1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 21/Table of contributors

INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXI. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL
CONTRIBUTORS,[1] WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE
ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.


A. B. R. Alfred Barton Rendle, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S.
Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum. Author of Text Book on Classification of Flowering Plants; &c.
Plants: Classification.
A. F. P. Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.
Perne, Andrew.
A. G. Major Arthur George Frederick Griffiths (d. 1908).
H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate; Secrets of the Prison House; &c.
Police.
A. G. T. Arthur George Tansley, M.A., F.L.S.
Lecturer in Botany in the University of Cambridge. Formerly Assistant Professor of Botany, University College, London.
Plants: Anatomy.
A. H.* Albert Hauck, D.Th., D.Ph.
Professor of Church History in the University of Leipzig, and Director of the Museum of Ecclesiastical Archaeology. Geheimer Kirchenrat of the Kingdom of Saxony. Member of the Royal Saxon Academy of Sciences and Corresponding Member of the Academies of Berlin and Munich. Author of Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands; &c. Editor of the new edition of Herzog's Realencyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche.
Pilgrimage.
A. H. C. Sir Arthur Herbert Church, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.S.A.
Professor of Chemistry, Royal Academy of Arts, London. Author of Chemistry of Paints and Painting; English Earthenware; English Porcelain; &c.
Pigments.
A. H. H. Arthur Horsley Hinton (1863-1908).
Editor of The Amateur Photographer, 1897-1908, and the Photographic Trades Gazette, 1904-1908. Author of Practical Pictorial Photography; &c.
Photography: Pictorial.
A. H.-S. Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, C.I.E.
General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.
Persia: Geography and Statistics.
A. H. S. Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, D.D., LL.D., Litt.D.
See the biographical article: Sayce, A. H.
Persepolis (in part).
A. J. G. Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D.
Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of Mysore Educational Service.
Plymouth Brethren (in part).
A. J. H. Alfred J. Hipkins, F.S.A. (1826-1903).
Formerly Member of Council and Hon. Curator of the Royal College of Music, London. Member of Committee of the Inventions and Music Exhibition, 1885; of the Vienna Exhibition, 1892; and of the Paris Exhibition, 1900. Author of Musical Instruments'; &c.
Pianoforte (in part); Pitch, Musical.
A. J. L. Andrew Jackson Lamoureux.
Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of the Rio News (Rio de Janeiro), 1879-1901.
Peru: Geography and Statistics.
A. Ma. Alexander Macalister, M.A., LL.D., M.D., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Professor of Anatomy in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of St John's College. Author of Text Book of Human Anatomy; &c.
Phrenology; Physiognomy.
A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred.
Peacock; Pelican; Penguin; Petrel; Pheasant; Pigeon; Pipit; Pitta; Plover; Pochard.
A. Se.* Adam Sedgwick, M.A., F.R.S.
Professor of Zoology at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. Fellow, and formerly Tutor, of Trinity College, Cambridge. Professor of Zoology in the University of Cambridge, 1907-1909.
Peripatus.
A. Sl. Arthur Shadwell, M.A., M.D., LL.D.
Member of Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of The London Water-Supply; Industrial Efficiency; Drink, Temperance and Legislation.
Plague (in part).
A. S. P.-P. Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.
Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Follow of the British Academy. Author of Man's Place in the Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; &c.
Philosophy.
A. S. Wo. Arthur Smith Woodward, LL.D., F.R.S.
Keeper of Geology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Secretary of the Geological Society of London.
Plesiosaurus.
A. T. I. Alexander Taylor Innes, M.A., LL.D.
Scotch Advocate. Author of John Knox; Law of Creeds in Scotland; Studies in Scottish History; &c.
Pilate, Pontius.
B. R. Sir Boverton Redwood, D.Sc, F.R.S. (Edin.), F.I.C., Assoc.Inst.CE., M.Inst.M.E,
Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, Home Office, India Office, Corporation of London, and Port of London Authority. President of the Society of Chemical Industry. Member of the Council of the Chemical Society. Member of Council of Institute of Chemistry. Author of "Cantor" Lectures on Petroleum; Petroleum and its Products; Chemical Technology; &c.
Petroleum.
C. Bi. Rev. Charles Bigg, M.A., D.D. (1840-1908).
Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the University of Oxford, and Canon of Christ Church, 1901-1908. Formerly Senior Student and Tutor of Christ Church. Headmaster of Brighton College. Author of The Christian Platonists of Alexandria; &c.
Philo (in part).
C. E.* Charles Everitt, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S.
Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford.
Phosphates.
