1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 4/Table of contributors


A. B. R. Alfred Barton Rendle, F.R.S., F.L.S., M.A., D.Sc.
Keeper of the Department of Botany, British Museum.
A. E. H. A. E. Houghton.
Formerly Correspondent of the Standard in Spain. Author of Restoration of the Bourbons in Spain.
A. E. S. Arthur Everett Shipley, F.R.S., M.A., D.Sc.
Fellow and Tutor of Christ’s College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University. Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History.
A. F. P. Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc.
Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of all Souls’ College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893–1901. Lothian Prizeman (Oxford), 1892. Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Thomas Cranmer; &c.
Burghley, Baron
A. Go.* Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A.
Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.
Blandrata; Brenz;
A. H. B. Arthur Henry Bullen.
Founder of the Shakespeare Head Press, Stratford-on-Avon. Editor of Collection of Old English Plays; Lyrics from the Song Books of the Elizabethan Age; &c.
Burton, Robert.
A. H.-S. Sir A. Houtum-Schindler, C.I.E.
General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.
A. H. Sm. Arthur Hamilton Smith, M.A., F.S.A.
Keeper of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of Catalogue of Greek Sculpture in the British Museum; &c.
A. J. G. Rev. Alexander J. Grieve, M.A., B.D.
Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of Mysore Educational Service.
Butler, Bishop (in part).
A. J. L. Andrew Jackson Lamoureux.
Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of the Rio News (Rio de Janeiro), 1879–1901.
Bogotá; Bolivia: Geography and Statistics; Brazil: Geography and Statistics;
Buenos Aires
A. Lo. Auguste Longnon.
Professor at the Collège de France. Director of the École des Hautes Études. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Member of the Institute. Author of Géographie de la Gaule au VI. siècle; Documents relatifs au comté de Champagne et de Brie; &c.
Blois: Countship of.
A. Me. Mrs Alice Meynell.
Author of Poems; Later Poems; The Rhythm of Life and other Essays; &c.
Browning, Elizabeth Barrett.
A. M. C. Miss Agnes Mary Clerke.
See the biographical article: Clerke, A. M.
Brahe, Tycho.
A. N. Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred.
Bunting; Bustard;
A. S. C. Alan Summerly Cole, C.B.
Formerly Assistant Secretary, Board of Education, South Kensington. Author of Ornament in European Silks; Catalogue of Tapestry, Embroidery, Lace and Egyptian Textiles in Victoria and Albert Museum; &c.
A. T. Q.-C. Sir Arthur T. Quiller-Couch.
See the biographical article: Quiller-Couch, Sir A. T.
Brown, Thomas Edward.
A. W. H.* Arthur William Holland.
Formerly Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray’s Inn, 1900.
Brandenburg: Margraviate; Burdett, Sir Francis.
A. W. Po. Alfred William Pollard, M.A.
Assistant Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Fellow of King’s College, London. Hon. Secretary, Bibliographical Society. Editor of Books about Books and Bibliographica. Joint-editor of The Library. Chief Editor of the “Globe” Chaucer.
Book Collecting
A. W. R. Alexander Wood Renton, M.A., LL.B.
Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws of England.
B. R. Sir Boverton Redwood, D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.), F.I.C., Assoc.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E.
Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, Home Office, India Office, Corporation of London, and Port of London Authority. President of the Society of Chemical Industry. Member of the Council of the Chemical Society. Member of Council of Institute of Chemistry. Author of Cantor Lectures on Petroleum; Petroleum and its Products; Chemical Technology; &c.
C. B.* Charles Bémont, D.ès.L., Litt.D. (Oxon.).
See the biographical article: Bémont, C.
C. D. Cyril J. H. Davenport, F.S.A.
Assistant to the Keeper of Printed Books, British Museum. Cantor Lecturer on Decorative Bookbindings, Society of Arts. Author of Royal English Bookbindings; English Embroidered Bookbindings; History of the Book; &c.
C. D. W. Hon. Carroll Davidson Wright.
See the biographical article: Wright, C. D.
Building Societies: United      States.
C. E.* Charles Everitt, M.A., F.C.S., F.G.S., F.R.A.S.
Formerly Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford.
Bone: Industrial.
