increase of Labour.
  64. § 1.
    The law of the increase of production depends on those of three elements, Labour, Capital, and Land
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    194
  65. 2.
    The Law of Population
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    195
  66. 3.
    By what checks the increase of population is practically limited
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    198
  67.  
    Chapter XI. Of the Law of the Increase of Capital.
  68. § 1.
    Means and motives to saving, on what dependent
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    203
  69. 2.
    Causes of diversity in the effective strength of the desire of accumulation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    205
  70. 3.
    Examples of deficiency in the strength of this desire
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    208
  71. 4.
    Exemplification of its excess
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    216
  72.  
    Chapter XII. Of the Law of the Increase of Production from Land.
  73. § 1.
    The limited quantity and limited productiveness of land, the real limits to production
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    220
  74. 2.
    The law of production from the soil, a law of diminishing return in proportion to the increased application of labour and capital
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    221
  75. 3.
    Antagonist principle to the law of diminishing return; the progress of improvements in production
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    226
  76.  
    Chapter XIII. Consequences of the foregoing Laws.
  77. § 1.
    Remedies when the limit to production is the weakness of the principle of accumulation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    236
  78. 2.
    Necessity of restraining population not confined to a state of inequality of property
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    237
  79. 3.
    —nor superseded by free trade in food
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    241
  80. 4.
    —nor in general by emigration
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    245
  81.  
    BOOK II.
     
    DISTRIBUTION.
     
    Chapter I. Of Property.
  82. § 1.
    Introductory remarks
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    249
  83. 2.
    Statement of the question
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    251
  84. 3.
    Examination of Communism
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    254
  85. 4.
    —of St. Simonism and Fourierism
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    263
  86.  
    Chapter II. The same subject continued.
  87. § 1.
    The institution of property implies freedom of acquisition by contract
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    270
  88. 2.
    —the validity of prescription
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    272
  89. 3.
    —the power of bequest, but not the right of inheritance. Question of inheritance examined
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    273
  90. 4.
    Should the right of bequest be limited, and how?
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    279
  91. 5.
    Grounds of property in land, different from those of property in moveables
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    284
  92. 6.
    —only valid on certain conditions, which are not always realized. The limitations considered
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    285
  93. 7.
    Rights of property in abuses
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    291
  94.  
    Chapter III. Of the Classes among whom the Produce is distributed.
  95. § 1.
    The produce sometimes shared among three classes
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    293
  96. 2.
    sometimes belongs undividedly to one
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    294
  97. 3.
    sometimes divided between two
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    295
  98.  
    Chapter IV. Of Competition and Custom.
  99. § 1.
    Competition not the sole regulator of the division of the produce
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    298
  100. 2.
    Influence of custom on rents, and on the tenure of land
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    299
  101. 3.
    Influence of custom on prices
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    302
  102.  
    Chapter V. Of Slavery.
  103. § 1.
    Slavery considered in relation to the slaves
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    306
  104. 2.
    —in relation to production
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    308
  105. 3.
    Emancipation considered in relation to the interest of the slave-owners
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    310
  106.  
    Chapter VI. Of Peasant Proprietors.
  107. § 1.
    Difference between English and Continental opinions respecting peasant properties
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    313
  108. 2.
    Evidence respecting peasant properties in Switzerland
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    315
  109. 3.
    —in Norway
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    322
  110. 4.
    —in Germany
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    326
  111. 5.
    —in Belgium
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    332
  112. 6.
    —in the Channel Islands
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    338
  113. 7.
    —in France
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    341
  114.  
    Chapter VII. Continuation of the same subject.
  115. § 1.
    Influence of peasant properties in stimulating industry
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    347
  116. 2.
    —in training intelligence
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    350
  117. 3.
    —in promoting forethought and self-control
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    351
  118. 4.
    Their effect on population
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    353
  119. 5.
    —on the subdivision of land
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    364
  120.  
    Chapter VIII. Of Metayers.
  121. § 1.
    Nature of the metayer system, and its varieties
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    371
  122. 2.
    Its advantages and inconveniences
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    372
  123. 3.
    Evidence concerning its effects in different countries
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    375
  124. 4.
    Is its abolition desirable?
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    388
  125.  
    Chapter IX. Of Cottiers.
  126. § 1.
    Nature and operation of cottier tenure
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    391
  127. 2.
    In an overpeopled country its necessary consequence is nominal rents
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    394
  128. 3.
    —which are inconsistent with industry, frugality, or restraint on population
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    397
  129. 4.
    Ryot tenancy of India
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    399
  130.  
    Chapter X. Means of abolishing Cottier Tenancy.
  131. § 1.
    Irish cottiers should be converted into peasant proprietors
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    404
  132. 2.
    Present state of this question
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    412
  133.  
    Chapter XI. Of Wages.
  134. § 1.
    Wages depend on the demand and supply of labour—in other words, on population and capital
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    419
  135. 2.
    Examination of some popular opinions respecting wages
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    420
  136. § 3.
    Certain rare circumstances excepted, high wages imply restraints on population
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    427
  137. 4.
    —which are in some cases legal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    431
  138. 5.
    —in others the effect of particular customs
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    434
  139. 6.
    Due restriction of population the only safeguard of a labouring class
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    436
  140.  
    Chapter XII. Of Popular Remedies for Low Wages.
  141. § 1.
    A legal or customary minimum of wages, with a guarantee of employment
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    441
  142. 2.
    —would require as a condition, legal measures for repression of population
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    443
  143. 3.
    Allowances in aid of wages
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    448
  144. 4.
    The Allotment System
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    450
  145.  
    Chapter XIII. Remedies for Low Wages further considered.
  146. § 1.
    Pernicious direction of public opinion on the subject of population
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    456
  147. 2.
    Grounds for expecting improvement
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    459
  148. 3.
    Twofold means of elevating the habits of the labouring people: by education
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    465
  149. 4.
    —and by large measures of immediate relief, through foreign and home colonization
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    467
  150.  
    Chapter XIV. Of the Differences of Wages in different Employments.
  151. § 1.
    Differences of wages arising from different degrees of attractiveness in different employments
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    471
  152. 2.
    Differences arising from natural monopolies
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    477
  153. 3.
    Effect on wages of a class of subsidized competitors
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    482
  154. 4.
    —of the competition of persons with independent means of support
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    485
  155. 5.
    Wages of women, why lower than those of men
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    490
  156. 6.
    Differences of wages arising from restrictive laws, and from combinations
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    491
  157. 7.
    Cases in which wages are fixed by custom
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    493
  158.  
    Chapter XV. Of Profits.
  159. § 1.
    Profits resolvable into three parts; interest, insurance, and wages of superintendence
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    495
  160. 2.
    The minimum of profits; and the variations to which it is liable
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    498
  161. 3.
    Differences of profits arising from the nature of the particular employment
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    500
  162. 4.
    General tendency of profits to an equality
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    502
  163. 5.
    Profits do not depend on prices, nor on purchase and sale
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    508
  164. 6.
    The advances of the capitalist consist ultimately in wages of labour
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    510
  165. 7.
    The rate of profit depends on the Cost of Labour
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    512
  166.  
    Chapter XVI. Of Rent.
  167. § 1.
    Rent the effect of a natural monopoly
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    516
  168. 2.
    No land can pay rent except land of such quality or situation, as exists in less quantity than the demand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    517
  169. 3.
    The rent of land consists of the excess of its return above the return to the worst land in cultivation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    519
  170. 4.
    —or to the capital employed in the least advantageous circumstances
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    522
  171. 5.
    Is payment for capital sunk in the soil, rent, or profit?
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    525
  172. 6.
    Rent does not enter into the cost of production of agricultural produce
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    530
  173.  
    BOOK III.
     