C. E. A. Charles Edmond Akers.
Formerly Times Correspondent in Buenos Aires. Author of A History of South America, 1854-1904.
Peru: History (in part).
C. E. M. Charles Edward Moss, D.Sc.
Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Curator of the University Herbarium.
Plants: Ecology.
C. G. K. Cargill Gilston Knott, D.Sc.
Lecturer on Applied Mathematics, Edinburgh University. Professor of Physics, Imperial University of Japan, Tokyo, 1883-1891. Author of Electricity and Magnetism; Physics; &c.
Photometry.
C. L. K. Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A.
Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor of Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London.
Payne, Peter.
C. M. Carl Theodor Mirbt, D.Th.
Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publizistik im Zeitalter Gregor VII.; Quellen zur Geschichte des Papstthums; &c.
Pius IX.; Poissy, Colloquy of.
C. Pf. Christian Pfister, D. ès. L.
Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Études sur le règne de Robert le Pieux.
Pippin I.-III.
C. P. J. Charles Pierpoint Johnson (1791-1880).
Lecturer on Botany, Guy's Hospital, London, 1830-1873. Editor of J. A. Sowerby's English Botany; &c. Author of Ferns of Great Britain; &c.
Pine.
C. R. M. Sir Clements Robert Markham, K.C.B., F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Markham, Sir Clements Robert.
Peru: History (in part).
C. S. P. The Rt. Hon. Charles Stuart Parker, LL.D., D.C.L. (1829-1910).
M.P. for Perthshire, 1868-1874; M.P. for Perth City, 1878-1892. Honorary Fellow, formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of Life of Sir Robert Peel; &c.
Peel, Sir Robert.
C. T.* Rev. Charles Taylor, M.A., D.D., LL.D. (1840-1908).
Master of St John's College, Cambridge, 1881-1908. Vice-Chancellor, 1887-1888. Author of Geometrical Conics; &c.
Pirke Aboth.
C. W. R. Major-General Charles Walker Robinson, C.B., D.C.L.
Assistant Military Secretary, Headquarters of the Army, 1890-1892. Lieut.-Governor and Secretary, Royal Military Hospital, Chelsea, 1895-1898. Author of Strategy of the Peninsular War; &c.
Peninsular War.
D. G. H. David George Hogarth, M.A.
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
Perga; Pergamum; Phocaea.
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal Navy; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.
Penn, Admiral; Pepys; Pescara, Marquis of; Peter I.-IV. of Aragon; Peter of Castile; Pirate and Piracy: History; Poe, Edgar Allan; Poland: History (in part).
E. A. J. E. Alfred Jones.
Author of Old English Gold Plate; Old Church Plate of the Isle of Man; Old Silver Sacramental Vessels of Foreign Protestant Churches in England; Illustrated Catalogue of Leopold de Rothschild's Collection of Old Plate; A Private Catalogue of the Royal Plate at Windsor Castle; &c.
Plate (in part).
E. A. So. Edward Adolf Sonnenschein, M.A., Litt.D.
Professor of Greek and Latin in the University of Birmingham. Hon. Secretary of the Classical Association. Professor of Greek and Latin in Mason College, Birmingham, 1883-1900. Editor of several of the plays of Plautus.
Plautus.
E. Br. Ernest Barker, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Modern History, St John's College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895.
Peter the Hermit.
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund.
Pindarics.
E. Gr. Ernest Arthur Gardner, M.A.
See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.
Phigalia.
E. J. D. Edward Joseph Dent, M.A., Mus.Bac.
Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge.
Pergolesi.
Ed. M. Eduard Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt., LL.D.
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums; Geschichte des alten Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstämme.
Pērōz; Persia: Ancient History; Persis; Pharnabazus; Phraates; Phraortes.
E. M. H. Edward Morell Holmes.
Curator of the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society, London.
Pharmacopoeia; Pharmacy.
E. O.* Edmund Owen, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's hospital, Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
Peritonitis; Pharyngitis; Phlebitis.
E. O'N. Elizabeth O'Neill, M.A. (Mrs H. O. O'Neill).
Formerly University Fellow and Jones Fellow of Manchester University.
Peckham, John.
E. Pr. Edgar Prestage.
Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Examiner in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Commendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society; &c. Editor of Letters of a Portuguese Nun; Azurara's Chronicle of Guinea; &c.
Pina, Ruy de; Pinto, Fernão Mendes.
E. R. B. Edwyn Robert Bevan, M.A.
New College, Oxford. Author of The House of Seleucus; Jerusalem Under the High Priests.