C. E. A. C. E. Akers.
Formerly The Times Correspondent in Buenos Aires. Author of A History of South America, 1854–1904.
Brazil: History (in part).
C. El. Sir Charles Norton Edgcumbe Eliot, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.
Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford. H.M.’s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East Africa Pro­tectorate, Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar, and Consul-General for German East Africa, 1900–1904. Author of Turkey in Europe; Letters from the Far East; &c.
Bokhara (in part).
C. E. S. Hon. Charles Emory Smith.
See the biographical article: Smith, Charles Emory.
C. H. Charles Hose, D.Sc.
Formerly Divisional Resident and Member of the Supreme Council of Sarawak. Author of A Descriptive Account of the Mammals of Borneo, and numerous papers in scientific journals.
C. K. S. Clement King Shorter.
Editor of the Sphere. Author of Charlotte Brontë and her Circle; The Brontës: Life and Letters; &c.
Brontë, C., E. and A..
C. L. K. Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.S., F.S.A.
Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor of Chronicles of London and Stow’s Survey of London.
Buckingham, 2nd Duke of.
C. Pf. Christian Pfister, D. ès. L.
Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Étude sur le regne de Robert le Pieux; Le Duché merovingien d’Alsace et la legende de Saint-Odile.
C. S. S. Charles Scott Sherrington, D.Sc., M.D., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.
Professor of Physiology, University of Liverpool. Foreign Member of Academies of Rome, Vienna, Brussels, Gottingen, &c. Author of The Integrative Action of the Nervous System.
Brain: Physiology.
C. W. W. Major-General Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S., R.E.
Secretary to the North American Boundary Commission, 1858–1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Commission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886–1894. Director-General of Military Education, 1895–1898. Author of From Korti to Khartum; Life of Lord Clive; &c.
Caesarea Mazaca (in part).
D. B. Ma. Duncan Black Macdonald, M.A., D.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U.S.A. Author of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory; Selections from Ibn Khaldun; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; &c.
D. C. B. Demetrius Charles Boulger.
Author of History of Belgium; England and Russia in Central Asia; History of China; Life of Gordon; India in the 19th Century; &c.
D. C. T. David Croal Thomson.
Formerly Editor of the Art Journal. Author of The Brothers Maris; The Barbizon School of Painters; Life of “Phiz”; Life of Bewick; &c.
Browne, Hablôt Knight.
D. F. T. Donald Francis Tovey.
Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerts, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works.
D. H. David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of Royal Navy, 1217–1688; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.
Bouvet; Brenton;
; Buccaneers;
; Calderon, Rodrigo.
D. Ll. T. Daniel Lleufer Thomas.
Stipendiary Magistrate for Pontypridd and Rhondda. Formerly Assistant Commissioner to the Labour Commission and Secretary to the Welsh Land Commission.
D. Mn. Rev. Dugald Macfadyen, M.A.
Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Director of the London Missionary Society. Author of Constructive Congregational Ideals.
Blaikie; Boston, Thomas; Bruce, Alexander Balmain; Cairns, John.
E. Br. Ernest Barker, M.A.
Fellow of, and Lecturer in Modern History at, St John’s College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895.
E. Ca. Egerton Castle, M.A., F.S.A.
Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of English Book Plates; Bibliotheca Dimicateria; &c.
Book Plates.
E. C. B. Right Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., D.Litt.
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath.
Brothers of Common Life
; Bruno, Saint.
E. Es. Edmond Esmonin.
Bombelles, Marc Marie,
 Marquis de
E. G. Edmund Gosse, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund
Bjornson; Blank Verse;
; Bucolics; Busken-Huet.
E. H. C. Ernest Hartley Coleridge, M.A.
Balliol College, Oxford. Editor of Byron’s Poems; Letters of Samuel Taylor Cole­ridge; &c.
E. H. B. Sir Edward H. Bunbury, Bart., M.A., F.R.G.S. (d. 1895).
M.P. for Bury St Edmunds, 1847–1852. Author of A History of Ancient Geography; &c.
Bithynia (in part).
E. H. M. Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A.
Lecturer and Assistant Librarian, and formerly Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge. University Lecturer in Palaeography.