    EXCHANGE.
     
    Chapter I. Of Value.
  174. § 1.
    Preliminary remarks
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    535
  175. 2.
    Definitions of Value in Use, Exchange Value, and Price
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    537
  176. 3.
    What is meant by general purchasing power
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    538
  177. 4.
    Value a relative term. A general rise or fall of values a contradiction
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    540
  178. 5.
    The laws of Value, how modified in their application to retail transactions
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    541
  179.  
    Chapter II. Of Demand and Supply, in their relation to Value.
  180. § 1.
    Two conditions of Value: Utility, and Difficulty of Attainment
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    544
  181. 2.
    Three kinds of Difficulty of Attainment
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    546
  182. 3.
    Commodities which are absolutely limited in quantity
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    548
  183. 4.
    Law of their value, the Equation of Demand and Supply
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    550
  184. 5.
    Miscellaneous cases falling under this law
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    552
  185.  
    Chapter III. Of Cost of Production, in its relation to Value.
  186. § 1.
    Commodities which are susceptible of indefinite multiplication without increase of cost. Law of their Value, Cost of Production
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    555
  187. 2.
    —operating through potential, but not actual, alterations of supply
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    557
  188.  
    Chapter IV. Ultimate Analysis of Cost of Production.
  189. § 1.
    Principal element in Cost of Production Quantity of Labour
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    562
  190. 2.
    Wages not an element in Cost of Production
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    564
  191. 3.
    —except in so far as they vary from employment to employment
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    566
  192. 4.
    Profits an element in Cost of Production, in so far as they vary from employment to employment
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    568
  193. 5.
    —or are spread over unequal lengths of time
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    569
  194. 6.
    Occasional elements in Cost of Production: taxes, and scarcity value of materials
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    574
  195.  
    Chapter V. Of Rent, in its relation to Value.
  196. § 1.
    Commodities which are susceptible of indefinite ultiplication, but not without increase of cost. Law of their Value, Cost of Production in the most unfavourable existing circumstances
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    577
  197. 2.
    Such commodities, when produced in circumstances more favourable, yield a rent equal to the difference of cost
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    580
  198. 3.
    Rent of mines and fisheries, and ground-rent of buildings
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    583
  199. 4.
    Cases of extra profit analogous to rent
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    586
  200.  
    Chapter VI. Summary of the Theory of Value.
  201. § 1.
    The theory of Value recapitulated in a series of propositions
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    588
  202. 2.
    How modified by the case of labourers cultivating for subsistence
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    591
  203. 3.
    —by the case of slave labour
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    593
  1.  
    APPENDIX.
     
  2. Substance of three articles in the Morning Chronicle of 11th, 13th, and 16th January, 1847, in reply to MM. Mourner and Rubichon and to the Quarterly Review, on the Subdivision of Landed Property in France
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    597