Perdiccas; Philip I., II., and V. of Macedonia.
E. S.* Emil Schürer, D.Ph. (1844-1910).
Formerly Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the Universities of Giessen, Kiel and Göttingen. Author of Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi; &c.
Philo (in part).
E. Tu. Rev. Ethelred Luke Taunton (d. 1907).
Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in England.
Pole, Cardinal.
F. A. P. Frederick Apthorp Paley, LL.D.
See the biographical article, Paley, F. A.
Plutarch (in part).
F. G. P. Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop..Inst.
Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women, London. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons.
Pharynx; Placenta.
F. J. G. Major-General Sir Frederic John Goldsmid.
See the biographical article: Goldsmid (family).
Persia: History, 1405-1884 (in part).
F. Ll. G. Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A.
Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Formerly Assistant Professor of Egyptology in University College, London. Author of Stories of the High Priests of Memphis; &c.
Pelusium; Pharaoh; Philae; Pithom.
F. N. Fridtjof Nansen.
See the biographical article: Nansen, Fridtjof.
Polar Regions (in part).
F. W. Ga. Frederick William Gamble, D.Sc, M.Sc, F.R.S.
Professor of Zoology, Birmingham University. Formerly Assistant Director of the Zoological Laboratories, and Lecturer in Zoology, University of Manchester. Author of Animal Life. Editor of Marshall and Hurst's Practical Zoology; &c.
Planarians; Platyelmia.
F. W. R.* Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889.
Peridot; Phosphates: Mineral Phosphates (in part).
G. A. C.* Rev. George Albert Cooke, D.D.
Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture, Oxford, and Fellow of Oriel College. Canon of Rochester. Hon. Canon of St Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh. Author of Text Book of North Semitic Inscriptions; &c.
Petra; Phoenicia.
G. A. Gr. George Abraham Grierson, C.I.E., Ph.D., D.Litt.
Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, 1898-1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Languages of India; &c.
Pisaca Languages.
G. Ch. George Chrystal, M.A., LL.D.
Professor of Mathematics and Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Edinburgh University. Hon. Fellow and formerly Fellow and Lecturer, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.
Perpetual Motion.
G. C. W. George Charles Williamson, Litt.D.
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of New Edition of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.
Petitot, Jean; Petitot, J. Louis; Pinwell, George John; Plimer, Andrew; Plimer, Nathaniel; Plumbago Drawings.
G. E. Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. Hon. Member, Dutch Historical Society; and Foreign Member, Netherlands Association of Literature. Pensionary;
Peru: History (in part).
G. E.* Robert Geoffrey Ellis.
Peterhouse, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Joint-editor of English Reports. Author of Peerage Law and History.
Peerage.
G. E. C. George Earl Church.
See the biographical article: Church, G. E.
Plata, Rio de la.
G. G. P.* George Grenville Phillimore, M.A., B.C.L.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple.
Pilot (in part).
G. H. Bo. Rev. George Herbert Box, M.A.
Rector of Sutton Sandy, Beds. Formerly Hebrew Master, Merchant Taylors' School, London. Lecturer in Faculty of Theology, University of Oxford, 1908-1909. Author of Translation of Book of Isaiah; &c.
Phylactery (in part).
G. H. Fo. George Herbert Fowler, F.Z.S., F.L.S., Ph.D.
Formerly Berkeley Research Fellow, Owens College, Manchester, and Assistant Professor of Zoology at University College, London.
Plankton.
G. W. R. George William Redway.
Author of The War of Secession, 1861-1862; Fredericksburg: a Study in War.
Petersburg Campaign: (1864-1865).
H. Bi. Hiram Bingham, A.M., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Latin-American History, Yale University. Albert Shaw Lecturer on Diplomatic History, Johns Hopkins University. Author of Journal of an Expedition across Venezuela and Colombia; &c.
Philippine Islands: History.
H. Cl. Sir Hugh Charles Clifford, K.C.M.G.
Colonial Secretary, Ceylon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Formerly Resident, Pahang. Colonial Secretary, Trinidad and Tobago, 1903-1907. Author of Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India; &c. Joint-author of A Dictionary of the Malay Language.
Penang.
H. De. Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J.
Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist publications: Analecta Bollandiana and Acta Sanctorum.
Pelagia, St.
H. E. Karl Hermann Ethé, M.A., Ph.D.
Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Aberystwyth (University of Wales). Author of Catalogue of Persian Manuscripts in the India Office Library, London (Clarendon Press); &c.
Persia: Literature.
H. F. G. Hans Friedrich Gadow, F.R.S., Ph.D.
Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author of "Amphibia and Reptiles" in the Cambridge Natural History.