Bosporus Cimmerius;
E. K. Edmund Knecht, Ph.D., F.I.C.
Professor of Technological Chemistry, Manchester University. Head of Chemical Department, Municipal School of Technology, Manchester. Examiner in Dyeing, City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of A Manual of Dyeing; &c. Editor of Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists.
E. L. B. Edward Livermore Burlingame, A.M., Ph.D.
Editor of Scribner’s Magazine. Formerly on Staff of New York Tribune.
Brook Farm.
E. Ma. Edward Manson.
Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Joint-editor with Sir John Macdonell, C.B. of the Journal of Comparative Legislation. Author of Law of Trading Companies; &c.
E. O.* Edmund Owen, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary’s Hospital, London, and to the Children’s Hospital, Great Ormond Street. Late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, Durham and London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
Bladder and Prostate Diseases;
: Medical.
E. Pr. Edgar Prestage.
Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Commendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. Examiner in Portuguese in the University of London, Manchester, &c.
E. Wa. Rev. Edmond Warre, M.A., D.D., D.C.L., C.B., C.V.O.
Provost of Eton. Hon. Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford. Head Master of Eton College, 1884–1905. Author of Grammar of Rowing; &c.
E. W. B. Sir Edward William Brabrook, C.B.
Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln’s Inn. Chief Registrar of Friendly Societies, 1891–1904. Author of Building Societies; Provident Societies and Industrial Welfare; Institutions for Thrift; &c.
Building Societies:          United Kingdom.
F. By. Frank Brinkley.
Captain R.N. Foreign Adviser to Nippon Yusen Kaisha, Tokyo. Correspondent of The Times in Japan. Editor of the Japan Mail. Formerly Professor of Mathematics at Imperial Engineering College, Tokyo. Author of Japan; &c.
Bonin Islands.
F. D. A. Frank Dawson Adams, D.Sc., Ph.D., F.R.S., F.G.S.
Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science, and Logan Professor of Geology, McGill University, Montreal. President of Canadian Mining Institute.
British Columbia (in part).
F. G. P. Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R. Anthrop.Inst.
Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas’s Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. Formerly Examiner in the Universities of Cambridge, Aberdeen, London and Birmingham; and Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons.
Brain: Anatomy.
F. H. Francis Hueffer, Ph.D. (1845–1899).
Formerly Musical Critic of The Times. Author of The Troubadours: a History of Provençal Life and Literature in the Middle Ages; Richard Wagner and the Music of the Future. Editor of Great Musicians.
F. J. C. Sir Francis J. Campbell, LL.D., F.R.G.S., F.S.A.
Principal, Royal Normal College for the Blind, Norwood, London. Author of Papers on the Education of the Blind.
F. J. H. Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A.
Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Censor, Student, Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford’s Lecturer, 1906–1907. Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain; &c.
: Pre-Roman and Roman; Caerleon; Caledonia.
F. Ll. G. Francis Llewelyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A.
Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Hon. Member of Imperial German Archaeological Institute, the Société Asiatique, and the Institut Égyptien, Cairo. Author of Stones of the High Priests of Memphis; Catalogue of the Demotic Papyri in the Rylands Collection, Manchester; &c.
F. L. L. Lady Lugard.
See the biographical article: Lugard, Sir F. J. D.
British Empire
F. R. C. Frank R. Cana.
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
British East Africa.
F. R. M. Francis Richard Maunsell, C.M.G.
Lieut.-Col. R.A. Military Vice-Consul, Sivas, Trebizond, Van (Kurdistan), 1897–1898. Military Attaché, British Embassy, Constantinople, 1901–1905. Author of Central Kurdistan; &c.
F. We. Frederick Wedmore.
See the biographical article: Wedmore, F.
F. W. Ha. Frederick William Hasluck, M.A.
Assistant Director, British School of Archaeology, Athens. Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. Browne’s Medallist, 1901.
Bithynia (in part).
F. W. M. Frederick William Maitland, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Maitland, F. W.
G. A. B. George A. Boulenger, D.Sc., Ph.D., F.R.S.
In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British Museum. Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London.
G. E. Rev. George Edmundson, M.A., F.R.Hist.S.
Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford’s Lecturer, 1909–1910. Employed by British Government in preparation of the British Case in the British Guiana-Venezuelan and British Guiana-Brazilian boundary arbitrations.
Bolivia: History (in part);
: (Duchy);
: History (in part).
G. F. Z. G. F. Zimmer, A.M.Inst.C.E., F.Z.S.
Author of Mechanical Handling of Material.
G. G. P.* George Grenville Phillimore, M.A., B.C.L.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple.
Burial and Burial Acts.
G. L. G. George Lovell Gulland, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P. (Edin.).
Assistant Physician to the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh. Lecturer on Medicine at Surgeons’ Hall, Edinburgh.
Blood: Pathology of the.
G. M. D. George Mercer Dawson, LL.D., F.R.S.
Formerly Director of the Geological Survey of Canada. Geologist and Naturalist to H.M. North American Boundary Commission, 1873–1875; one of H.M. Bering Sea Commissioners, 1891. Author of numerous scientific and technical reports printed by the Canadian Government.
British Columbia (in part).
G. T. G. Sir George D. Taubman Goldie.
See the biographical article: Goldie, Sir G. D. T.
Brazza, Count de.
G. W. Ca. George Washington Cable.
See the biographical article: Cable, George Washington
Bryant, William Cullen.
G. W. T. Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D.
Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.
H. Br. Henry Bradley, M.A., Ph.D.
Joint-editor of the New English Dictionary (Oxford). Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making of English; &c.
H. Ch. Hugh Chisholm, M.A.
Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the 11th Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Co-editor of the 10th edition.
Bridgman, Laura D
H. Cl. Sir Hugh Charles Clifford, K.C.M.G.
Colonial Secretary, Ceylon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Formerly Resident, Pahang. Colonial Secretary, Trinidad and Tobago, 1903–1907. Author of Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India; &c. Joint-author of A Dictionary of the Malay Language.
H. De. Rev. Hippolyte Delehaye, S.J.
Bollandist. Joint-editor of the Acta Sanctorum.
H. Fr. Henri Frantz.
Art Critic, Gazette des Beaux Arts (Paris).
Bonheur, Rosa
H. H. J. Sir Henry Hamilton Johnston, K.C.B., G.C.M.G.
See the biographical article: Johnston, Sir H. H.
British Central Africa.
H. M. C. Hector Munro Chadwick, M.A.
Fellow and Librarian of Clare College, Cambridge. Author of Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions.
Britain: Anglo-Saxon.
H. P. B. Henry Percival Biggar.
Author of The Voyages of the Cabots to Greenland.
Cabot, John.
H. S. J. Henry Stuart Jones, M.A.
Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. Author of The Roman Empire; &c.
Caesar, Julius.
H. W. C. D. Henry William Carless Davis, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls’ College, Oxford, 1895–1902. Author of Charlemagne; England under the Normans and Angevins; &c.
Breauté, Falkes de
Burgh, Hubert de
H. W. S. H. Wickham Steed.
Correspondent of The Times at Rome (1897–1902) and Vienna.
Bonghi, Ruggero.
J. A. F. M. John Alexander Fuller Maitland, M.A., F.S.A.
Musical Critic of The Times. Author of Life of Schumann; The Musician’s Pilgrimage; Masters of German Music; English Music in the Nineteenth Century; The Age of Bach and Handel. Editor of the new edition of Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians; &c.
J. A. H. John Allen Howe, B.Sc.
Curator and Librarian, Museum of Practical Geology, London.
J. A. M. James Alexander Manson.
Formerly Literary Editor of the Daily Chronicle. Author of The Bowler’s Handbook; &c.
J. B.* Joseph Burton.
Partner in Pilkington’s Tile and Pottery Co., Clifton Junction, Manchester.
Brick (in part).
J. Bt. James Bartlett.
Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., King’s College, London. Member of Society of Architects, Institute of Junior Engineers, Quantity Surveyors’ Association. Author of Quantities.
Brickwork; Building.
J. C. C. J. W. Comyns-Carr.
Author of Essays on Art; &c.
Blake, William.
J. D. B. James David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S.
Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria.
J. E. H. Julius Eggeling, Ph.D.
Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, Edinburgh University. Formerly Secretary and Librarian to Royal Asiatic Society.