Phororhacos.
H. G. de W. Hermann G. de Watteville.
Instructor, Staff College, Camberley, Surrey.
Plymouth (England).
H. H. T. Herbert Hall Turner, M.A., D.Sc, D.C.L., F.R.S.
Savilian Professor of Astronomy in the University of Oxford and Fellow of New College. President of the Royal Astronomical Society, 1903-1904. Author of Modern Astronomy; &c.
Photography, Celestial; Photometry, Celestial.
H. L. H. Harriet L. Hennessy, M.D. (Brux.), L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I.
 
Pharmacology: Terminology; Plague (in part).
H. M. W. Harry Marshall Ward, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. (d. 1905).
Formerly Professor of Botany, University of Cambridge, and Fellow of Sidney Sussex College. President of the British Mycological Society. Author of Timber and Some of its Diseases; The Oak; Sack's Lectures on the Physiology of Plants; Diseases in Plants; &c.
Plants: Pathology.
H. R. H. Harry Reginald Holland Hall, M.A.
Assistant in the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum. Author of The Oldest Civilization of Greece; &c.
Plate (in part).
H. R. K. Harry Robert Kempe, M.Inst.C.E.
Electrician to the General Post Office, London. Author of The Engineer's Year Book; &c.
Pneumatic Despatch.
H. R. M. Hugh Robert Mill, D.Sc, LL.D.
Director of British Rainfall Organization. Editor of British Rainfall. President of the Royal Meteorological Society, 1907-1908. Hon. Member of Vienna Geographical Society. Hon. Corresponding Member of Geographical Societies of Paris, Berlin, Budapest, St Petersburg, Amsterdam, &c. Author of The Realm of Nature; The International Geography; &c.
Polar Regions.
H. R. T. Henry Richard Tedder, F.S.A.
Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London.
Periodicals.
H. Sc. Henry Scherren, F.Z.S.
Assistant Natural History Editor of The Field. Author of Popular History of Animals for Young People; Pond and Rock Pools; &c.
Platypus (in part).
H. Sw. Henry Sweet, M.A., Ph.D., LL.D.
University Reader in Phonetics, Oxford. Corresponding Member of the Academies of Munich, Berlin, Copenhagen and Helsingfors. Author of A History of English Sounds since the Earliest Period; A Primer of Phonetics; &c.
Phonetics.
H. S.-K. Sir Henry Seton-Karr, C.M.G., M.A.
M.P. for St Helen's, 1885-1906. Author of My Sporting Holidays; &c.
Pistol.
H. S. J. Henry Stuart Jones, M.A.
Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. Author of The Roman Empire; &c.
Plate (in part).
H. W.* Harold W. T. Wager, F.R.S.
H.M. Inspector of Secondary Schools, Board of Education, London. President, Botanical Section, British Association, 1905. Author of Memoirs on the Structure of the Fungi; &c.
Plants: Cytology.
H. W. C. D. Henry William Carless Davis, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, 1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne.
Peter des Roches.
I. A. Israel Abrahams, M.A.
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c.
Perles, Joseph.
I. G. Israel Gollancz, M.A., Litt.D.
Professor of English Language and Literature, King's College, London, and Dean of the Faculty of Arts, University of London. Fellow and Secretary of the British Academy. Editor of The Pearl; The "Temple" Shakespeare; &c.
Pearl, The.
J. A. H. John Allan Howe, B.Sc
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of The Geology of Building Stones.
Permian; Pleistocene; Pliocene.
J. A. S. John Addington Symonds, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Symonds, J. A.
Petrarch; Poggio; Politian.
J. Bt. James Bartlett.
Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., at King's College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior Engineers. Author of Quantities.
Plaster-work.
J. D. B. James David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S.
King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria.
Philippi.
J. E. S.* John Edwin Sandys, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D.
Public Orator in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of St John's College. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of History of Classical Scholarship; &c.
Pliny the Elder; Pliny the Younger.
J. F.-K. James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S.
Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c.
Pereda, José Maria de; Pérez Galdos, Benito; Picaresque Novel, The.
J. F. P. Joseph Frank Payne, M.D., F.R.C.P. (1840-1910).
Formerly Harveian Librarian, Royal College of Physicians. Hon. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of University of London. Author of Lectures on Anglo-Saxon Medicine; &c.
Plague (in part).
J. Ga. James Gairdner, C.B., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Gairdner, James.
Percy: family (in part).
J. G. C. A. John George Clark Anderson, M.A.
Student, Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College. Craven Fellow (Oxford), 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893.