Brahman; Brāhmana; Brahmanism.
J. F.-K. James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S.
Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Norman MacColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c.
Breton de los Herreros;
Calderon de la Barca
J. G. C. A. John George Clark Anderson, M.A.
Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College. Craven Fellow (Oxford), 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893.
Caesarea Mazaca (in part).
J. G. H. Joseph G. Horner, A.M.I.Mech.E.
Author of Plating and Boiler Making, Practical Metal Turning; &c.
Boiler; Boiler-making;
Brazing and Soldering
J. G. Sc. Sir James George Scott, K.C.I.E.
Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma,; The Upper Burma Gazetteer.
J. H. R. John Horace Round, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.).
Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and Pedigree; &c.
J. Hl. R. John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D.
Christ’s College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c.
Bonaparte: Family (in part);
J. J.* Joseph Jefferson.
See the biographical article: Jefferson, Joseph.
Booth, Edwin.
J. M. M. John Malcolm Mitchell.
Sometime Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote’s History of Greece.
Bruno, Giordano
 (in part).
J. Mo. Viscount Morley of Blackburn.
See the biographical article: Morley, Viscount.
Burke, Edmund.
J. N. John Nichol.
See the biographical article: Nichol, John.
Burns, Robert.
J. P.-B. James George Joseph Penderel-Brodhurst.
Editor of the Guardian (London).
Bookcase; Boulle;
: Furniture.
J. P. Pe. Rev. John Punnett Peters, Ph.D., D.D.
Canon Residentiary, Cathedral of New York. Formerly Professor of Hebrew in the University of Pennsylvania. Director of the University Expedition to Babylonia, 1888–1895. Author of Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on the Euphrates; Scriptures, Hebrew and Christian.
J. S. F. John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.
J. T. M. James Tayler Milton, M.I.C.E.
Chief Engineer Surveyor to Lloyd’s Registry of Shipping. Vice-President, Institute of Naval Architects. Member of Council, Institute of Marine Engineers. Author of many papers on Marine Engineering subjects.
J. T. S.* James Thomson Shotwell, Ph.D.
Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City.
Boniface, Saint.
J. W. D. Captain J. Whitly Dixon, R.N.
Nautical Assessor to Court of Appeal since 1906. Formerly Staff Commander, Medway Fleet Reserve.
J. W. He. James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A.
Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at Queen’s College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German Empire; &c.
Bucher, Lothar
K. G. J. Kingsley Garland Jayne.
Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. Author of Vasco da Gama and his Successors.
Bosnia and Herzegovina; British Honduras.
K. J. Keith Johnston.
See the biographical article: Johnston, A. K.
Brazil: History (in part).
K. S. Kathleen Schlesinger.
Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra; &c.
Bombardon; Bow;
; Bugle;
L. Count Lützow, Litt.D. (Oxon.), Ph.D. (Prague), F.R.G.S.
Chamberlain of H.M. the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia. Hon. Member of the Royal Society of Literature. Member of the Bohemian Academy, &c. Author of Bohemia: An Historical Sketch; The Historians of Bohemia (Ilchester Lecture, Oxford, 1904); The Life and Times of John Hus; &c.
Bohemia: History and Literature.
L. B. Laurence Binyon.
See the biographical article: Binyon, L.
Burne-Jones, Sir E. B.
L. D.* Louis Duchesne.
See the biographical article: Duchesne, Louis Marie Olivier
Boniface (Popes I.–VII.).
L. F. S. Leslie Frederic Scott, K.C., M.A.
New College, Oxford. Joint Hon. Secretary of International Maritime Committee.
L. F. V.-H. Leveson Francis Vernon-Harcourt, M.A., M.Inst.C.E. (1839–1907).
Professor of Civil Engineering at University College, London, 1882–1905. British Member of Jury for Civil Engineering, Paris Exhibition, 1900. Author of Rivers and Canals; Harbours and Docks; Civil Engineering as Applied in Construction; &c.
L. G. Laurence Ginnell, M.P.
Barrister, Middle Temple and Irish Bar. Author of Brehon Laws; Land and Liberty; &c. M.P. for North Westmeath since 1906.
Brehon Laws.
L. J. S. Leonard James Spencer, M.A.
Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine. Author of English translations of M. Bauer’s Precious Stones and R. Brauns’s Mineral Kingdom.
Bismuthite; Blende;
; Bournonite;
; Bromlite;
; Brookite;
; Bytownite;
; Calcite.
L. R. D. Lawrence Robert Dicksee, M. Com. (Birmingham), F.C.A.
Lecturer, London School of Economics and Political Science. Formerly Professor of Accounting at Birmingham University. Author of Auditing; Advanced Accounting; Book-keeping; &c.
L. S. Sir Leslie Stephen, K.C.B.
See the biographical article: Stephen, Sir L.
Browning, Robert.
L. V.* Luigi Villari.
Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Department). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent in East of Europe, Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906; Philadelphia, 1907; and Boston, U.S.A., 1907–1910. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country; Giovanni Segantini; Russia under the Great Shadow; Fire and Sword in the Caucasus; &c.
Borgia, Cesare;
Borgia, Lucrezia
M. Lord Macaulay.
See the biographical article: Macaulay, T. B. M., Baron.
Bunyan, John.
M. Bat. Miss Mary Bateson (1865–1906).
Formerly Fellow of Newnham College, Cambridge. Author of Medieval England; Borough Customs; &c.
Borough: English.
M. Br. Miss Margaret Bryant.
Caesar: Medieval Legends.
M. G. Moses Gaster, Ph.D. (Leipzig)
Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and By­zantine Literature, 1886 and 1891. President, Folklore Society of England. Vice-President, Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian Popular Literature; A New Hebrew Fragment of Ben-Sira; The Hebrew Version of the Secretum Secretorum of Aristotle.
M. P.* Leon Jacques Maxime Prinet.
Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary of the Institute of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). Author of L’Industrie du sel en Franche-Comte; Les Armoiries écartelés des conjoints; François I et le comté de Bourgogne.
Brissac, Dukes of
M. St J. Molyneux St John.
British Columbia (in part).
N. W. T. Northcote Whitbridge Thomas, M.A.
Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the Société d’Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and Marriage in Australia; &c.
O. Ba. Oswald Barron, F.S.A.
Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the Honourable Society of the Baronetage. Editor of the Ancestor, 1902–1905.
Butler: Family.
O. Br. Oscar Briliant.
Bohemia: Geography and Statistics; Budapest.
O. H. Olaus Magnus Friedrich Henrici, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S.
Professor of Mechanics and Mathematics in the Central Technical College of the City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of Vectors and Rotors; Congruent Figures; &c.
Calculating Machines.
P. A. K. Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article: Kropotkin, P. A.
Bokhara (in part);
: Eastern.
P. C. M. Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S.
Secretary to the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888–1891. Lecturer on Biology at Charing Cross Hospital, 1892–1894; at London Hospital, 1894. Examiner in Biology to the Royal College of Physicians, 1892–1896, 1901–1903. Examiner in Zoology to the University of London, 1903.
Breeds and Breeding.
P. C. Y. Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A.
Magdalen College, Oxford.
Boleyn, Anne; Bolingbroke;
Bristol, 1st and 2nd Earls of
Buckingham, 1st Duke of
 (in part);
Buckingham, 2nd Duke of
P. Gi. Peter Giles, M.A., LL.D., Litt.D.
Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University Reader in Comparative Philology. Late Secretary of the Cambridge Philological Society. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology; &c.
P. G. K. Paul G. Konody.
Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of the Artist. Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez, Life and Work; &c.
P. S. Philip Schidrowitz, Ph.D., F.C.S.
Member of Council, Institute of Brewing. Member of Committee of Society of Chemical Industry. Author of numerous articles on the Chemistry and Technology of Brewing, Distilling, &c.
P. W. C. Peter William Clayden (d. 1902).
Formerly President, Institute of Journalists, London. Literary Editor of the Daily News. Author of Scientific Men and Religious Teachers; England under Lord Beaconsfield; Early Life of Samuel Rogers; Rogers and his Contemporaries; England under the Coalition; &c.
Bright, John.
R. A.* Robert Anchel.
Archivist to the Department de l’Eure.