Pessinus.
J. G. Fr. James George Frazer, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Litt.D.
Professor of Social Anthropology, Liverpool University, and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Golden Bough; &c.
Penates (in part).
J. H. A. H. John Henry Arthur Hart, M.A.
Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John's College, Cambridge.
Pharisees.
J. H. M. John Henry Middleton, M.A., Litt.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896).
Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1886-1895. Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889-1892. Art Director of the South Kensington Museum, 1892-1896. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Times; Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times.
Phigalia (in part); Pinturicchio.
J. H. R. John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D.
Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and Pedigree.
Percy: family (in part); Plantagenet.
J. H. V. C. John Henry Verrinder Crowe.
Lieut.-Colonel, Royal Artillery. Commandant of the Royal Military College of Canada. Formerly Chief Instructor in Military Topography and Military History and Tactics at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Author of Epitome of the Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878; &c.
Plevna.
J. L. M. John Linton Myres, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S.
Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Magdalen College. Formerly Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Ancient Geography, University of Liverpool. Lecturer in Classical Archaeology in University of Oxford, and Student and Tutor of Christ Church. Author of A History of Rome; &c.
Pelasgians.
J. L. W. Jessie Laidlay Weston.
Author of Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory.
Perceval.
J. Mt. James Moffatt, M.A., D.D.
Minister of the United Free Church of Scotland. Author of Historical New Testament; &c.
Philemon; Philippians, Epistle to the.
J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell.
Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece.
Peisistratus; Peloponnesian War; Persia: History (Transition Period); Plutarch (in part).
J. P. P. John Percival Postgate, M.A., Litt.D.
Professor of Latin in the University of Liverpool. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Editor of the Classical Quarterly. Editor-in-chief of the Corpus Poetarum Latinorum; &c.
Phaedrus.
J. R. C. Joseph Rogerson Cotter, M.A.
Assistant to the Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy, Trinity College, Dublin. Editor of 2nd edition of Preston's Theory of Heat.
Phosphorescence.
J. R. Gr. Joseph Reynolds Green, M.A., D.Sc, F.L.S., F.R.S.
Fellow, Lecturer and Librarian of Downing College, Cambridge. Formerly Hartley Lecturer on Plant Physiology, University of Liverpool. Author of History of Botany; &c.
Plants: Physiology.
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc, F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.
Pegmatite; Peridotite; Perlite; Petrology; Phonolite; Phosphates: Mineral Phosphates (in part); Phyllite; Picrite; Pitchstone; Pneumatolysis.
J. T. Be. John Thomas Bealby.
Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.
Perm (in part); Podolia (in part); Poland, Russian (in part).
J. T. C. Joseph Thomas Cunningham, M.A., F.Z.S.
Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association.
Pearl; Pilchard.
J. W. James Williams, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D.
All Souls' Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln College. Barrister of Lincoln's Inn. Author of Wills and Succession; &c.
Personal Property.
J. Wa. James Waterhouse.
Major-General, Indian Army (retired). Assistant 5urveyor-Gencral of India in charge of Photographic and Lithographic Branch, Calcutta, 1866-1897. President of the Royal Photographic Society, 1905-1906. Author of The Preparation of Drawings for Photographic Purposes; &c.
Photography: Apparatus.
J. Wal.* James Walker, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Demonstrator in the Clarendon Laboratory. Formerly Vice-President of the Physical Society. Author of The Analytical Theory of Light; &c.
Polarization of Light.
J. W. D. J. Whitly Dixon.
Captain, R.N, Nautical Assessor to the Court of Appeal.
Pilot (in part).
K. G. Karl Friedrich Geldner, Ph.D.
Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology in the University of Marburg. Author of Vedische Studien; &c.
Persia: Language.
K. L. Rev. Kirsopp Lake, M.A.
Lincoln College, Oxford. Professor of Early Christian Literature and New Testament Exegesis in the University of Leiden. Author of The Text of the New Testament; The Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ; &c.
Peter, Saint; Peter, Epistles of.
K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger.
Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra.
Pedal Clarinet; Philomel; Physharmonica; Pianoforte (in part); Piccolo; Pipe and Tabor; Platerspiel.
L. Count Lützow, Litt.D., Ph.D., F.R.G.S.
Chamberlain of H.M. the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia. Hon. Member of the Royal Society of Literature. Member of the Bohemian Academy, &c. Author of Bohemia, a Historical Sketch; The Historians of Bohemia (Ilchester Lecture, Oxford, 1904); The Life and Times of John Hus; &c.