Boissy D’Anglais, François
 Antoine de
R. Ad. Robert Adamson, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Adamson, R.
Bonaventura, Saint;
Bruno, Giordano
 (in part);
Butler, Bishop
 (in part).
R. A. S. M. Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A.
St John’s College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund.
Caesarea Palaestina
Caesarea Philippi
R. G. Richard Garnett, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Garnett, R.
Burton, John Hill.
R. I. P. R. I. Pocock, F.Z.S.
Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London.
Caddis-Fly and Caddis-Worm
R. J. M. Ronald John McNeill, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of St James’s Gazette, London.
Bunker Hill.
R. L.* Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.L.S.
Member of Staff of Geological Survey of India, 1874–1882. Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum; &c.
R. N. B. Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883–1909. Author of Scandinavia: the Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513–1900; The First Romanovs, 1613 to 1725; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1796; &c.
Bocskay, Stephen;
Boris Fedorovich Godunov
; Brahe, Per;
Buslaev, Fedor Ivanovich
R. P.* Robert Peele.
Professor of Mining in Columbia University, New York.
R. Po. René Poupardin, D. Ès L.
Secretary to the École des Chartes. Honorary Librarian to the Bibliothèque Nationale. Author of Le Royaume de Bourgogne; Le Royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens; &c.
S. A. C. Stanley Arthur Cook, M.A.
Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hebrew and Aramaic, London University, 1904–1908. Council of Royal Asiatic Society, 1904–1905. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.
S. C. Sidney Colvin, M.A., Litt.D.
See the biographical article: Colvin, Sidney.
St C. Viscount St Cyres.
See the biographical article: Iddesleigh: 1st Earl of.
S. H. V.* Sydney Howard Vines, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.L.S.
Sherardian Professor of Botany, Oxford University. Fellow of Magdalen College. Author of Lectures on the Physiology of Plants; Text-Book of Botany; &c.
Brongniart, Adolphe Theodore.
S. L.-P. Stanley Lane-Poole, M.A., Litt.D.
Formerly Professor of Arabic, Dublin University, and Examiner in the University of Wales. Corresponding Member of the Imperial Russian Archaeological Society. Member of the Khedivial Commission for the Preservation of the Monuments of Arab Art, &c. Author of Life of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe; Life of Sir Harry Parkes; Cairo; Turkey; &c. Editor of The Koran; The Thousand and One Nights; &c.
Burton, Sir Richard Francis.
S. R. G. Samuel Rawson Gardiner, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Gardiner, S. R.
Buckingham, 1st Duke of (in part).
T. As. Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.Litt. (Oxon.).
Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Author of The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna.
Bologna; Bolsena; Bononia; Borgo San Donnino;
; Bovillae;
; Brescia;
; Brundisium;
; Caere; Cagli;
; Caietae Portus;
T. Ba. Sir Thomas Barclay, M.P.
Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.
T. G. Br. Thomas Gregor Brodie, M.D., F.R.S.
Professor of Physiology in the University of Toronto. Author of Essentials of Experimental Physiology.
Blood: Anatomy and Physiology.
T. H. H.* Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc.
Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892–1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S., London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King’s Award; India; Tibet; &c.
Bolan Pass;
T. Se. Thomas Seccombe, M.A.
Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of Dictionary of National Biography, 1891–1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c.
T. W.-D. Theodore Watts-Dunton.
See the biographical article: Watts-Dunton, T.
T. W. R. D. T. W. Rhys Davids, LL.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. President of the Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of Royal Asiatic Society, 1885–1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the Buddhists; Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; Dialogues of the Buddha; &c.
W. A. B. C. Rev. William Augustus Brevoort Coolidge, M.A., F.R.G.S., Ph.D. (Bern).
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David’s College, Lampeter, 1880–1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphiné; The Range of the Tödi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880–1889, &c.
Bitzius; Blanc, Mont;
; Botzen;
; Bregenz;
Brenner Pass
; Briançon;
; Brienz, Lake of;
; Brixen;
Burckhardt, Jakob
; Burgdorf.
W. A. P. Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.
W. B.* William Burton, M.A., F.C.S.
Chairman, Joint Committee of Pottery Manufacturers of Great Britain. Author of English Stoneware and Earthenware; &c.
Brick (in part).
W. B. S.* William Barclay Squire, M.A., F.S.A., F.R.G.S.
Assistant in charge of Printed Music, British Museum. Hon. Secretary of the Purcell Society. Formerly Musical Critic of Westminster Gazette, Saturday Review and Globe. Editor of Byrd’s Masses.
W. C. S. William Charles Smith, K.C., M.A., LL.D.
Formerly Sheriff of Ross, Cromarty and Sutherland. Editor of Judicial Review, 1889–1900.
Borough: Irish and Scottish.
W. C. U. William Cawthorne Unwin, LL.D., F.R.S., M.Inst C.E., M.Inst M.E., A.R.I B.A.
Emeritus Professor of Engineering, Central Technical College, City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of Wrought Iron Bridges and Roofs; Treatise on Hydraulics.
W. Hd. Wilfranc Hubbard.
Correspondent of The Times in Rome.
Bolivia: History (in part).
W. H. L. William H. Lang, D.Sc.
Barker Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, University of Manchester. Author of Papers on Botanical Subjects, including Morphology and life history of Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Gymnosperms, in scientific journals.
W. H. W.* William Henry Whitfeld, M.A.
Trinity College, Cambridge. Card Editor of the Field.
Bridge: Game.
W. J. H.* W. J. Hughan.
Past Senior Grand Deacon of Freemasons of England, 1874. Hon. Senior Warden of Grand Lodges of Egypt, Quebec and Iona, &c.
Builders’ Rites.
W. L. Right Rev. William Lawrence, D.D., LL.D.
Bishop of Massachusetts. Author of Study of Phillips Brooks; Life of Roger Wolcott; &c.
Brooks, Phillips.
W. L. G. William Lawson Grant, M.A.
Professor of Colonial History, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in Colonial History, Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy Council (Canadian Series).
Brock, Sir Isaac;
Brown, George
W. L. R. C. William Liest Readwin Cates (1821–1895).
Editor of Dictionary of General Biography. Author of A History of England from the Death of Edward the Confessor to the Death of King John. Part author of Encyclopaedia of Chronology.
W. M. R. William Michael Rossetti.
See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel.
Brown, Ford Madox.
W. R. L. W. R. Lethaby, F.S.A.
Principal of the Central School of Arts and Crafts under the London County Council. Author of Architecture, Mysticism and Myth; &c.
Byzantine Art.
W. S. J. William Stanley Jevons, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Jevons, William Stanley.
W. Wr. Williston Walker, Ph.D., D.D.
Professor of Church History, Yale University. Author of History of the Congregational Churches in the United States; The Reformation; John Calvin; &c.
Bushnell, Horace.
W. W. F.* William Warde Fowler, M.A.
Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1881–1904. Gifford Lecturer, Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans; The Roman Festivals of the Republican Period; &c.
Bona Dea.
W. W. R.* William Walker Rockwell, Lic. Theol.
Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York.
Boniface (Popes VIII.–IX.).


Bizet, Georges.
Black Sea.
Blake, Robert.
Blanc, Louis.
Bonnet, Charles.
Borders, The.

Boric Acid.
Bowring, Sir John.
Boyle, Robert.
Bradlaugh, Charles.
Brahma Samaj.

Brewster, Sir David.
Broglie, de.
Brooke, Fulke Greville.
Brooke, Sir James.
Brown, John.
Browne, Sir Thomas.

Bryan, William J.
Buchanan, George.
Buchanan, James.
Buckingham, Earls,
 Marquesses and Dukes of
Buffalo, U.S.A.
Buffon, G. L. E., Comte de.
Bull Run.
Bülow, Prince von.
Bunsen, C. C. J., Baron von.
Bunsen, Robert Wilhelm von.
Burdett-Coutts, Baroness.
Burmese Wars.

Burnet, Gilbert.
Burney, Charles.
Burr, Aaron.
Butler, Benjamin Franklin.
Butler, Samuel.
Buxtorf, Johannes.
Cabinet (Political).
Cairnes, Prof. Elliot.
Cairns, 1st Earl.
Caisson Disease.
Calabar Bean.

  1. A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.