Poděbrad, George of.
L. C. Rev. Lewis Campbell, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Campbell, Lewis.
Plato.
L. F. V.-H. Leveson Francis Vernon-Harcourt, M.A., M.Inst.C.E. (1839-1907).
Professor of Civil Engineering at University College, London, 1882-1905. Author of Rivers and Canals; Harbours and Docks; Civil Engineering as applied in Construction; &c.
Pier.
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A.
Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
Perovskite; Petalite; Pharmacosiderite; Phenacite; Phillipsite; Phlogopite; Phosgenite; Pitchblende; Plagioclase.
M. Lord Macaulay.
See the biographical article: Macaulay, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Baron.
Pitt.
M. Be. Malcolm Bell.
Author of Pewter Plate; &c.
Pewter.
M. D. Rev. Marcus Dods, D.D.
See the biographical article: Dods, Marcus.
Pelagius.
M. N. T. Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum.
Perioeci.
M. O. B. C. Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A.
Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham University, 1905-1908.
Pelopidas; Periander; Pericles; Phocion; Phocis; Plataea.
M. V. Max Verworn, D.Sc, M.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Physiology and Director of the Physiological Institute in the University of Bonn. Author of Allgemeine Physiologie; &c.
Physiology.
N. D. M. Newton Dennison Mereness, A.M., Ph.D.
Author of Maryland as a Proprietary Province.
Philippine Islands: Geography and Statistics.
N. M. Norman McLean, M.A.
Lecturer in Aramaic, Cambridge University. Fellow and Hebrew Lecturer, Christ's College, Cambridge. Joint-editor of the larger Cambridge Septuagint.
Philoxenus.
N. V. Joseph Marie Noel Valois.
Member of Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris. Honorary Archivist at the Archives Nationales. Formerly President of the Société de l'Histoire de France and the Société de l'École des Chartes. Author of La France et le grand schisme d'Occident; &c.
Pisa, Council of.
N. W. T. Northcote Whitridge Thomas, M.A.
Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the Société d'Anthropologie of Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and Marriage in Australia; &c.
Physical Phenomena.
O. A. Osmund Airy, M.A., LL.D.
H.M. Inspector of Schools and Inspector of Training Colleges, Board of Education, London. Author of Louis XIV. and the English Restoration; Charles II.; &c. Editor of the Lauderdale Papers; &c.
Penn, William.
O. Ba. Oswald Barron, F.S.A.
Editor of The Ancestor, 1902-1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the Honourable Society of the Baronetage.
Pole (family).
O. C. W. Rev. Owen Charles Whitehouse, M.A., D.D.
Senior Theological Tutor and Lecturer in Hebrew, Cheshunt College, Cambridge. Principal of the Countess of Huntingdon's College, Cheshunt, 1895-1905.
Pentecost.
O. H. Olaus Magnus Friedrich Henrici, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S.
Professor of Mechanics and Mathematics in the Central Technical College of the City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of Vectors and Rotors; Congruent Figures; &c.
Perspective.
P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince P. A.
Perm (in part); Podolia (in part); Poland, Russian (in part).
P. A. T. P. A. Tiele.
Formerly Librarian, Utrecht University. Author of Biographical and Historical Memoir on the Voyages of the Dutch Navigators; &c.
Plantin.
P. C. M. Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc, LL.D.
Secretary of the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. Author of Outlines of Biology; &c.
Phosphorescence: in Zoology.
P. G. Percy Gardner, LL.D., F.S.A., D.Litt.
See the biographical article: Gardner, Percy.
Pheidias.
P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D.
Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological Society.
Philology (in part).
P. La. Philip Lake, M.A., F.G.S.
Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Keyser's Comparative Geology.
Persia: Geology.
P. Sm. Preserved Smith, Ph.D.
Rufus B. Kellogg University Fellow, Amherst College, U.S.A.
Pius I. and II.
P. V. Pasquale Villari.
See the biographical article: Villari, Pasquale.
Pisa.
R. C. J. Sir Richard Claverhouse Jebb, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Jebb, Sir Richard Claverhouse.
Pindar (in part).
R. G. Richard Garnett, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Garnett, Richard.
Peacock, Thomas Love.
R. I. P. Reginald Innes Pocock, F.Z.S.
Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London.
Pedipalpi; Pentastomida.
R. K. D. Sir Robert Kennaway Douglas.
Formerly Professor of Chinese, King's College, London. Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at British Museum, 1892-1907. Member of the Chinese Consular Service, 1858-1865. Author of The Language and Literature of China; China; Europe and the Far East; &c.
Peking.
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S.
Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; &c.
Peccary; Pecora; Père David's Deer; Perissodactyla; Phalanger; Phenacodus; Pica; Polecat.
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia; the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1900; The First Romanovs, 1613-1725; Slavonic Europe: The Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796; &c.
Pazmány; Pechlin; Peter I. and III. of Russia; Petŏfi, Alexander; Philaret; Piper, Carl; Poland: History (in part).
R. Po. René Poupardin, D. ès L.
Secretary of the École des Chartes. Honorary Librarian at the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris. Author of Le Royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens; Recueil des chartes de Saint-Germain; &c.
Philip the Bold; Philip the Good.
R. P. S. R. Phené Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.
Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c.
Pier (in architecture).
R. S* Ralph Stockman, M.D., F.R.S. (Edin.), F.R.C.P. (Edin.).
Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics in the University of Glasgow.
Pharmacology.
R. S. C. Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt.
Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff, and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects.
Picenum (in part).
R. W. Robert Wallace, F.R.S. (Edin.), F.L.S.
Professor of Agriculture and Rural Economy at Edinburgh University, and Garton Lecturer on Colonial and Indian Agriculture. Professor of Agriculture, R.A.C. Cirencester, 1882-1885. Author of Farm Live Stock of Great Britain; The Agriculture and Rural Economy of Australia and New Zealand; Farming Industries of Cape Colony; &c.
Pig (in part).
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A.
Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Law of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.
Philistines.
S. F. H. Sidney Frederic Harmer, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., F.Z.S.
Keeper of Zoology, Natural History Department, British Museum. Fellow, formerly Tutor and Lecturer, King's College, Cambridge. Joint-editor of The Cambridge Natural History.
Phoronidea.
S. H. V.* Sydney Howard Vines, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S.
Sherardian Professor of Botany, University of Oxford and Fellow of Magdalen College. Fellow of the University of London. President of the Linnean Society, 1900-1904. Formerly Reader in Botany in the University of Cambridge and Fellow and Lecturer of Christ's College. Author of A Student's Textbook of Botany; &c.
Plants: Morphology.
S. H. Simon Newcomb, D.Sc., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon.
Planet; Planets, Minor.
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt.
Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna.
Perugia; Picenum (in part); Piperno.
T. Bs. Sir Thomas Barclay.
Member of the Institute of International Law. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.
Peace; Peace Conferences; Pirate and Piracy: Law.
T. F. C. Theodore Freylinghuysen Collier, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., U.S.A.
Pius III., IV. and V.
T. G. Br. Thomas Gregor Brodie, M.D., F.R.S.
Professor Superintendent, Brown Animal Sanatory Institution, University of London. Professor of Physiology, Royal Veterinary College, London. Lecturer on Physiology, London School of Medicine for Women. Fellow of King's College, London. Author of Essentials of Experimental Physiology.
Phagocytosis.
T. M. L. Rev. Thomas Martin Lindsay, LL.D., D.D.
Principal of the United Free Church College, Glasgow. Formerly Assistant to the Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Author of History of the Reformation; Life of Luther; &c.
Plymouth Brethren (in part).
Th. N. Theodor Nöldeke, Ph.D.
See the biographical article: Nöldeke, Theodor.
Persepolis (in part).
T. S.* Sir Thomas Stevenson, M.D., F.R.C.P. (1838-1908).
Formerly Senior Scientific Analyst to the Home Office. Lecturer on Chemistry and Forensic Medicine at Guy's Hospital, London.
Poison.
T. W.-D. Walter Theodore Watts-Dunton.
See the biographical article: Watts-Dunton, Walter Theodore.
Poetry.
T. W. H. Thomas Wentworth Higginson, A.M., LL.D.
Author of Atlantic Essays; Cheerful Yesterdays; History of the United States'; &c.
Phillips, Wendell.
T. W. R. D. Thomas William Rhys Davids, LL.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. President of the Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of Royal Asiatic Society, 1885-1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the Buddhists; Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; Dialogues of the Buddha; &c.
Piprāwa.
W. C. Su. Walter Coventry Summers, M.A.
Professor of Latin in the University of Sheffield. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Craven Scholar, 1890. Chancellor's Medallist, 1892. Author of A Study of Valerius Flaccus; &c.
Persius; Petronius (in part).
W. D. C. William Douglas Caröe, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.
Trinity College, Cambridge. Architect to the Ecclesiastical Commission and the Charity Commission, London
Pearson, John Loughborough.
W. D. W. William Dwight Whitney.
See the biographical article: Whitney, William Dwight.
Philology (in part).
W. de W. A. Sir William de Wiveleslie Abney, K.C.B., D.C.L., D.Sc, F.R.S.
Adviser in Science to the Board of Education for England. Member of the Advisory Council for Education to the War Office. Formerly President of Royal Astronomical Society, Physical Society and Royal Photographic Society. Author of Instruction in Photography; Colour Vision; &c.
Photography.
W. E. G. F. William Edward Garrett Fisher, M.A.
Author of The Transvaal and the Boers.
Phylloxera.
W. Fr. William Fream, LL.D. (d. 1906).
Formerly Lecturer on Agricultural Entomology, University of Edinburgh, and Agricultural Correspondent of The Times.
Pig (in part).
W. F. C. William Feilden Craies, M.A.
Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple and Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College, London. Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading (23rd edition).
Pleading.
W. Ga. Walter Garstang, M.A., D.Sc.
Professor of Zoology in the University of Leeds. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Scientific Adviser to H.M. Delegates on the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 1901-1907. Author of The Impoverishment of the Sea; &c.
Pisciculture.
W. Hi. Wheelton Hind, M.D., F.R.C.S., F.G.S.
Surgeon, North Staffs Infirmary. Lyell Medallist, Geological Society, 1902. Author of British Carboniferous Lambellibranchiata; &c.
Pendleside Series.
W. H. F. Sir William Henry Flower, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Flower, Sir W. H.
Platypus (in part).
W. M. R. William Michael Rossetti.
See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante G.
Perino del Vaga; Perugino, Pietro.
W. M. Ra. Sir William Mitchell Ramsay, LL.D., D.C.L., D.Litt.
See the biographical article: Ramsay, Sir W. M.
Phrygia; Pisidia.
W. P. C. William Prideaux Courtney.
See the article: Courtney, Baron.
Peterborough and Monmouth, Earl of.
W. R. M. William Richard Morfill, M.A. (d. 1910).
Formerly Professor of Russian and the other Slavonic Languages in the University of Oxford. Curator of the Taylorian Institution, Oxford. Author of Russia; Slavonic Literature; &c.
Poland: Literature.
W. R. S. William Robertson Smith, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Smith, William Robertson.
Phylactery (in part).
W. R. S.* William Roy Smith, M.A., Ph.D.
Associate Professor of History, Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania. Author of Sectionalism in Pennsylvania during the Revolution; &c.
Polk, James Knox.
W. S. R. William Smyth Rockstro.
Author of A Great History of Music from the Infancy of the Greek Drama to the Present Period; and other works on the history of music.
Plain Song.
W. T. T.-D. Sir William Turner Thiselton-Dyer, F.R.S., K.C.M.G., C.I.E., D.Sc, LL.D., Ph.D., F.L.S.
Hon. Student of Christ Church, Oxford. Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 1885-1905. Botanical Adviser to Secretary of State for Colonies, 1902-1906. Joint-author of Flora of Middlesex.
Plants: Distribution.
W. W. R.* William Walker Rockwell, Lic.Theol.
Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York.
Pius VI., VII., and VIII.
W. Y. S. William Young Sellar, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Sellar, W. Y.
Petronius (in part).

PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES

Pea.
Peach.
Pear.
Peat.
Peeblesshire.
Pembroke, Earls of.
Pembroke.
Pembrokeshire.
Pen.
Pencil.
Penitential.
Pennine Chain.
Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania, University of.
Pensacola.
Pension.
Penzance.
Peoria.

Pepper.
Peppermint.
Perfumery.
Périer.
Perigueux.
Peripatetics.
Perjury.
Pernambuco.
Perrault.
Perrot.
Personality.
Perth (N.B.).
Perthshire.
Pessimism.
Peterborough.
Petition.
Philadelphia.
Philately.

Philostratus.
Phonograph.
Phormium.
Phosphorus.
Photius.
Photochemistry.
Physiocratic School.
Physiologus.
Piacenza.
Picardy.
Piccolomini.
Pichegru.
Pietism.
Pigeon-flying.
Pilgrim.
Pin.
Pink.
Pipe.
Piquet.

Pistoia.
Pitcher Plants.
Pittsburg.
Plantation.
Platinum.
Pleurisy.
Pleuro-Pneumonia.
Plock.
Plough and Ploughing.
Plum.
Plymouth (U.S.A.).
Pneumatic Gun.
Pneumonia.
Pnom-Penh.
Poitiers.
Poker.
Pola.

  1. A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume